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The history of lllawarra and its P'o"eer 




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THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



THE 



HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



AND ITS PIONEERS 




PORT KEMBLA, ILLAWARRA 

Showing Red Point, where the first Convict Settlement was patablijlied 



BY 

FRANK McCaffrey 



Copyrighted, 1922, by Frank McCaffrey, 42 Barton Avenue, 

Haberfield, New South Wales, Australia. 

[Late of Kiama, Illawarra.] 



(^3<^^/^ 



Wholly set up and printed iti Australia by 
John Sands Ltd., Sydney. 



CONTENTS. 



Foreword . . 

Early History of New South Wales 

Our British Breeds of Cattle 

Dairy Cattle Illustrations 

Pioneers of Illawarra 

Miendelism . . 

Early Shows in Illa'warra 

Dairy Cattle Breeding 

Cattle Sales 

The Origin of the Bull "Major" 

Licenses 

Heredity 

The Illawarra Dairy Cattle Association 

Copy of Kiama Herd Book . . 



Page 
7 

9 

62 

76 

126 

205 

213 

263 

272 

295 

297 

299 

304 

309 



CATTLE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Alexander Bros., Kiama 
Alexander, George, Fairfield 
Boxsell Bros., Myrtle Bank 
Chittick, Henry & Sons, Alne Bank 
Colley, Hugh, Greendale 
Culburra 

C. W. Craig's Test Cows 
Daly, Hugh, Upton . . 
Daly, Thomas, Woodbine 
Dudgeon, H. & Son, Hillview 
Dudgeon, Wm. H., Glenthorne 
Duncan, Alfred, Berkeley 
Duncan, George, Brisbane Grove 
Dunster Bros., Shellharbour 
Eight Notable Red Bulls 
Eight Notable Red Cows 
Exrs. of late J. W. Cole, Coleville 
Exrs. of late W. H. Cook, Glendalough 
Gorrell, J. W., Unanderra . . 

Gower, Mrs., Albion Park . . 

Graham Bros., Mayfield . . 

Grey, George, Greyleigh . . 

Hardcastle, John, Jinbiggeree (Q. ) 
Irvine, Thomas, Minnamurra . . 

James, John & Son, Kurrawong 
James, Thos., Shellharbour . . 

Johnston Bros., Marksville . . 

Keys, Ernest E., Albion Park . . 

Kiama A. & H. Society . . 

Knapp, James R., Swanlea . . 

Lamond, Alex. C, Numba . . 

Lindsay, George & Son, Horsley 
McGrath, Henry, Greenhills . . 
Mears, R., Morden (Q.) 
Musgrave, James W., Illaw^arra 
Nestle's and Anglo-Swiss Co., Ltd. 
N.S.W. Govt. Experiment Farm 
O'Connor, B., Oakvale (Q.) 
O'Donnell, Michael, Unanderra 
O'Keefe, D., Kiltankin 
O' Gorman, Roy, Albion Park 
Payne, A. C, Springvale (Q. ) 
Pickles, Arthur, Blacklands (Q.) 
Spinks, Henry, Culwalla . . 

Spoors, D. & Sons, Mundubbera (Q. ) 
Scottish Australian Investment Co., Ltd. 



Page 
191 
107 
203 
259 
61 
59 
202 
199 
121 

17, 23, 182, 183 
51 
239 
203 
121 
146 
147 
164-165 
. . 175 
101 
229 
80-81 
23, 154, 155 
37 
23 
65 
65 
249 
23 
45 
209 
115 
199 
275 
101 
101 
31 
93 
17 
87 
139 
219 
125 
131 
275 
131 
72-73 



A BRIEF WORD TO THE READER. 



A direct and principal aim of the present volume has been to endeavour 
to make the history of Illawarra, its pioneers, and their dairy cattle a more 
interesting as well as a more useful study, by attempting to trace a well 
defined plan of events for the mind of youthful settlers on the broad acres of 
Australian soil, in place of presenting a mere mass of unconnected facts to 
the memory. 

It woiild be a cause of joy, however, if as far as its scope may permit, this 
volume were able to lay claim to a second aim. The Abbot, Gregor Mendel 
has sounded a note which should vibrate through the minds of young stock 
breeders. He has discovered the secret of forming new breeds, and better 
types of animals and plants. It would then be good for the country if 
Mendelism was more closely studied Avith a view of still improving on the 
wonderful results achieved by the pioneer dairymen of Illawarra and their 
sons. 

"Men," said Bacon, "have entered into a desire of learning and know- 
ledge, sometimes upon a natural curiosity and inquisitive appetite ; sometimes 
to entertain their minds with variety and delight; sometimes for ornament 
and reputation, and sometimes to enable them to obtain the victory of wit 
and contradiction, and sometimes for lucre and possession ; but seldom sincerely 
to give a true account of their gift of reason for the benefit and use oti 
man, as if there were sought in knowledge a couch whereupon to rest a 
searching and restless spirit, or a track for a wandering and variable mind, 
to walk up and down with a fair prospect, or a tower of state for a proud mind 
to raise itself upon, or a fort on commanding ground for strife or contention, 
or a shop for profit or sale, and not a rich storehouse for the glory of the 
Creator, and the relief of Man's estate." I hope then that my readers will 
benefit from my humble efi'ort, as it is as the old aboriginal expressed it — 
"Coompartoo." 



March, 1924. 



EARLY HISTORY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 




HEN the Vatican archives 
were thrown open by Leo 
XIII iu 1881 to the peo- 
ples interested in histori- 
cal studies that learned 
Pope wrote: "Let it be 
kept uppermost in mind 
that the first law of his- 
tory is not to dare to say 
what is false, next not to fear to state what 
is true ; nor to let arise any suspicion of 
partiality or animosity in writing." Now, by 
a vigorous application of these principles the 
writer is placing on record in readable form the 
transactions of the building of the Illawarra or 
Five Islands district of New South Wales. 

To those who will be privileged to read this 
compilation I shall quote for them the great 
Napoleon's advice to his son: "Let my son 
often read and reflect on history; it is the only 
true philosophy." The reading and reflecting 
on history might have avoided some of the most 
calamitous mistakes in every age in every 
country. It would have helped us to solve many 
problems in stock breeding in Illawarra. Many 
at the present time are acting as if history had 
never been written for their guidance, for it 
must be borne in mind that every record that 
has ever been preserved, or that ought to have 
been preserved, represents, or did at one time 
represent, an important event — a link in the 
historical chain. 

It is, then, plain that the agricultural and 
dairying industries, together with the mining 
industry at a later period, with their social 
influences, are all to be .judged as being parts 
of the whole — each to be estimated according to 
its material worth to the State. It must, how- 
ever, be kept in mind that our records have not 
been preserved as they should have been — men 
who were not by any means scrupulous in 
either their social or commercial dealings with 
the poor combined to influence the authorities 
to burn their most valuable portions: the 
records. 

We have, however, left to us many traditions, 
which, the more thoroughly they are enquired 
into, and the more frankly they are brought 
under review, even though they display manv 
flaws in the characters of those who amassed 
wealth regardless of whom they injured, the 



more unmistakably will be its benefit on future 
generations. 

We need not dwell on the fact that Austra- 
lian civilisation had for its origin "Transpor- 
tation." The transportation of white slaves 
began in James II 's reign — 1633-1685 — and was 
continued until it became a favorite pastime 
and a profitable industry, namely, to collect 
young white people and sell them when a 
favourable market was procured. 

Before the commencement of the American 
War of Independence the introduction of the 
more docile and laborious negro had rendered 
the American planters hostile to the importa- 
tion of white convicts. The war put a stop to 
the traffic in white flesh and crowded the Eng- 
lish gaols. 

There is nothing to be gained by going into 
the notorious Howard system. It failed, as all 
such schemes must fail. The annual accumula- 
tion of gaol birds had to be got rid of. How! 
That was the problem; and, so long as it was 
solved, few cared how. Hanging had been 
stretched to its utmost limit; transportation 
had been checked by the revolt of a country 
which had decided to employ no slaves who had 
not at least twenty-five per cent, of black blood 
in their veins, and to receive no rogues, except 
those who had escaped unconvicted. 

Under these difficult circumstances a propo- 
sition for deporting English criminals on the 
shores of Australia, then but recently re-dis- 
covered by Captain Cook, was eagerly enter- 
tained. At that time it was presumed, on very 
insufficient grounds, a place of punishment 
could be rendered self-supporting ; at any rate, 
the prisoners would cease to be a nuisance to 
life and property in England. 

The value of Captain Cook's report on 
Botany Bay may be estimated when it is stated 
that he and his companions passed a few days 
on the intended site of the proposed penal 
colony, and had found a small river, a profusion 
of curious plants, and an indifferent harbour. 
They had not seen any plains or pastures fit 
to feed live stock. They had not found any 
large edible animals, such as deer, or buffaloes, 
or pigs. They had no means of testing the fer- 
tility of the soil. They could form no idea of 
its possibilities. 



10 



THE HISTORY OF ILL AW AREA 



Be all this as it may, when the "first fleet" 
anchored in Botany Bay on 20th January, 1788, 
Captain Phillip did not take up. much of his 
time enquiring about plant life or big game. 
He evidently got information about a better 
harbour, and quickly got into it. 

Port Jackson, Sydney, N.S. Wales. 

In the beginning the geographical features 
of the site of the port of Sydney and the ad- 
joining country, on which now stands the city 
of Sydney, consisted of a picturesque panorama 
of water, with hills clothed with dense scrub, 
Sydney Cove the head of the harbour, into 
which flowed a pure stream of fresh water — 
the Tank stream. Eleven vessels, not more 
than 3800 tons aggregate, dropped anchor at 
this site in 1788. 

Collins, one of the earliest writers, says: — 
"The confusion that ensued during the landing 
will not be wondered at, when it is considered 
that every man stepped from a boat literally 
into a wood. Parties of people were every- 
where heard and seen variously employed, 
some in clearing the ground for different en- 
campments, others pitching tents or bringing 
up some stores as were more immediately 
wanted; and the spot which had so recentlj' 
been the abode of silence and tranquility was 
now changed to that of noise, clamour, and con- 
fusion." He also states: "On 1st May, 1788. 
the number of live stock in Australia was — 
1 stallion, 3 mares, 3 colts, 2 bulls, 5 cows, 29 
sheep, 19 goats, 49 hogs, 29 small pigs, 5 rabbits. 
18 turkeys, 29 geese, 35 ducks, 142 fowls, 87 
chickens." In the Illustrated London Library, 
an important publication in those days says: 
"In April, 1788, two bulls and four cows wan- 
dered away from the 'Pickpocket' herdsmen 
in the new settlement of N.S. "Wales into the 
bush and were lost." 

The progeny of those strays were never ac- 
tually reclaimed by the several Governors that 
followed the regime of Phillip. They were the 
discoverers of many pathways into "fresh 
fields and pastures new." They proved the old 
adage — "Instinct oft prevails where science 
fails." Those dumb animals wandered apart 
as they increased in numbers, eventually get- 
ting into the ranges, and from there down into 
the gullies and gorges as far south as Jervis 
Bay. They were termed by the early settlers 
the Cape of Good Hope breed. They were of 
a variety of colours, many being creamy white. 
They were evidently of Indian zebu origin. 
They were undoubtedly the first discoverers of 



the several gorges leading down from the coast 
ranges to the sea. 

During April, 1791, Philip Schaffer, a Ger- 
man, arrived from England as a superintendent 
of convicts. He was, however, unable to speak 
a word of English, and, therefore, quite un- 
suited for the position. He retired, and ac- 
cepted a grant of land — 140 acres — at Rosehill. 
James Ruse, who was capable of supporting 
himself by means of crop-raising, got a similar 
grant of land. These two incidents, together 
with the arrival, in two detachments, of a regi- 
ment raised for the purpose of serving in the 
colony, under the title of the New South 
Wales Corps, were the most remarkable events 
during the latter jeare of the reign of Governor 
Phillip, who resigned his office to Lieutenant- 
Governor Grose, and returned to England. 

The agriculturists prior to 1792 did not work 
so well for the joint-stock concern as those who 
got their liberty and were "working on their 
own." These were few in number, as nearly 
the whole population of the colony were being 
fed and clothed at the expense of the Govern- 
ment ; all the bond and the majority of the few 
free were fed and clothed. 

The following returns go to show the truth 
of the foregoing statement. At the close of 
1792 the prices were : — ^Plour, 9d per lb. ; pota- 
toes, 3d per lb.; sheep (Cape breed), £10 10s 
each; milk goats, £8 8s each; breeding sows, 
£7 7s to £10 10s each; laying fowls, 10s each; 
tea, 8s to 16s per lb.; sugar. Is 6d per lb.; 
spirits, 12s to 20s per gallon; porter. Is per 
quart. 

At those famine prices the mortality among 
the convict population was fearful. Between 
1st January and 31st December, 1792, there 
died two persons of the civil department, six 
soldiers, four hundred and eighteen male con- 
victs, eighteen female convicts, and seventy- 
nine children. 

At this period and for more than twenty 
years afterwards spirits was the currency, and 
all extra labour was paid for in spirits. The 
t.yranny of the convict overseers was terrible. 
Criminal assaults on women were common. 
Once assaulted a woman had no status in the 
colony. No wonder that even the best inclined 
were often goaded into rebellion. 

"The Governor's Gard«(n." 

The garden which was established by Phillip 
in 1788, partly for his own use and partly for 
the use of the officials, until it was finally con- 
stituted the Botanic Gardens in 1816, has had 



THE HISTORY OF ILL AW ABBA 



11 



for upwards of 130 years a peculiar interest to 
certain people, whose families settled in Illa- 
warra upwards of 90 years ago. Without going 
into the fine details of this story, which has been 
a tradition among the families interested for 
all those years, the writer will be content with 
saying that on board the First Fleet there were 
people of mixed trades, professions and call- 
ings. Just to mention four names, viz. : — 
John Moss, Edward Pugh, John NichoUs, and 
Rebecca Poulton. These people settled in time 
in Windsor, Parramatta, and at the Cheshire 
Cheese Hotel. They married and intermarried, 
and drifted into life in different directions. 

John Moss was a marine — a ship's carpenter. 
When Governor Phillip decided on the laying 
out of his garden a special day was appointed 
for the ceremony, and in due course a company 
was formed into square. There was a spade 
left ready for the turning of the first sod. 
When the Governor arrived at the scene Moss 
had given those present an exhibition of spade 
work. He was immediately put under arrest. 
He, however, had gained the honor of having 
turned the "first sod" of what in time became 
the oldest Botanical Garden in the world. Moss 
married, and his daughter Rebecca married 
John Pugh Nicholls. Prior to this latter mar- 
riage there were strained relations between 
Moss and surgeon De Arey Wentworth, and 
Moss disappeared and never again returned to 
the bosom of his family in life. His spirit did 
so in death. 

Governor Phillip embarked for England on 
December llth, 1792, and settled at Bath on a 
pension of £500 per year, granted by British 
Government. He died in Bath in 1814. For 
nearly three years after Governor Phillip's de- 
parture the settlement was practically a mili- 
tary despotism. The government first devolved 
upon Major Francis Grose, and secondly on 
Captain Paterson, senior officer of the N.S.W. 
Corps, as Lieutenant-Governor. Incompe- 
tency and militarism were blazed on the face 
of their every act. 

The official notification of the appointment 
of Captain John Hunter, R.N., being appointed 
Governor of N.S. Wales appeared in the "Lon- 
don Gazette" of 5th February, 1794, and the 
commission passed the Great Seal on the follow- 
ing day. 

Governor Hunter's troubles began early; 
he complained that there was not a pound of 
salt provisions in the store, and that the colony 
was "destitute of every kind of tool used in 
agriculture." A few weeks later he complain- 



ed that the military force was insufficient, and 
that there was no barn, granary, or store-house, 
and that he was so short of convict labour that 
he could not carry on necessary public works. 
Fully a thousand more male convicts were re- 
quired. In fact he assured the Duke of Port- 
land that he could scarcely call together twenty 
for any public service at Sydney, so entirely 
had they been absorbed by the military and 
civil officers and the principal citizens. Soon 
after those despatches followed other com- 
plaints of a reverse nature. He complained 
that in June, 1797, there were no less than 
700 men, whose sentences had expired, who 
were a source of trouble; of these a number 
hung about the settlement procuring a more or 
less precarious living by casual labour for the 
officers or farmers; others betook themselves 
to the woods; others herding with the natives 
or living in bands. 

Hunter's first confiict with the military was 
when members of the N.S.W. Corps off duty 
attacked the foreman carpenter, John Baugham, 
for causing one of their comrades to be arrested. 
After maltreating him, they broke up his fur- 
niture and razed his home to the ground. Hun- 
ter got no satisfaction from the Secretary of 
State. It is, therefore, plain that these two 
early Governors favoured those whom they 
considered useful settlers. Those who had in- 
fluence employed men to obtain goods which 
they put to their own use. They were in a 
sense promoters of thefts or receivers of stolen 
property. When a case came before the Judge- 
Advocate Gore, as several did, and he com- 
mitted the guilty ones to terms of punishment, 
the Governor over-ruled the Judge's decision. 
Hunter found soon after his arrival that 150 
settlers were in possession of farms with no 
other title than a slip of paper on which the 
commanding officer had written: "A.B. has my 
permission to settle;" and numbers of these 
settlers were convicts whose sentences had not 
expired. 

The summer of 1798-9 was remarkable for one 
of the first protracted droughts on record. For 
ten months scarcely a shower of rain fell. The 
drought was followed by a disastrous flood in 
the Hawkesbury River, of which local weather 
conditions gave no warning. The banks were 
"overflowing with vast rapidity." The Govern- 
ment store and all the provisions it contained 
were swept away. The river Avas more than 
fifty feet above its common level, and the tor- 
rent was so powerful that it carried all before 
it. Settlers' houses and furniture, live stock 



12 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAKEA 



and provisions were alike swept away, and 
"the whole country looked like an immense 
ocean. ' ' 

Governor Hunter was much concerned about 
reclaiming the progeny of the cattle that got 
away from the early settlement to the "Cow- 
pastures" and other localities. He had a sur- 
vey made of the coast south of Botany Bay. 
The Shoalhaven River was explored and named. 
Hunter was also interested in the interior of 
the colony from information received from 
persons in contact with runaway convicts. 
Hunter had a desperate hatred against the 
Irish convicts who were sent out on the ship 
Marquis of Cornwallis. Then we learn that he 
applied for leave to appoint constables to act 
at Sydney, Parramatta, Toongabbie, and the 
Hawkesbury ; each to have an additional suit 
of clothing annually in order to their having at 
all times a more respectable appearance ; to 
have a pint of spirits served to each every 
Saturday; to have the same ration served to 
them which is issued to the military and free 
people. 

Governor Hunter on March 2nd, 1798, wrote 
the Duke of Portland as follows: — "At this 
time, my Lord, we have many dealers; those, 
and such of the officers as are concerned in 
trade, pocket the whole products of the labour- 
ing part of the settlement by the extravagant 
prices charged for commodities — indeed, they 
are but too much engaged in this way — I wish 
It were otherwise; but whilst this destructive 
system prevails the unfortunate labouring man 
has no means of relief." 

There was great mortality among the early 
convicts, especially so among those who came 
by the second fleet, which was formed of ten 
transports. On board those ten vessels em- 
barked from England 1695 male and 68 female 
prisoners, of whom no fewer than 194 males 
and 4 females died on the passage out, and snch 
was the state of debility in which the survivors 
landed that 114 males and 2 females died in 
the colonial hospital in six months. Of 122 
male convicts who arrived by the Queen from 
Ireland in the year 1791, there were only 50 
alive in 1793, and their death was looked upon 
as a perfect blessing to the colony. Colonel 
Collins said: "It was a blessing, as the stores 
were short." Captain Hunter, R.N., ruled 
from August 7th, 1795, to September 27th, 1800. 

The majority of the cases and abuses about 
which Governor Hunter was constantly com- 
plaining were assignable to a want of firmness 



on his own part. He was relieved by Captain 
Philip Gidley King in September, 1800. 

Governor Hunter embarked for England at 
the close of 1800. The population of the settle- 
ment was then 5574 persons, including 776 
children; in Norfolk Island there were 961 
persons, making a total of 6535 souls. Of this 
population about one-third was located in 
Sydney, the rest at either Parramatta, Toon- 
gabbie, or Castle Hill, where land was being 
cultivated or being brought under cultivation. 

The stock of the settlement in 1800 Avere: — 
Horses, 203; cattle, 1044; hogs, 4017; sheep, 
6124; goats, 2182; 7677 acres of land was 
alienated or under lease to individuals. 

The stories we listened to in our youth cling 
to our minds through life. We as boys enjoyed 
those old stories, hence the distance of memory 
alone cannot change the drops of time through 
which we used to swim into the rainbows of en- 
joyment. Two perspective painters have led 
us, poor mortals, through the whole theatre of 
colonial life — and those are memory and hope. 
Be great to despise the past, be greater to 
honour it. All the leaders of men in the past 
were better than their ebullitions of evil, but 
they were also worse than their outburst of 
noble enthusiasm. To make such men happy 
required not much less than everything; to 
make them miserable not much more than no- 
thing sufficed. Prom the Governor down to the 
common flogger or hangman, the "system" 
was operating in various ways upon them like 
an opium — some it made mad, and they could 
eat their meals while watching their fellow- 
beings being flayed almost to death with the 
"eat-o'-nine tails" or hanged to the limb of a 
tree; some few became sleepy, weary, and dis- 
gusted. The most painful part of the whole 
of our early colonial history is that in no in- 
stance has it ever been exaggerated. 

Grovemor King, 1800—1806. 

Captain Philip Gidley King, R.X., became 
associated with the civil and military powers 
in N.S.W. when he took up the duties of Gover- 
nor on 28th Septembei*, 1800. He continued 
to hold office until August 12th, 1806. He 
began a weak man in many respects. His 
power over certain of the military authorities 
was such that they did much as they liked. 
He was nervous and frightened of troubles 
coming on him from within and from foreign 
parts. 

In a letter to Lord Hobart, dated 1st March, 
1804. Governor King states: — "I am sorry that 



THE HISTORY OF ILL AWAKE A 



13 



during the last and present year we have ex- 
perienced the greatest drought, Avith severe 
blight, which has much reduced our crops, 
although there is not the most distant appear- 
ance of any real want, except for our very in- 
creasing stock of swine, which will suffer for 
want of maize. The cattle have not escaped 
the inconvenience of this continued dry 
weather, which has not only dried up all the 
native grasses, but also most of the streams 
and ponds in the neighbourhood, insomuch that 
the Government herds are drawn off many miles 
to feed. They have also been afflicted much 
by a disease that has generally gone through 
all the cattle, viz., a spongy substance on the 
tongue, which, on being removed, occasions 
bad feet. Prom this disease the Government 
stock recovered, but, I am sorry to say, several 
belonging to individuals died." 

This drought and cattle plague evidently 
caused Governor King much worry. The ship 
Lady Barlow, with 131 head of cattle and an 
Arab horse on board, and H.M. ship Buffalo, 
with 77 head of cattle and two Persian horses, 
had arrived in Port Jackson in the midst of all 
the trouble. King therefore at once despatched 
Captain William Kent, with a number of la- 
borers and ample provisions, to explore the 
■coast as far south as the Shoalhaven. We 
learn that "Captain Kent, of II.M. Buffalo, on 
Sunday, March 3rd, 1804, returned from a trip 
through the Shoalhaven district." 

This bears out the often repeated statement 
that cedar getting and grazing were carried on 
by the favoured few in Illawarra in 1806. 
Cattle and horses M-ere averagino- big prices 
dui'ing the years 1804-6. Captain King, whose 
brand was K, possessed a large herd of cattle 
at Parramatta. Captain W. Kent had a large 
herd of cattle, Devon and Alderney crosses, and 
■could lay claim to be the first to import pure 
meiino sheep to N.S.W. Yet he suffered se- 
A'crely under the regime of Governor Bligh. 
Major George Johnston's cattle were sent to 
Illawarra during the drought of 1803-4, and 
were not interfered with by Bligh. 

During the feAV years that Governor King 
held office he displayed an apparent tendency 
to favour certain of his friends — such, per- 
haps, is the weakness of the great. This weak- 
ness, however, brought troubles on his head in 
addition to the worries of droughts, cattle 
disease, and floods. It is recorded that in the 
month of March, 1806, one of the heaviest 
floods that up to that time had visited the 
Plawkesbury occurred. It rained every day foi- 



a month, causing loss of life and property. 
The loss of property was estimated at £35,000. 
Several persons were drowned, and those who 
escaped with their lives had to face starvation. 

"The Rum Rebellion" was brewing. King's 
real troubles were with the military authorities. 
These people went so far as to say: "The ad- 
ministration of Governor King was barren of 
good fruit." This was no doubt owing to his 
great antagonism to the military "ring," whose 
influence, owing to his previous concession, he 
found himself powerless to break. It was said 
that "the influence of the officers of the New 
South AVales Corps shortened King's period of 
service in the colony." 

Bennett, hoAvever, says: "The six years of 
Governor King's rule, notwithstanding the 
serious civil disturbances and the prevalence of 
drinking habits to a degree never before 
witnessed in any community, were marked by 
n steady advancement in the development of the 
material resources of the colony. The sealing 
trade and whale fishery were carried on with 
energy and profit, the foiindation of Avhat 
proved a lucrative intercourse with New Zea- 
land and the South Sea Islands." The whalers 
were evidently Avell acquainted with the sea- 
board of New South Wales during the years 
from 1800 to 1806 as Ave are to-day. It was 
also known that many hundreds of acres of 
land was good open forest country, and that 
much land along the seaboard was free from 
timber and covered with native grass that Avas 
only kept in check by hordes of marsupials. 

The official returns for 1806 Avere given as 
foUoAvs: — Quantity of land occupied by Gov- 
ernment or granted to private individuals, 
125,476 acres ; quantity of land cleared, 16,624 
acres ; land in AA^heat, 7118 acres ; in barley, 
maize, etc., 5279 acres. Average production of 
Avheat per acre, 18 bushels. Number of horned 
cattle, .3264; of sheep, 16,501; of pigs, 14,300; 
of horses, 458 ; of goats, 2900. 

The population of the settlement was esti- 
mated at 9000, of Avhich number 8472 Avere in 
N.S. Wales and 528 at Hobart Town. 

Before his departure on 28th September, 
1806, Governor King gave the incoming Gover- 
nor, Captain William Bligh, R.N., a grant of 
1000 acres of land. In return, on taking com- 
mand Bligh gave ifrs. Kin.u- 1000 acres, a grant 
as a token of mutual friendship. 

The return of Government stock on 12th May, 
1804, which included the returns from the five 
cattle stations, namely. Parramatta, Toon- 
gabbie, Castle Hill, Seven Hills, and Sydney, 



14 



THE HISTORY OF ILL AW ABE A 



comprised 17 bulls, 678 cows, 735 male calves, 
672 female calves, 129 bullocks. 

The most vigorous, the clearest, aud most 
fertile minds have been employed in search 
of facts. But one thing was ever present — the 
leading families had back histories — the his- 
tories of the accumulation of their wealth and 
subsequent importance. When one asked: 
"Why were certain records destroyed?" the 
usual reply came: "Our champions and tea- 
chers have lived in stormy times, social and 
commercial; even grave financial influences 
have acted upon those old settlers variously in 
their day, and have since obstructed a careful 
examination of their actions." In these his- 
tories lovers of history may be able to imagine 
our vast inheritance, without an inventory of 
its treasures. Nothing is given to us in pro- 
fusion; there is little for us to catalogue, sort, 
select and complete. 

We have more information in certain direc- 
tions than we know how to use; stores of 
records, but little that is precise and service- 
able about those brave pioneers of the bush or 
oj)en forest country — the bushmen who pene- 
trated the dense scrubs in search of cedar, and 
the cattlemen who took up the open country 
adjacent to those dense scrubs to raise bullocks 
to haul the timber to a market. From begin- 
nings so small, from work so fortuitous, with 
prospects so unpromising, the early coastal 
settlers suddenly became important to the seve- 
ral merchants of Sydney and Parramatta. The 
originals would have found it difficult to say 
what they aimed at of a practical nature, if it 
were not to escape from the terrible conditions 
of town life, of which they had had a long ex- 
perience before their arrival in Port Jackson. 
Ff they had stated the real facts they might be 
suddenly surprised any day by the earnestness 
of the authorities. 

These hardy men penetrated the deepest 
gullies and ravines in search of cedar. The 
finest trees were at all times where vegetation 
was the most luxuriant, and where the scrubby 
undergrowths were always the thickest. Their 
position in such places was that of isolation — 
not at all times of a voluntary nature. These 
centres of population were not far apart, yet 
communication was not sought. The bullock- 
drivers, whose duty it was to haul the timber 
to the nearest port, were the carriers of the 
food supplies aud the news. Many of these 
sawyers were half-fed, ill-clothed mortals, who 
had escaped from the "iron gangs," "stock- 
ades," or penal settlements, dreading capture. 



Having experienced "torture," they were the 
prey of the more cunning members of the so- 
ciety, who used them for selfish ends. The 
heavy scrubs in many of the gullies and gorges 
were considered dank, damp, and unhealthy, 
consequently many of the early sawyers died 
off early owing to the want of sunlight. They 
left their records behind, and passed to the 
"Great Beyond." 

Taking the old pioneer sawyers as a body 
of men, they were true and faithful to each 
other — -no sacrifice was too great when duty 
called upon tliem to act. 

" From distant climes o'er wide spread seas we come, 
Though not with much eclat or beat of drum ; 
True patriots all, for, be it understood, 
We left our country for our country's good 
No private view disgraced our generous zeal, 
What urg'd our travels was our country's weal ; 
And, none will doubt but what our emigration 
Has proved most useful to the British Nation." 

History goes to show that those lines gleaned 
from George Barrington's "The Convict's 
Ode," were in many instances prophetic. Take 
for example the assistance rendered to the 
dairying and pastoral industries of Australia 
by Joseph Holt — an ex-convict — to the Cox 
families — and Australia in general. 

Captain William Cox was paymaster on the 
Transport "Minerva" which left "Cork har- 
bour with prisoners on August 24th 1799. He 
had transferred from the 68th Regiment of Foot 
into the N.S. Wales Corps, and arrived in Syd- 
ney harbour on January 11th, 1800. On 
board the "Minerva" was Joseph Holt — known 
to fame as ' ' General Holt. ' ' Holt was a farmer 
and stock-raiser in Ireland prior to the '98 re- 
bellion — consequently, his services were of im- 
mense value to Captain Cox who placed him 
in charge of 100 acres at Brush Farm, Parra- 
matta. The cattle raised subsequently by Cap- 
tain William Cox were for years in demand 
by the old pioneer settlers in the County of 
Camden, of which Illawarra was a part; and, 
so far as cattle growing was concerned, an im- 
portant part of that County. 

Joseph Holt was transported to N.S. Wales; 
as General Holt, a leader of the Irish Rebellion 
of 1798. "Who fears to speak of '98?" When 
he arrived in Sydney, he was not a criminal of 
the lower order, but a highly educated agri- 
culturist in a general way. He was too valu- 
able to the New Settlement to get his liberty 
as others of his class did almost immediately 
after landing. Others got government appoint- 
ments and grants of land, while Holt had to 
serve his full time in order that he might edu- 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABEA 



15 



cate those who were in good positions, how to 
farm and raise valuable horses, cattle and 
sheep. 

The Wicklow Chieftain smarted under this 
unfair treatment with the result that as soon 
as he got his liberty he left on record a vivid 
sketch of his experiences in N.S. Wales, and 
the motley gang who called themselves offlcers 
of the N.S.W. Corps. Any one who could af- 
ford to buy a Lieutenancy, could buy one. The 
men of high military honour in England re- 
fused to serve as Convict Guards; therefore, 
a special Corps, with special officers, and special 
inducements, was called into existence. Drap- 
ers, clerks, low attorneys of the police courts 
of old Bailey, even light-fingered knights of 
industry secured positions, and commissions at 
Major Grose's price, and masqueraded as 
sworded paladins. They were, however, purely 
sordid tradesmen, and the special inducement 
held out to them was the monopoly in the 
spirit trade." 

The Rum hospital was built out of the pro- 
ceeds of that monopoly; but they were three 
worthy gentlemen : De Arcy Wentworth, 
William Riley, Garnham Blaxcell who had 
the monopoly of the proceeds of the Rum hos- 
pital. John Maearthur came in for some satire. 
He was dubbed one of the Barrack Room 
Bullies, who had a Rum Keg on his shield, 
with the motto, "With this we conquer" 
painted in gold letters in the centre of a 
square. 

For daring to defend their rights, thousands 
were slain, hundreds were starved to death, and 
hundreds that escaped those terrors were sent 
to Botany Bay. 

"They rose in dark and evil days to right 
their country's wrongs." 

An eloquent speaker once said: — "Austra- 
lians should give up much of their time to more 
general and better organised study of Austra- 
lian history. The stereotyped methods which 
still dominate much of the historian's systems 
of conveying information of what took place in 
Britain and Ireland during the two centuries 
prior to the arrival of the First Fleet in Port 
Jackson, has to be written in plain English — 
as what has been passed down to us as history 
is too one-sided and unfair to be worthy of 
notice." 

The same charge may be laid against the 
writers of Australian historJ^ The landlaws of 
Great Britain and Ireland were so unjust as to 
cause mankind, however honest minded the 
masses were, to rebel. Honest men and women 



were forced to rebel against the brutal land- 
stewards — men who desired their neighbour's 
holding, turned informers, and hundreds were 
sent to Botany Bay in felons' chains, to die at 
Pinchgut or fall into the trenches they were 
compelled to dig, weak and exhausted, never to 
walk on earth again beneath God's sun. Hun- 
dreds were destroyed in that way. 

This state of things was patent in 1798, and 
continued up to the arrival of Sir Richard 
Bourke, and, after his arrival until the arrival 
of the State aid emigrants who poured into Aus- 
tralia in great numbers — poor, but brave and 
honest. When they learned of the treatment 
measured out to their countrymen, whose only 
crime was that of standing up bravely for their 
rights and liberties, they resolved to better 
things, and they did it. Many of those State 
aided emigrants were no better than they ought 
to be. Taking them, however, as a whole, they 
were proud of their political convict neighbours 
and worked with them in the bush and out in 
the open. Their children grew up to be men 
and women and intermarried, and in the course 
of years took possession of the lands of the con- 
vict masters, and then joined hands as one 
great people to make Australia what she is to- 
day — great, glorious,' and free. 

1806. In August 1806, Governor Bligh ar- 
rived in the Colony with his daughter and his 
son-in-law. Captain Putland, of the Royal Navy. 
Governor King therefore prepared to take his 
departure, his time having expired. Bligh had, 
it would appear, instructions from the Duke of 
York to the effect that all the officers and sol- 
diers of the military detachment were to be 
paid in cash. This to a certain extent deprived 
the paymaster of the regiment and other offi- 
cers of a lucrative living. In other words they 
were in future to live on their pay. The Eng- 
lish Government had also sent out various ar- 
ticles of merchandise, which were placed in His 
Majesty's Stores, and the settlers were paid 
for their produce in goods which they needed, 
and for which they were charged very little 
more than the market price in England. It 
was subsequently stated that these reforms 
made the poor contented, as previous to this 
the poor had no redress. Many soldiers who 
objected to pay exorbitant prices for goods in 
the past had been sent to the guard-house, tried 
by court martial for mutiny and sentenced to 
terms of imprisonment. It was said that in Go- 
vernor King's time there were two classes of 
people, those who sold rum, and those who 
drank it. 



16 



THE EI8T0KY OF ILL AWAKE A 



Captain John Macai'thur did not like the new 
orders — his profits were reduced and he saw 
disaster staring him in the face and quickly 
convinced Major Johnston that Bligh"s rule 
would soon ruin them all. The Governor saw 
through the plot that was being hatched by Mac- 
arthur, consequently he ordered Macarthur's 
a,rrest for disobedience to an order of the Judge 
Advocate, and committed him to prison. This 
brought Major Johnston to the rescue, Major 
Johnston rode into the Sydney Barracks from 
his private residence Aunandale, called out his 
regiment, numbering about 300 men, and march- 
ed them in battle array to Government House. 
The Governor and party, which included the 
Eev. Mr. Fulton, were at dinner, and immed- 
iately placed Governor Bligh under arrest. 
The sequel of this story will no doubt form 
interesting reading to generations yet unborn. 
When Admiral William Bligh took over the 
reins of Government in N.S. Wales in 1806, 
he did what most of our Governors did from 
the days of our first Governor, Captain Phillip. 
and since Bligh 's time, right up to the forties 
of last century, he secured for himself a suit- 
able piece of land and went in for dairying and 
dairy-cattle raising, with the assistance of a 
manager named Andrew Thompson. Thomp- 
son was born in Scotland in 1773, and arrived 
in Sydney in the ship Pitt. He worked at the 
stone quarry, Parramatta, and was in 1798 
selected for the position of Constable at Green 
Hills, and was interested in shipping in 1805. 
Bligh made him his bailiff and overseer of his 
dairying operations on the Hawkesbury River. 
Andrew Thompson wormed himself into the 
good graces of Governors Hunter, King, 
Bligh and Macquarie. The latter made 
him a Justice of the Peace, and a guest 
at Government House. He died in 1810 at the 
early age of 37 years. He left his property — 
which was considerable in those days, to Gover- 
nor Macquarie, and his associate in the days 
of his adversity, Mr. Simeon Lord. 

It came "out at the trial of Colonel Johnston, 
Captain Macarthur and others in England over 
the illegal disposal of Admiral Bligh as Gover- 
nor of N.S. Wales, that when Bligh went in 
for stock-raising and dairying on the banks of 
-the fertile Hawkesbury river, he used con- 
vict labour, which was free to all employers, 
so long as they could find plenty of employ- 
ment for them. He, Bligh, was in consequence 
accused of having converted a considerable 
amount of Government property to his own 
use. In 1807, Governor Bligh 's overseer An- 



drew Thompson estimated that the total profits 
during the ensuing year would be £1000. In 
ten weeks £60 was received for the sale of 
milk alone. Bligh was also accused of having 
cows, foi'ward in calf, sent to his Hawkesbury 
farm from the Government herd, and after they 
had calved, these cows were returned to the 
government herd minus their calves. 

At the historic trial, just mentioned, Colonel 
Johnston fared better than his friend and ad- 
viser Captain John Macarthur, as the Colonel 
returned almost immediately to N.S. Wales, 
whilst the Captain was forced to remain a few 
years in England. It is difficult however, judg- 
ing by the sequel to those events which of the 
two fared best financially. 

Admiral William Bligh. — In 1788 when on a 
visit to Tahiti in command of the ship Bounty, 
by order of the British Government to trans- 
port the bread-fruit tree of the South Sea Is- 
lands to the West Indies, the sailors were 
harassed to such an extent by Bligh, that they 
mutinied, seized the ship, and set Bligh and 
his officers adrift in a launch. This drastic 
action was the means of making Captain Bligh 
an Admiral and Governor of New South 
Wales a few years later. Bligh dis- 
played such good seamanship that he 
covered 4,000 miles in the launch, and reached 
Timor safely. He was then considered a fit 
ofiBeer to rule the Convict Colony of N.S. Wales. 
He I'Cturned to England, and was dispatched 
again with two ships, the 'Providence' and 
the 'Assistant,' and in due course landed in 
Van Diemen's Land, and spent 12 days there 
planting fruit-trees, acorns, and vegetables. He 
was sometimes called "Bread Fruit Bligh." 
Bligh found trees did not flourish in Van Die- 
men's Land. His assistant botanist, ilr. Brown, 
however, landed at Adventure Bay, and after 
making himself safe with a black chief, planted 
the first apple tree on Tasmanian soil. Bligh 's 
next visit to Tasmania Avas in 1808, immediately 
after the Rum Rebellion in Sydney. Between 
1806 and 1808, Mr. Brown made botanizing 
visits to beautiful IllaAvarra, hence we have 
Mount Brown, and Brown's Mountain. 

Andrew Thompson was not fated to benefit 
by his prosperity in the young Colony. Over 
zeal in his work caused a serious sickness, from 
which he eventually died. At the time of his 
death he must have had a very large herd of 
cattle that was in due course sold by public 
auction. Ex-Governor Bligh 's herd must have 
remained in charge of his Colonial relations as, 
according to sundry traditions, his stud lierd 



B. O'CONNOR, Oakvale, Colinton, Queensland. 



17 





CHARM OF GLUSTIIOIO' lA'o. 213. I.D.C.H.B.. Q'lanrl), 



BILEBKI.L (IF 0.\KV,\LE (Nn, o03. I.D.C.H.D., Q'land), 





WAKEFUI, OF OAKVALi;. 



SHA'IfliOCK OF HIM, VIEW (Ncj. S21. l.n.C.H.B.), Q'lanrl. 



HUGH DUDGEON & SONS, Hillview Stud, Jamberoo. 




LOVELY II OF HILLVIEW (iVo. 68. I.n.C.ILB.). 



OE^'TLE'S T'LIINIIE OF HILLVIEW. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAEBA 



19 



was one of the finest in the Colony. Be this as 
it may, in the Sydney Gazette for June, 1818, 
there appears the following notice: — "Strayed 
from Mr. Johnston's Black Cattle, near Liver- 
pool, a red and white bull 14 months old, en- 
tirely bred from Admiral Bligh's herd." It 
will thus be seen that ten years had elapsed 
from the time of the Blig'h rebellion to the 
date of the straying of this red and white bull. 
It is also of interest to note that in 1818 
Colonel Johnston was in possession of the Mac- 
quarie Gift estate in lUawarra, where, from 
the earliest days of the settlement of Illawarra, 
valuable cattle were being constantly sent from 
his 'Georges Hall' estate, Liverpool, long before 
Bill West was overseer for the Johnstons. That 
the Red and White cattle were there when Joe 
Ross took charge ; and that they were there in 
John Raftery's time and prior to the coming 
of the shorthorns that had been imported di- 
rect from England by Mr. David Johnston in 
the mid forties of last centurj^ is common his- 
tory. In this draft of imported cattle came the 
Johnston show cattle. According to mem- 
bers of the Raftery family "these cattle were 
mostly roans, with good udders and teats. The 
best cows gave a good flow of milk after calv- 
ing, much of which was froth and bubble." 

Governor William Bligh R.N., 1806-1809. 
His task was a difficult one, almost the only un- 
convicted colonists at the time were the mili- 
tary and civil officers, and their relatives, who 
controlled the entire trading of the young 
colony; and, who had beside enjoyed the lion's 
share of grants of land and free use of labour. 
They had a monopoly of all tariff. Spirits 
formed the principal part of those cargoes 
which were registered as general merchandize. 
Bligh brought out instructions to put down 
this tariff. At an early period of the colony's 
history this would have been easily accomplish- 
ed. Governor King had done things in such 
a careless manner that the settlement had got 
out of control of those who were paid to sup- 
port the Governor, and uphold the law, and 
maintain order. 

The Rum Rebellion did not prove that the 
Military and Civil authorities were imbued 
with the spii'it of patriotism. The occasion of 
the conflict was that Governor Bligh showed a 
disposition, when carrying out his policy to 
side with the poorer classes against the rich. 
Nothing could be more offensive than conduct 
of this kind to the pride of men who had been 
accustomed to consider themselves the only 
rightful possessors of power and consideration 



in the colony, and when to the injuries he thus 
inflicted on the sensibilities of some, he added 
that of reducing the profits of others. 

When Captain John Macarthur was arrested 
and charged with detaining two "still-boilers" 
against the expressed wish and instructions of 
the Governor; of promoting dissatisfaction; of 
using language calculated to bring the author- 
ity of the Judge Advocate into contempt; and 
allowing those who had formed the crew of 
one of his vessels to remain in Sydney contrary 
to the laws of the Colony, there was some hot- 
stuff brewing for Bligh. The Rebellion. 

' ' The Macarthur Memorial : — Sir, The present 
alarming state of the Colony, in which every 
man's property, liberty, and life is endangered, 
induces us most earnestly to implore you in- 
stantly to place Governor Bligh -under arrest, 
and to assiime the command of the- Colony. We 
pledge ourselves at a moment of less agitation, 
to come forward to support the measure with 
our fortunes and our lives. 

We are with great respect your most obedient 
se]'vants. 

To Major George Johnston, Lieutenant- 
Governor, and commanding New South Wales 
Corps." 

This memorial was in the handwriting of 
John Macarthur, and signed by 83 persons. 24 
of these were free on landing in N.S. Wales. 
There were 15 marksmen in the memorial, and 
7 marksmen in the address of thanks. Major 
Johnston did not occupy Government House. 
He lived all the time in his own home at An- 
nandale. 

Among the old settlers — old hands, as they 
were generally termed — could be found many 
who possessed considerable literary ability — 
men of keen insight and knowledge of the races 
of mankind. To them, the children of Ham m 
Australia afforded food for reflection. One of 
these old hands often told the writer that the 
blacks made constant journeys to and from the 
Illawarra Lake from all parts of the coast and 
tableland. That they had certain secret mis- 
sions to perform goes without saying, when we 
know from the lips of those who observed them 
on their march that these blacks never paused 
to speak to anyone during their journeying to 
and from the lake. They walked upright, and 
straight ahead they w^ent until their mission 
was completed. 

In the course of a few years the white settlers 
learned to follow the tracks of the blacks into 
the several valleys and gorges of Illawarra and 
the Shoalhaven River districts at a time when 



20 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAWAKBA 



things were very unsettled under the regime ol' 
Governor Bligh. The story of Bligh and his 
times is of much interest to us Illawarra men, 
as our early pioneers would have been ruined 
if Illawarra had not afforded places of refuge 
for those alleged sinners whom Bligh was evi- 
dently prepared to crucify without waiting to 
study the great consequences that might and 
did follow. A¥hat was taking place in the 
settlement of N.S. Wales during Governor 
Bligh 's regime may be easily gleaned from the 
Government orders that were issued and pub- 
lished by authority from his successor, Gover- 
nor Macquarie: — "Applications to his Excel- 
lency the Governor — (a) By memorial, petition, 
or verbal will be received from individuals on 
first Monday in each month only, (b) Applica- 
tions for land and cattle are to be made the 
first Monday in the month- of June only ; but if 
it be a holiday, then upon the second Monday 
in the month, (c) All petitions or memorials 
for the extension of the above indulgences are 
invariably to be countersigned by the principal 
magistrate and clergyman of the district the 
applicant resides in, certifying their opinion oi' 
their deserving the indulgence solicited; and 
the clergymen and magistrates are enjoined 
not to grant such certificates to persons with 
whose real character they are not acquainted, 
the certificate to express that they consider 
them sober, industrious and honest." 

The granting of absolute pardons will be 
strictly confined to the industrious, sober, 
honest, and truly meritorious, and unquestion- 
able proof of rectitude of conduct for a long 
series of years will in all cases be required. 
No person under sentence for transportation 
for life shall apply for an absolute pardon un- 
til they have resided fifteen years in the colony, 
nor for a conditional pardon until they have 
resided ten years in the colony; and those for 
limited periods are not to apply for an absolute 
pardon till they have resided three-fourths, nor 
for a conditional pardon until they have re- 
sided two-thirds of their original term of 
transportation in the colony. 

Ticket of leave will not be granted to prison- 
ers until they have been employed by Govern- 
ment or individiials they were assigned to for 
three years, and no application is to be made 
in future unless conformed to by the foregoing 
regulations ; and the clergymen and magistrates 
granting certificates are to be well informed of 
the circumstances before they sign them. Ap- 
plicants residing in Sydney to have their cei'- 



tificates signed by the resident chaplain and 
Superintendent of Police. 

C'attle granted to individuals from the Gov- 
ernment herds on condition of not being dis- 
posed of for three years. The sale, purchase, or 
disposal of such being prohibited on pain of 
prosecution, they being considered the real 
property of the Crown for the said term of 
three years. 

Cattle to be marked and branded. All per- 
sons who have drawn or may hereafter receive 
cattle from the Government herds are to cause 
them to be immediately branded with their 
particular and distinctive mark, so that in case 
of their returning to the Government herds 
they may be distinguished from them and re- 
stored to their owners. And all cattle belong- 
ing to individuals, whether drawn from the 
Government herds or not, are in like manner 
to be branded in order to g'uard against mis- 
takes in reclaiming them from the herds they 
may have joined. All cattle joining the Gov- 
ernment herds in future will be deemed as form- 
ing part of those herds, unless distinctly mark- 
ed or branded as private property. The Super- 
intendent of the Government herds is enjoined 
to continue the practice of branding the young 
cattle with the broad arrow as soon as their 
strength will admit, and in no case to leave any 
unmarked beyond the age of six months; and 
also to renew the Government mark on all 
cattle if by time or accident obliterated. 

The Government and private individuals of- 
fered bribes to those who would inform on all 
miscreants. The Government offered free par^ 
dons and grants of lands to those who laid in- 
formation against their brother sufferers. In 
this manner many innocent men were led into 
traps and had charges laid against them of 
which they were in whole or part guiltless. 
Scores w^ere hung, hundreds were flogged, re- 
ceiving up to 1000 1 ashes. They became out- 
casts and died, and Avere buried in their chair?. 

If such were the conditions of N.S. Wales 
under the rule of Major Lachlan Macquarie, 
w^hat w^as the condition of things under the 
rulo of Governor Bligh? If Captain John Mac- 
arthur succeeded in establishing a rebellion 
against the rule of Bligh, it was not because the 
Government and certain individuals were cruel 
to the convicts placed under them, nor was it 
on account of any sane reforms that were 
needed for developins)- the country. No! 
it was on account of Governor Bligh 's orders 
prohibiting the military officers from trading 
with the convict population, and compelling 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



21 



them to pay 300 per cent, on the actual neces- 
saries of life, and encouraging them to barter 
away their land grants and stock for rum. 
The military authorities and a few merchants 
had absolute charge of all stores. The military, 
under Captain Macarthur, rebelled when Bligh 
told them they must in future live on their 
incomes. 

The First Stock Sent from Liverpool to 
lUawarra. 

I remember being at the late E. H. Weston's 
home at Albion Park Illawarra in November 
1878, when he showed me the oil painting of 
a roan Shorthorn bull, "Melmoth, " that was 
imported to N.S. Wales by his uncle and father- 
in-law, David Johnston. I asked him if that 
was the first imported bull that reached Illa- 
warra? His reply was, "No, not by a long 
way." He went on to say that "my grand- 
father. Major George Johnston, was one of the 
first to send cattle to Illawarra. During a 
drought all the country around Liverpool was 
burnt up, consequently, my grandfather and a 
few others who had good cattle asked Governor 
Kings' leave to send cattle to Illawarra. Cap- 
tain Nicholls, a relation of the old Major, 
brought them down in a boat and put them 
ashore at Five Islands. Two ex-convicts were 
placed in charge. They were only yearlings 
at the time, and they remained in Illawarra 
long enough to survive the "Bligh Eebellion." 
From time to time, it is plain, that from land 
and sea Illawarra received draughts of valuable 
stock from Camden, Liverpool, and Parramatta 
for many years prior to the arrival of the 
Osbornes in Illawarra." 

The foregoing remarks are quite in keeping 
with statements that have been made by the 
descendants of the old time sawyers, to wit, 
"that cedar was carried from the inner shores 
of Lake Illawarra, in small craft, during con- 
venient periods to Sydney in 1810 — and that 
the bullock teams used to haul cedar logs and 
planks to the edges of the Lake, at suitable 
centres for years before any real settlement 
took place. 

The chief point is touched in the early his- 
tory of Illawarra in the foregoing theme, as it 
goes to prove that our history is not a myth 
as it would appear to those who lived outside 
of the district. Most writers are compelled to 
study Illawarra from the outside, as the early 
Governors merely mentioned its existence, as 
viewed from the sea. It was not the case with 
the real settlers who took the risks and breath- 



ed the air of solitude. Such men saw instinct- 
ively what the authorities failed to understand. 

The early pioneers of Illawarra did much to 
wear down the rage of Governors, and 
saved and preserved hundreds of valuable cattle 
from the ravages of disease, droughts, and 
floods. It was circumscribed by natural bar- 
riers, hence its difficulties of ingress caused 
it to be nature's granary and stockyard for 
a given number of cattle in all seasons. 

Prior to Edward H. Weston settling in Illa- 
warra, he was married to his cousin. Miss John- 
ston, a daughter of David Johnston. David 
was a son of Major George Johnston, and he 
had been Inspector of Stock in N.S. Wales since 
the death of his brother George, who died in 
1820, owing to a fall from his horse on the 
Government Stock Station, at Brownlow Hill. 
Johnston's Meadows Estate had been in charge 
of the following pioneers: — George Simpson, 
William West, Joseph Ross, John Hockey, and 
John Raftery, before Weston took over the 
control. David Johnston naturally looked 
after his own interests in the property up to 
the time of his death, in 1866. 

Edward Simpson had been in the employ of 
William Broughton at Appin. He and Billy 
Broughton (an aboriginal), acted as guides to 
those who desired to inspect the Illawarra or 
Five Islands district, while yet in its primitive 
state. Some years ago a square brass plate 
was found on the banks of the Shoalhaven 
river, bearing the following inscription, en- 
graved in artistic style: — "Broughton, con- 
stable, 1822." He had evidently been employ- 
ed by the military authorities as a tracker. 

The Timberry family (aboriginal) were rela- 
tives of the Broughtons, according to the matri- 
monial rites of the old Illawarra tribe. 
Broughton Junr. and Timberry Junr. being 
cousins. In the early days of Illawarra they 
were expert horse and cattle men. 

Those cattle men whom the early Governors 
permitted to depasture their young stock in the 
Illawarra or Five Islands district, did so un- 
disturbed by their neighbours who had hold- 
ings in the drier parts of Cumberland. Sel- 
fishness, and the drought of the year 1813, 
which is reported to have been extremely dry 
in the County of Cumberland at any rate, 
caused attention to be directed towards Illa- 
warra in real earnest, and we are informed that 
several applications for grants of land were re- 
ceived by the Governor of the Colony, Major- 
General Lachlan Macquarie, and favourably 



22 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



considered by His Excellency, who granted 
leases to those with starving stock. 

On the 28th September, 1816, an inspired 
paragraph appeared in the New South 
Wales "Gazette" as follows: — "The natives 
of the new settlement at the Five Islands 
are described as being very amicably dis- 
posed to us, and the general mildness 
of their manners to differ considerably 
from the other tribes known to us. Sev- 
eral gentlemen have removed their cattle 
thither, as the neighbourhood affords good pas- 
turing ; and it is anxiously hoped that the stock- 
men in charge of their herds will be able to 
maintain the friendly footing that at present 
exists with them." Later on the following 
notification appeared in the ' ' Sydney Gazette, ' ' 
under the heading Public Notices : — Govern- 
ment House, Sydney, 16th November, 1816. 
Those gentlemen and free settlers who have 
lately obtained His Excellency the Governor's 
promises of grants of land, in the new district 
of lUawarra, or Five Islands, are hereby in- 
formed that the Surveyor-General and his 
deputy have received His Excellency's the 
Governor's instructions to proceed thither in 
the course of the ensuing week to make a regu- 
lar survey of the said district, and to locate 
the several promised grants. And in order 
that the locations may be made accordingly, 
those perso<ns who have obtained promises of 
allotments are hereby requested to avail them- 
selves of the approaching occasion of the Sur- 
veyors on duty in lUawarra, to get their loca- 
tions marked out to them. And for this pur- 
pose they are required to meet the Surveyor- 
■Grcneral at the hut of Mr. Throsby's stock -men, 
in Illawarra, or the Five Islands district, at 
the hour of twelve noon, on Monday, 2hd day 
of December next, at which time he is to com- 
mence on the locating the lands agreeable to 
the instructions which he will be officially fur- 
nished previous thereto." 

By Command of His Excellency. 
J. F. Campbell Secretary. 

The settlement of those lands which to-day 
form the foreshores of Lake Illawarra has been 
the theme of discussion among the old hands 
in the past, and in reviewing the several argu- 
ments that were used it must be borne in mind 
that there were circumstances such as the limit- 
ed scope for cattle-raising in and around the 
centre of population one hundred years ago 
which forced men of enterprise to adopt means 
of getting afield with their stock in times of 



drought at all hazards. Such circumstances are 
to be considered and carefully weighed in the 
balance of our judgment, with the object of 
diminishing difficulties. We are all aware that 
no human skill known to the old pioneer of 
Illawarra could turn the barren rocky passes 
over the Coast range into easy ways of ingress 
and egress for cattle — nor could they, with the 
material at their command, construct safe har- 
bours. They had to take things as they found 
them; yet, it is evident by such skill and fore- 
thought as they possessed, they employed their 
limited resources to the best advantage, and 
thereby turned even the privations of their day 
into such blessings that in a short time they 
became a great power for good. It was by a 
simple means of organisation — a primitive 
form of co-operation — that a few settlers were 
enabled to endure and overcome difficulties, in 
a spirit, and with a success, which could not 
otherwise be attained. All the movements of 
these men, we may conclude, were neither hur- 
riedly made nor done in a spirit of mere hap- 
hazard. Scouts — advance agents — such as the 
more daring convicts, assisted by aboriginals, 
were employed to report on the line of march, 
and the place to which it should lead. There 
were also labourers who did much of this 
pioneering work — who lie here and there to-day 
in unknown graves, whose .duty it was to re- 
move obstacles to allow the stock to pass along 
the narrow passes in dangerous places on the 
mountain range. The halts and advances were 
to a great extent regulated by these men ac- 
cording to the amount of labour required to re- 
move Nature's obstructions. Let these conside- 
rations, therefore, be fairly weighed, and they 
will explain away much of the difficulties met 
with by the early pioneers and the perilous 
positions they were often in while engaged tak- 
ing their stock to Illawarra by land. If, then, 
it should happen that there are persons in 
comparative ignorance of the geographical diffi- 
culties just let them stroll along the old tracks 
to-day which the old pioneers were forced to 
travel with stock and retravel. Take the early 
settlement of the Blacknian's Paradise, the 
Kangaroo Ground, for example : — 

It was with a view of preventing horse and 
cattle stealing that Captain Richard Brooks un- 
dertook the great task of stocking the Kan- 
garoo Valley country in 1818. To do so he used 
the path which led from the Illawarra Lake, 
crossing the Macquarie Rivulet to the west of 
Johnston 's Meadows, then up the range into the 
Pheasant Ground to a spot known to-day as 



23 



WHEX tlae lUawarra Dairy Cattle Association was beii],!? jmt into fonfrete form in 1910 
tlinse who were interested in their own private att'airs difl not care to srive ont to the 
dairy world the trne origin of their herd. AVith them, and they were not a few. the 
word "Shorthorn" should cover up — yea, smother np — everything, regardless of truth. The illus- 
tration on this and other pag'es in this book will sliow what the admirers of the old breed are 
doing, not alone in Illawarra but throughout New South Wales and Queensland, since 1010. 



GEORGE GREY, Kiama. 




FOCH OF CREYLEIGH. 



ERNEST E. KEYS, Albion Park. 




TULn"S HKKO 



HUGH DUDGEON & SONS, Jamberoo. 




THOMAS IRVINE, Minnamurra, 
Jamberoo. 




FUSSVS JKLLieOK OF HILI.VIEW 
(ilraiKl Cliauiiiioii liali-y I'.iill, Arliiaiili' Show. 



bONKYSUCKLli'S .TBLI.ICOK 



Arguing from the basis of Bruce Lowe 's figure system each of these four hulls carry 
large quantities of IJugh Dudgeon and Son's Hillview blood, — a blend of blood that has pre- 
vailed throughout Illawarra for sixty years. The old veteran breeder made no secret of his ideas. 
It is a pity that the words "pure Shorthorn" were ever added to the old illawarra breed aud 
type of dairy cattle, as it is farcical. What daii'y cattle breeders adnjit in private conversation 
tliey should state publicly. ^ 



24 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



Hoddles' Track, and from thence along tlie 
range to the valley below. The Kangaroo 
Ground could also be reached from the County 
of Argyle, by path leading from Bong Bong, 
and by another path which led from Coura to 
CambewaiTa. Jervis Bay and Coolangatta 
could also be reached by paths from the Kan- 
garoo Ground; but it was the impression of old 
settlers that a convenient road could not be 
found to carry a wheel conveyance of any des- 
cription in and out of the place. To-day, how- 
ever, motor cars ply daily through there from 
Sydney to Nowra and Jervis Bay. In fact, 
fresh milk is now sent from there to Sydney 
twice daily. 

Inducement is everything to an enterprising 
man with capital at his command. Governors 
Macquarie, Brisbane and Darling knew this 
when they offered the choice lands of New South 
Wales to bona fide settlers at a quit rent which 
was at the rate of 2/- per 100 acres per an- 
num, to be paid to the ofiGlcer in charge of the 
Internal Revenue. Men of means and energy 
got thereby every encouragement by way of 
large tracts of land and free labor to assist them 
in clearing and cultivating their holding, 
whether large or small. Free, wealthy emi- 
grants, however, were not the only class of 
settler who obtained favours from those three 
Governors. Any man, whether he came bound 
or free, provided that he gave a pledge that his 
family would remain in the Colony, got a con- 
siderable concession for his wife and each of 
his children. Grants of from 50 to 100 acres 
were given to all children under a certain age 
coming into the Colony, as well as to those who 
were born within the Colony. Of course, the 
native born children obtained greater conces- 
sions, especially those who were reared in the 
Parramatta Orphan School. By this system it 
was easy for either father or mother, with a 
large family, to obtain a large holding, and by 
their united industry were enabled to build up 
a substantial home. 

The earliest register for marriages dates from 
June 16th, 1820, a marriage having been per- 
formed on that date at Liverpool. The register 
is in excellent order, not in the handwriting of 
Fr. Therry, but in the handwriting of some in- 
dividual who copied the records of all those 
early marriages, nearly all of which were cele- 
brated by Pr. Therry. 

The entries that interest us are the follow- 
11 Iff: — 



Date 



1829 
Feb. 13 



1830 
May 27 



Names. 



John Hart 

and 
Mary Broker 

Garrett Donnelly 

and 
Mary Ann Cullen 



Abode 



Five 
Islands 



Fr. Therry 



Illawarra 



Solenmised 
by 



Fr. Therry 



Witnesses 



Henry Hart 

and 
Sarah Hart 

Anne 

Shaughnessy 
Phillip 
Hughes 



The land system from 1788 — that is, from 
the foundation of the Colony to the arrival of 
Governor Bourke in 1831 — is a matter of con- 
cern only to those who wish to study misfit 
administration. Up to the year 1824 the re- 
gulations for the disposal of land were left en- 
tirely in the hands of the Governor for the time 
being. Land was, in the early days of the 
Colony, bestowed on any man, bond or free, 
who could undertake to support himself. As the 
Colony progressed in wealth and population, 
certain situations became valuable, and were 
eagerly sought by parties of influence ; but large 
portions were held, especially as pastures, under 
free licenses of occupation. 

The Australian magnates emulated the white 
slave system by means of rum. Those who had 
grants of land bartered their holdings to the 
rum magnates. Hundreds of small land grants 
were allowed to pass unnoticed by the authori- 
ties into the possession of a few wealthy indi- 
viduals. A keg or a bottle of rum purchased 
large and small holdings prior to 1831, not only 
in Sydney and its immediate surroundings, 
both north, south and west of the capital for 
at least a distance of one hundred miles. Our 
fair Illawarra did not escape the rum traffic, 
and many holdings could be pointed out as the 
result of purchase by a bottle or a keg of rum, 
sometimes a pig or a goat was substituted. 

Grants of Land. — "Lands granted from the 
Crown prohibited to be sold, either directly or 
indirectly, for the term of five vears, bearing 
date from June 8th, 1811." 

In 1812 a committee of the House of Com- 
mons was appointed to examine the state of 
the Colony of New South "Wales. After exam- 
ining a number of witnesses, including ex- 
Governors Kinpr and Blish, a report was printed, 
from which it appeared that the population 
amounted to 10.4.^4. distributed in the follow- 
ing proportions: — The Sydney district. 6,158 
Parramatta. 1,807: Hawkesbury, 2.389: New- 
castle. 100 fof these, 5.513 were men and 2,200 
women) ; military, 1,100; of the remainder, one- 
fourth to one-fifth were actually bond, the rest 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



25 



being free or freed from servitude by pardon. 
In addition, 1,321 were living in Van Diemen's 
Land, and 177 in Norfolk Island, but orders had 
been sent out to compel the voluntary setllers, 
who had adhered to that island after the 'Jov- 
ernment establishment had been removed, to 
withdraw. 

Shortly after the allocation of the first grants 
of land in lUawarra, in 1817, the Government 
formed a settlement at Eed Point, Port Kembla. 
Dr. William Elyard, R.N., was the first Govern- 
ment visiting officer. The whole of the coast 
was policed by the military as far south as 
Jervis Bay. Hence we have Barrack Point at 
Shellharbour and Kinghorn Point near Jervis 
Bay. The powers invested in men like Elyard 
were most arbitrary. It was in their power to 
hang delinquents on the spot, and give others 
up to 500 lashes. They moved from centre to 
centre with a few of the military and a flogger 
in order to deal with each case that came before 
Ikem. The stories of the old regime could not 
withstand the light of day, consequently they 
were collected and burned. After Alexander 
Berry got going at Coolangatta all the cases 
there were tried by visiting magistrates. On 
one occasion a flogger — a savage — was return- 
ing alone to Red Point; he was waylaid on 
Seven Mile Beach, murdered, and the body left 
for the dingoes to devour. What else could be 
expected from men who, after a severe flogging, 
had to sleep on their bellies for weeks? For a 
similar crime three men were hanged from the 
limb of a tree outside the old gaol in Wollon- 
gong. In October, 1817, David Allen, Richard 
Brooks, William Browne, Charles Throsby. 
Robert Jenkins, and Samuel Terry, who had 
obtained a footing in lUawarra by cattle 
raising, were much disturbed by gangs of cattle- 
stealers. They subscribed £5 each as a fund to 
secure the conviction of the evil-doers. 

"In lUawarra in 1817," says a writer, "trees 
stood tangled and huge where life displays a 
vague and tenuous delight, separated, yet 
mingling in one great animal and vegetable 
kingdom. The mosses, under and attached to 
the giants of the forest, were thick and silent, 
which reminds one of that idolatrous prayer to 
the sun, 'Prom whom every good proceeds, of 
what we at least can discover, the most com- 
plete and glorious.' " Glades here and there, 
the trees no longer hiding them, these are the 
gates of Illawarra. and the valleys and glens 
through which the cattle pilgrims hobble along, 
unable to take advantage of any other means 
of transit. 



In 1818 William Emmett was in charge of 
the Government station at Red Point. He was 
not a military man, but had the Government 
cattle under his charge. In 1818 a general 
order was issued, to begin on January 1st, 1819, 
calling upon all persons, bond and free, who 
were engaged cutting cedar in Illawarra. to 
get permits to do so. About this time we first 
learn of Charles Throsby, born in England in 
1800. He was promised a grant of 1000 acres 
for finding a fresh track from the cow pastures 
to Bong Bong. His servants, Joe Wild and 
Jack Waite, got 100 acres each; another ser- 
vant, Rowley, got 200 acres. Joe Wild and 
Jack Waite understood the bush tracks for 
years before 1819. 

In 1819 all those who had merely the right to 
depasture their cattle and other stock in Illa- 
warra got notice from the owners of the land 
to find fresh fields and pastures, and these 
owners settled overseers in charge in order to 
make their holdings good in the eyes of the 
Governor. The county of Camden was marked 
out in August, 1819. During same year Surgeon 
De Arey Wentworth was shipping cattle to his 
Peterborough Estate, Illawarra. 

In 1819 Charles O'Brien was appointed 
Government overseer of stock at Red Point, 
Illawarra, and Conor Wholohan was managing 
David Allen's farm at Five Islands. Among 
the places set apart for grants of land for small 
settlers was Coalcliff, Illawarra. Hamilton 
Hume took advantage of the neglect of those 
whose grants were there to take possession, 
and sent gangs of sawyers there from Appin . 
to cut cedar thereon in 1823. Cedar getting 
was at that time an important industry in Illa- 
warra. So extensive was this industry that the 
Government decided to cease controlling the 
affairs of the Illawarra or Five Islands district 
from Sydney, consequently arrangements were 
made to send a detachment of military to build 
barracks at Red Point. This took some time. to 
complete in even a rough manner. However, 
in due time Captain Peter Bishop, of the 40th 
Regiment of Foot, one sergeant, one corporal, 
and "20 privates were duly quartered there. 
When the military got going in Illawarra they 
were victualled by the ship Sehnapper for a 
short period. In 1820 Lieutenant Robert John- 
ston was in charge of the Sehnapper. It was 
in the Sehnapper that he carried Alexander 
Berry to the Shoalhaven River. ■ 

Up to 1820, the last year of Macquarie's 
Government, 400,000 acres passed into the handrj 



26 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAERA 



of private individuals. Macquarie was genei*- 
ous to his friends; from him the settler fre- 
quently obtained with his grant the use of the 
Government gang, who not only cut down, but 
rolled the logs into piles, and burnt and cleared 
the timber off land that would not pay the 
settler to clear with hired labour. 

Sir Thomas Brisbane granted 180,000 acres 
at a yearly quit rent of 2/- per 100 acres. He 
sold, between December, 1824, and 19th May, 
182-5, 369,050 acres at 5/- per acre, giving long 
credit, with, in addition, 2/- per 100 acres ; and 
, he also granted in two years between 1823 and 
1825, 573,000 acres at 15/- annual quit rent per 
100 acres. But it must be noted that all these 
grants and purchases were accompanied by an 
allowance of a certain number of convicts per 
30 acres to clear and till them, and that these 
convicts, as well as the settler and his wife, 
were rationed for a limited period at the ex- 
pense of the Government. 

Sir Ralph Darling arrived in December, 
1825. and continued to rule until the year 1831. 
Some authorities have stated that his six years' 
administration was singularly and deservedly 
unpopular. He was a man of forms and prece- 
dent of the true red-tape school. He obstin- 
ately evaded the control intended to be impos- 
ed on him by the secret official nnd nominee 
council, and perpetuated many acts of t.vriinny 
which had scarcely any parallel in Engli?;b his- 
tory. It was under his administration that the 
Australian Agricultural Company commenced 
operations. The story of Darling is not worth 
relating, and nothing that he did can be un- 
done. He followed on the lines of Macquarie 
and Brisbane with regard to giving away land 
,and supplying favoured settlers with cheap con- 
vict labour. 3,000,000 acres of land was dis- 
posed of in the manner mentioned by those 
Governors. In October, 1831, Darling resigned 
his Government, and Sir Richard Bourke took 
command. It was tinder the regime of Bourke 
that Sir Thomas Mitchell arrived in lUawarra 
in order to lay out a road through the centre 
of the district. 

Governor Darling had ruled the convicts 
with a rod of iron. The times of the '"first 
fleeters," the irresponsible floggers, and the 
short allowance of coarse food were revived, 
and carried out in Ulawarra. The Legislative 
Council was supposed to be an advance from 
the Executive Council established by Charter 
in 1828, held its first meeting in 1829, yet its 
influence was of no value as regards the poor. 
Bourke tried to relieve the convicts under his 



care. All the same, there are long lists of flog- 
gings ordered by the several naval and military 
magistrates who visited^ first at Red Point, 
Port Kembla, later at Wollongong, and from 
thence south to Kiama and Coolangatta. The 
first of these magistrates to visit at Red Point 
barracks was Dr. William Elyard, R.N., he be- 
ing at the time superintendent of convicts, and 
stationed at Sydney. He came down in a gun- 
boat, the ' ' Schnapper, ' ' and brought a sergeant, 
whose duty it was to count and record the 
strokes of the cat-o'-nine tails, and a flogger to 
administer the punishment. 

The following land grants were issued by the 
several Governors under the following condi- 
tions : — Each person to whom a grant was given 
received a number of convicts in accordance 
with the area of land bestowed by the Gover- 
nor. These convicts were clothed and fed by 
the Government. Thus the landowners had ab- 
solutely free labour provided for them. This 
state of things was not altered much until the 
mid-thirties. 

Early Grants of Land in lUawarra. VoL 2, 
Pol. 129. 

52. Wollongong. — 1,000 acres granted to 
Robert Jenkins ; date, 24th January, 1817 ; quit 
rent, £1. Commencing 24th January, 1822. 
Granted by Lachlan Macquarie. Condition : To 
cultivate 75 acres, and not to sell for five years. 

53. Wollongong. — 1,500 acres granted to 
David Allan; date, 24th January, 1817; quit 
rent, £2/4/-, from 24th January, 1822. Granted 
by Lachlan Macquarie. Conditions: To culti- 
vate 75 acres, and not to sell for five years. 

3. Jamberoo. — 2,000 acres granted to Samuel 
Terry; date, 9th January, 1821; quit rent, £1, 
commencing from 9th January, 1826 (Mount 
Terry) Granted by Lachlan Macquarie. Con- 
ditions: To cultivate 100 acres, and not to sell 
for five years. 

Kangaroo Ground. — 800 acres granted to 
Richard Brooks on or before 21st February, 
1821. Granted by Lachlan Macquarie; quit 
rent, £1. Not to sell for five years. 

Coolangatta.— 10,000 acres, granted to Berry 
and Wollstonecraft, county of Camden ; date of 
grant, 30th June, 1825. Granted by Sir 
Thomas Brisbane. 

Portions 4 and 8— Brundee and Numbaa.— 
Portion 4 granted to William Elyard, the 
younger, on 23rd April, 1841, being the land 
promised to William Elyard. the elder on or 
before 23rd April, 1829. Portion 2,000 acres 
(Numbaa), granted to Alexander Berry on 30th 



THE HISTOKT OF ILLAWABRA 



27 



June, 1825. There was also a transfer of land 
at Greenwell Point from "William Elyard to 
Alexander Berry, which was an exchange under 
Government supervision, Berry taking the 
Greenwell Point property in exchange for Brun- 
dee. Anyone interested could possibly find the 
particulars in the Mitchell Library, where many 
of those peculiar transactions are stored. The 
Crow's Nest, North Sydney, transaction might 
be found there also. 

The first grant of land on the south side of 
Lake lUawarra was given by Governor Mae- 
quarie to Lieut-Colonel Thomas Davey — gener- 
ally known as "Mad Davey" — situated at Bar- 
rack Hill, Shellharbour, in the January of 1817. 

Grantee — George Johnston, Esq., senr. ; area, 
1,.500 acres; granted by L. Macquarie on 24th 
January, 1817 ; quit rent, £1 10s ; quit rent com- 
mences 24th January, 1822; name of grant, 
" Macquarie 's Gift." 

The Dunlop Vale Estate, near Lake lUa- 
warra, was a grant from the Crown to Mr. 
John Wyllie, bearing date 1822. It comprised 
2000 acres. It was approved by Governor 
Darling on 13th October, 1829, about which 
date Mr. Wyllie had it somewhat improv- 
ed and stocked with many valuable Ayrshire 
cattle. Mr. Wyllie then went into the employ 
of Mr. Alexander Berry at Coolangatta, Shoal- 
haven. 



Mr. Bodenham, auctioneer, said Mr. John 
Wyllie 's estate, situated at Five Islands, ad- 
joining Lake Illawarra, was watered by Mullet 
Creek. This estate had been mortgaged to Mr. 
William Lang, and was being sold by the order 
of Dr. John Dunmore Lang, of Sydney. See 
"S.M. Herald" June 18th, 1832. 

Carruth Bros, bought one half of Wyllie 's 
grants . 

Gerard Gerard purchased from Carruth Bros., 
then left Illawarra for New Zealand. Gerard 
Gerard became a prominent dairy cattle 
breeder. He sold to Robert Howarth, whose 
career in Illawarra was a most remarkable one. 

Description. — At Illawarra, bounded on the 
north-east by a north-west line of 151 chains 
(commencing in a line with the point between 
^lacquarie River and Johnstone's Cireek), on 
the north-West by a south-west line of 80 
chains ; on the south-west side by a south-east 
line to the Macquarie River; and on the south- 
east by that river. 

Conditions. — Not to sell or alienate the same 
for the space of five years from the date hereof, 
to cultivate 75 acres within the .same period, 
and reserving to Government a right of making 
a public road through the same, and reserving 
for the use of the Crown such timber as may 
be deemed fit for naval purposes . 



COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE, SYDNEY, 23rd OCTOBER, 1832. 



Nos. 



Persons to Whom 
Granted. 



Grant of Lands. 
No. of Acres and District. 



Governors Promised hv, and Dates. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 



Cornelius O'Brien 
Thos. 'William Warton 
Michael Brennan 
Patrick Callaghan 
John Kelly 
Robert Anderson 
John Cunningham 
Peter Mooney 
William Underwood 
Joseph Underwood 
John Anderson . . 
Connor Bolan 

Denis Brien 



Camden, as tinder, 
300 acres, Illawarra 



100 
60 
50 
50 

100 
60 
50 
70 
70 

200 

200 

60 



Governor Macquarie, 31st March, 1821. 

Quit rent, 6s., commencing 1st January, 1827. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 14th January, 1825. 

Quit rent, 15s., commencing 1st January, 1831. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 14th January, 1825. 

Quit rent, 9s., commencing 1st January, 1831. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 29th August, 1824. 

Quit rent, 7s. 6d., commencing 1st January, 1831 . 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 20th April, 1825. 

Quit rent, 7/6, commencing 1st January, 1831. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 28th October, 1823. 

Quit rent, 2/-, commencing 1st January, 1829. 
Governor Macquarie, 10th September, 1818. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing 1st January, 1827. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 5th August, 1824. 

Quit rent, 7/6, commencing 1st January, 1831 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 20th June, 1825. 

Quit rent, 11/6, commencing 1st January, 1833. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 20th June, 1825. 

Quit rent, 11/6, commencing 1st January, 1833. 
Governor Macquarie, 1st Jamiary, 1827. 

Quit rent, 4/-. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 60 acres on June 30, 1824, and 

140 acres, 7th April, 1825. 

Quit rent, £1 1 Os. , commencing 1st January, 1 83 1 . 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 30th June, 1825. 

Quit rent, 10/-, commencing 1st January, 1833. 



28 



THE HISTORY OF 7LLAWAKRA 



COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE, SYDNEY, 23rd OCTOBER, 1832— Continued. 



Persons to Whom 
Granted. 



. Peter Lellis 
Richard Lellis 
Timothy Fogarty 
Thomas Martin . . 
Thomas Trotter . . 
John Drummond 
George Tate 
Thomas Moran . . 
Malachy Ryan . . 
Matthew Ryan . . 
Isaac Cornwall . . 
William Landran 
John Harris 
Thoa. Simms 
John Williams . . 
Henry Brooks 
Alexr. Monaghan 
George Brown 
George Brown 
William Harper . . 
James Neale 
W. F. Weston .. 
Michael Stack 
James Stack 
Daniel Brady 
Michael Byrne . . 
John Rudd 
Thomas Rudd 
David Johnston . . 
Isaac David Nichols 
John Paul 
William Ralph . . 
William Bland .. 





No. 


Grants of Land. 

of Acres and District. 




40 


.. ■ 




60 


„ ... 




30 


7T M ... 




60 


... 




80 


„ ... 




280 


... 




500 


, ,, ... 




40 


t «, ... 




30 


» ... 




40 


» .. . 




60 


. » ... 




60 


» ... 




60 


> „ ... 




40 


» ,, ... 




50 






600 


, ,, ... 




100 


.. . 




300 


.. ■ 




500 


-. ■ 




50 


. „ ... 




60 


. ,, ... 




500 


, ,. ... 




100 


, ,« ... 




100 


> ,, ... 




145 


, ,, ... 




60 , 


> <> ... 




60 , 


1 ,, ... 




60 , 


> „ ... 




700 , 


> ,, ... 




600 , 


> ., ... 




1400 , 


» »> ... 




1000 , 


„ ... 




1000 , 





Governors Promised by, and Dates. 



Governor Macquarie, 31st Marchy 182]. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing 1st January, 1827 
Governor Macquarie, 31st March, 1821. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing 1st January, 1827. 
Governor Macquarie; 31st March, 1821. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing 1st January, 1827. 
Governor Macquarie, 31st March, 1821. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing 1st January, 1827. 
Governor Macquarie, 31st March, 1821. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing 1st January, 1827. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 15th July, 1824. 

Quit rent, 2/-, commencing 1st January, 1831. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 22nd June, 1824. 

Quit rent, £3 15/-, commencing 1st Jan., 1831 
Governor Macquarie, 3lBt March, 1821. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing, Ist January, 1827. 
Governor Macquarie, 31st March, 1821. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing, Ist January, 1827. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 10th September, 1824. 

Quit rent, 6/-, commencing 1st January, 1831. 
Governor Macquarie, 31st March, 1821. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing 1st January, 1827. 
Governor Macquarie, 31st March, 1821. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing 1st January, 1827. 
Governor Macquarie, 31st March, 1821. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing 1st January, 1827. 
Governor Macquarie, 10th September, 1818. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing 1st January, 1827. 
Governor Macquarie, 31st March, 1827. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing 1st January, 1827. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 6th July, 1824. 

Quit rent, £4/10/-, commencing 1st Jan., 1831. 
Sir Thomas Birsbane, 28th October, 1823. 

Quit rent, 2/-, commencing 1st January, 1829. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 26th June, 1824. 

Quit rent, £2/5/-, commencing Ist Jan., 1831. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, Uth February, 1823. 

Quit rent, 10/-, commencing 1st January, 1829. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 21st April, 1825. 

Quit rent, 7/6, commencing 1st January, 1831. 
Governor Macquarie, 16th January, 1816. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing Ist January, 1827 
Governor Macquarie, 30th March, 1818. 

Quitr ent, 10s, commencing 1st January, 1827. 
Governor Macquarie, 31st March, 1821. 

Quit rent, 2/-, commencing 1st January, 1827. 
Governor Macquarie, 31st March, 1821. 

Quit rent, 2/-, commencing 1st January, 1827. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 12th May, 1825. 

Quit rent, 1/9, eommenoinglst January, 1831 
Governor Macquarie, 31st March, 1321. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing 1st January, 1827. 
Governor Macquarie, 3lBt March, 1821. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing 1st January, 1827 
Governor Macquarie, 31st March, 1821. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing 1st January, 1827. 
Governor Macquarie, 28th November, 1821. 

Quit rent, 14/-, commencing 1st January, 1827. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 24th January, 1825. 

Quit rent, £4/10/-, commencing 1st Jan., 1831. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane— 600 acres, I6th May, 1823, 

and 800 acres, 4th June, 1824. Quit rent, £6/12/- 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 14th March, 1822. 

Quit rent, 1 1/-, commenting 1st January, 1829. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 14th November, 1825. 

Quit rent, £8/6/8, commencing lat Jan., 1833. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 

COLONIAL SECRETARY'S OFFICE, SYDNEY, 23rd OCTOBER, 18S2— Continued. 



29 



Noa. 



Persons to Whom 
Granted. 



Grants of Land. 
No. of Acres and District. 



Governors Promised by, and Dates. 



47 


Richard Henrj' Browne 


600 


>> 




48 


John Cowell 


800 


,, 




49 


Denis Guiney 


! 40 


„ 




50 


William Elyard . . 


' 1000 


.. 




51 


George W. Paul 


1 600 


„ 




52 


William Smith . . 


: 600 


„ 




69 


Mary Reiby 


800 


" 


Shoalhaven River 


73 


John Ciillen 


300 


acres. 


Illawarra 


74 


Michael Carroll . . 


100 


acres. 


lUawarra . . 


75 


Charles Macarthur 


■ 2800 

1 


acres 


„ .. 


76 


Frederick Jones . . 


100 


acres. 


Illawarra . . 


78 


David Bell 


500 


icres. 


Talawa 



Sir Thomas Brisbane, 5th June, 1824. 

Quit rent, £4/10/-, commencing 1st Jan., 1831. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 21st February, 1825. 

Quit rent, £6, commencing 1st January, 1831. 
Governor Macquarie, 31st March, 1821. 

Quit rent, 1/-, commencing 1st January 1827 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 29th November, 1822. 

Quit rent, £1, commencing 1st January, 1829^ 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 18th June, 1824. 

Quit rent, £4/10/-, commencing 1st Jan., 1831 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 19th April, 1825. 

Quit rent £4/10/-, commencing 1st Jan., 1831. 
100 acres by Governor Macquarie, 15th March, 1815, 

and 700 acres by Sir Thomas Brisbane, 13th 

August, 1825. Quit rent, £5/18/6 stg. per ann. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 17th February, 1824. 

Quit rent, £2/5/-, commencing 1st Jan., 1831. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 28th October, 1823 

Quit rent, 2/-, commencing 1st January, 1829. 
Governor Macquarie, 800 acres, 31st March, 1821, 

and 2000 acres by Sir Thomas Brisbane, 1st Feb., 

1825. Quit rent, £15/16/-, commencing Ist Jan., 

1831. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 60 acres, 12th Maj', 1825, and 

Governor Darling, 40 acres, 6th October 1830. 

Quit rent, 15/8, commencing, 1st January, 1827. 
Sir Thomas Brisbane, 21st March, 1822. 

Quit rent, 10 '-, commencing 1st January, 1829. 



Following is a summary of the principal events in a matter which affected the Illawarra district 

during the years 1821 to 1826. 



1821. — The boundaries of Argyle and Camden 
having been marked, received the G-overnor's 
assent. Mr. Charles Throsby is gazetted a 
Justice of the Peace for Argyle, 17th March, 
1821. Charles Throsby had obtained broad 
acres in the vicinity of Bong Bong. Mr. Cor- 
nelius O'Brien notifies proprietors of land in 
Illawarra that he has discovered a shorter track 
with an easier grade from Illawarra to Appin 
Road, and suggests that £10 be subscribed by 
each settler to make this road available to 
cattle drovers. Mr. O'Brien thought that seven 
landowners giving £10 each would be sufficient 
for the purpose. Date of this suggestion, 29th 
May, 1821. Grants of land were promised to 
Alexander Berry, James Badgery, Thomas 
Campbell, James Donnelly, Thomas McCaffrey, 
Robert Marshall, Charles Throsby, jun., Edward 
Wollstonecraft and others, a list of whose names 
appear elsewhere. 

1823.— In 15th February, 1823, "Gazette" 
there is an article deploring the drought which 
had visited the whole of the south coast of New 
South Wales. In 18th February "Gazette" 



there appeared an article on the system adopt- 
ed by the middlemen in the colony, in which 
those persons were termed "hungry shop- 
keepers and vulturine merchants." Another 
article in same paper had for its object the 
brutality of the officers over the various chain- 
ed gangs throughput the colony. During this 
time a wordy war was raging between two press 
writers, "Old Emigrant" and "Colonist," re- 
lating to the middlemen and small settlers. It 
may be termed the dawn of freedom. 

1823.— On 4th September Mr. Charles O'Brien 
is advertising for a practical man to take 
charge of the dairy herd at the Five Islands. 
Mr. Charles O'Brien had been placed in charge 
of the settlement after the departure of Mr. 
Dalrymple on August 20th, 1823, when there 
was a general muster of the cattle and stock be- 
longing to the Government in Illawarra. C. 
O'Brien was dairying on the Government sta- 
tion at the Five Islands. Dr. Charles Throsby 
sent 10 fat bullocks to Cribb, a butcher in 
Sydney, from Bong Bong. Each produced 1000 
lbs. of meat. Notice of cattle being stolen in 



30 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



Illawarra was frequent, notwithstanding that 
Captain Bishop and a garrison had been en- 
trenched for some time at Bed Point, Port 
Kembla. A severe drought in Illawarra in 
1827, and butter was 3/9 per lb. In 1829 there 
were 9000 head of horned cattle in Illawarra, 
and a total of 300,000 head in X.S. Wales. The 
drought continued from 1826 to 1829, caused 
great depression, and retarded enterprise. 
Little energy was displayed. Men were arri- 
ving in the colony with money and stock, and 
could find no openings. However, the salt beef 
and pork trade gave them the desired opening, 
and in a year or two the drought was forgotten. 
In 1829 James Pierce was appointed pound- 
keeper in AVoUongong, which place has just 
been gazetted a postal centre. Prior to that 
date the buzz and hub of business was centred 
at Port Kembla. Grazing rights of 2/6 per 100 
acres were obtainable from the Crown, such to 
be abandoned on a six months ' notice. In 1825 
Conor "Wholohan was re-appointed overseer of 
the Five Islands Estate for David Allen. In 
same year Dr. Charles Throsby's herd, the pro- 
genitors of which were bred in Illawarra, was 
considered the best herd in X.S.W "Wales, and 
equal to the best English herds. In lS2r) the 
Jenkins Estate, Berkeley, was in charge of John 
Robinson, and Andrew Byrne owned the Ous- 
dale Estate, where he had cattle grazing. John 
Wyllie was in possession of his Dunlop Vale 
E.state. where he had a magnificent herd of 
Ayrshire cattle. In June, 1829, a "Gazette" 
notice announced that the Five Islands, Kiama, 
Gerringong, Shoalhaven, Coolangatta, and Ulla- 
dulla were proclaimed post towns. Wollon- 
gong was prior to that date known as Bustle 
Hill, the whole of the land being owned by 
Charles Throsby Smith, who had a grant of 300 
acres there. Among the list of places set apart 
for small settlers was Illawarra, between BuUi 
and Coalclifl'. on the coast. This proclamation 
was issued in the year 1822. It must have been 
an inhospitable spot at that time. No wonder 
that poor men complained. 

Woliongong. The barracks and gaol, 
which had been first erected at Eed Point, Port 
Kembla, probably about the year 1825. were 
removed for the sake of convenience to Wol- 
iongong, from which Crown-street takes its 
name, in the year 1828. About this period of 
our history Mr. Thomas Macquoid was Chief 
Sheriif, Mr. Cornelius Prout was Under- 
Sheriff, Mr. "Walter Rogers was Clerk. Mr. 
Alexander Murray was Governor of the Gaol, 
and Mr. Thomas Morton, Gaoler in Svdnev. 



where all important criminal matters relating 
to the Illawarra district had to be referred 
for final execution. In other respects the 
Gaol authorities in Woliongong had power to 
put into execution all the minor powers, such 
as starvation, the dark cells, and the lash. In 
the year 1830 Port Macquarie ceased to be a 
penal settlement; that is to say, no more pri- 
soners were sent there after Julj- 13th, 1830. 

Prices in 1825. 

Owing to the very extensive arrivals of 
wheat at our markets for some weeks past the 
trade has assumed an exceedingly dull aspect. 
However, the supplies this day were chiefiy of 
a superior description, and sales were conducted 
at a trifling reduction from the terms of last 
week. There has also been a large supply of 
maize at market, but this article fully supports 
our last quotations- In barley and oats there 
is no variation. 

Average price of wheat — 6s lO^d. 

Ditto of maize — 6s 9d. 

Ditto of barley — 4s 9d. 

Fine flour — 22s 6d per cwt. 

Seconds flour — 20s 6d per cwt. 

Potatoes — 12s per cwt. 

Ducks — 7s 6d per cotiple. 

Butter— 2s 3d per lb. 

Cheese — Is 3d per lb. 

Fowls — 4s per couple. 

Geese — 15s per couple. 

Eggs — Is 9d per dozen. 

Assize price of bread, sixpence per loaf. 
Selling price, fivepenee halfpenny to sixpence 
halfpenny. 

The cattle market has been very moderately 
supplied this week. A few fine milch cows 
were sold at extremely low prices, being from 
£5' to £7 each. 

Beef, 2s 4d to 2s 8d per stone ; mutton. 3s to 
3s 6d per stone : pork, 2s 3d to 3s 3d per stone. 



A Prophetic Poem. 

"Yes, Master of the human heart, we own 
Thy Sovereign sway and bow before Thy throne 
In ages far remote, when Albion's state' 
Hath touched the mortal limit marked by Fate, 
When Arts and Science fly her naked shore. 
And the world empress shall be great no more. 
Then Australasia shall thy sway prolong. 
And her rich cities echo with thy song ; 
There myriads still s^all laugh, or drop the tear. 
At ' Flagstaff's ' humour or the woes of ' Lear.' 
Man, wave-like, following man, thy powers admire. 
And thou, my Shakespeare, reign 'till Time expire." 
—Charles Symmons, D.D. 
Newstead Abbey, August 4th. 1825 



31 



NESTLE'S & ANGLO SWISS MILK CO., M.S. STUD, Toogoolowa. 





GliACE OF NESTLES (No. 323). 



NECKL.M:e (No. 17 1 I. 





EMBI.E.M rr OF NESTI.FS (N(j. 37.). 



DOT III OF NESTLES (No. 321). 



THE HISTORY OP ILLAWARBA 



3Ji 



"On 19th October, 1823," says Baron Field, 
"I rested on Mr. David Allan's farm — Mr. 
Allan being one of the officers of the Commis- 
sary General Department — and had the merit 
of settling the Five Islands district." Baron 
Field had arrived overland at the Five Islands 
from Sydney on 18th October, 1823, and on 
21st October, 1823, was at Berry and Wollstone- 
craft's house, Coolangatta. A writer says: 
"Judge Baron Field in the journal of his ex- 
cursions to the Five Islands and Shoalhaven 
in 1823 says : ' Illawarra is a fine district of 
good grazing and some excellent arable land 
close to the seashore ; insomuch that, though dis- 
tant and difficult from Sydney by land, it was 
settled in Governor Macquarie's time, when he 
refused to let anybody go on the other side of 
the Nepean.' The journal continues later: 
Walked over miles of the Illawarra farm, the 
property of David Allan, late Commissary- 
General of the Colony, who had the merit of 
setting the example of settling the Five Island 
district. Rode to Shoalhaven, 36 miles still 
further south, six or seven of which were 
through a mass of vegetation, requiring pio- 
neers to penetrate it. Although we set out al- 
most at sunrise, yet it was nearly sunset before 
we arrived at Shoalhaven, where Mr. Alexander 
Berry has taken his grant of land on either side 
of the Shoalhaven River Ascended with Mr. 
Berry the mountain called by the natives Coo- 
langatta, under which he is building his house. 
One of the arras of the Shoalhaven is separated 
from Shoalhaven River by an isthmus not 150 
yards broad, and across this Mr. Berry has cut 
a canal, being the first canal in Australia. Al- 
though I am afraid that these grants of land 
will hardly ever repay Messrs, Berry and Woll- 
stonecraft for their outlay upon them, yet who- 
ever extends the settling of New South Wales 
further than anybody has gone before him is a 
benefactor to the colony. I am afraid, in this 
case, the man has taken possession before na- 
ture has done her work. Immense swamps and 
lagoons have only just been left by the sea, and 
the forest land is yet indifferent for grazing, 
but, though the cedar grounds end before 
Shoalhaven, the sea is open for any exportable 
produce that can be raised on patches of allu- 
vial soil on the alternate projecting points of 
the river; and Mr. Berry need not be alarmed 
lest any occupation of the immediate back 
country should shut in his cattle run." 

Charles Throsby Smith arrived in Illawarra 
in 1825, having received a grant of 300 acres, 



comprising nearly half the present site of the 
town of Wollongong. He got the contract from 
the Government for victualling the garrison at 
Red Point in 1826. He used his influence with 
the authorities to get the military headquarters 
removed to land adjacent to his establishment, 
"Bustle Farm," He succeeded, and then tried 
to get the new settlement called Bustletown. 
The original name of the place was spelt Wul- 
lungah, Wollongong being the newer rendering. 
Lieutenant John Fitzgerald Butler, of the 39th 
Regiment. It was a Dorsetshire regiment, and 
had Captain Charles Stuart and members of 
the Innes family as officers of a higher rank. 
Charles Throsby Smith had influence and used 
it to advantage. In 1828 the garrison was ta- 
ken from the Red Point establishment, and the 
settlement removed from there to the north 
side of the Tom Thumb Lagoon early in 1829. 
In 1829 there were 9000 head of horned cattle 
in Illawarra. Lieutenant Butler was appoint- 
ed commandant and resident magistrate at 
Wollongong, Edward Corrigan was appointed 
chief constable, James and Patrick Garraty as- 
sistant" constables. The penal settlement of 
Wollongong -had full control over the convicts 
who were portioned out to settlers between 
BuUi and Jervis Bay. These convicts were not 
permitted to remain for long in any centre for 
fear lest they mig-ht form secret combines. All 
criminals were tried by military law. The 
floggers at Wollongong were Maddell, Roach, 
Francis (a black savage), and Davey Mott. 
They used the cat-o '-nine-tails, a military ser- 
geant counted the strokes. The sergeants were 
usually very exacting. At Coolangatta, 
while the Government supported the 
several relays of convicts in the interests of 
Alexander Berry, a sergeant and five or six 
soldiers did duty there to uphold "law and 
order." The sergeant's duty, among other 
things, was to count the strokes ordered from 
time to time by the visiting magistrate. Henry 
Arthur Burton Bennett, clerk. James Pearce 
was appointed poundkeeper for Illawarra. 
Horned cattle were being sold at the pound to 
defray expenses at £2 per head. Gerringong 
was in 1829 owned by three persons, namely: 
Omega by Cornelius O'Brien (in trust for 
Thomas Campbell) ; William Smith, 640 acres, 
now known as Miller's Flats; Michael Hind- 
marsh's 640 acres. 

1829.— On 1st June, 1829, among the list of 
towns published by proclamation were Five 
Islands, Kiama, Gerringong, Shoalhaven, Coo- 
langatta, and Ulladulla. 



34 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABRA 



1829.— On December 19th, 1829, arrived in 
Sydney the convict ship "Sarah," Captain Co- 
lombine in charge, v^^ith Alexander Osborne, 
Esq., R.N., as superintendent, there being in 
Sydney at that time also Messrs. John Osborne, 
R.N., and Henry Osborne. A lease was granted 
to Mr. John Wyllie of 2,000 acres in Illawarra 
in accordance with the proclamation issued 
16th October, 1828. This land adjoined iMrs. 
Jenkins' property. 

In 1830 the military forces were controlled 
by Major D. Maepherson, Lieutenants Butler 
and Sleeman, belonging to the 39th Regiment 
of Foot. Crown Street was being formed, and 
an hotel, "The Bull," was being erected for 
the convenience of the travelling public by 
Lawrence Timmins. Drs. R. M. Davis and 
William Elyard, Ms.D., were the visiting 
doctors. 

From 1830 to 1840 many changes took place 
in connection with the district's rapid develop- 
ment. Roads had to be formed and such works 
as were considered necessary for the . conve- 
nience of the settlers. These vporks were car- 
ried out by convict overseers with convict 
labour. Anyone who may be anxious to learn 
who they were who ruled over the destinies of 
the several batches of convicts (who were be- 
ing constantly moved from centre to centre in 
the colony lest they might form close friend- 
ship) need but look up the names of the streets 
in each village and town between Bulli and 
Jervis Bay, and they will find the names of 
many of those convict overseers commemorated. 

W. C. Wentworth, who had obtained the 
right from the Government to cut the timber 
off 5268 acres of land l.ying between the north 
bank of the Minnamurra River, near Jamberoo, 
and the top of Mount Terry, entrusted the duty 
of cutting the timber thereon and having it de- 
livered at the little port at Shellharbour to his 
manager, John Pugh Nicholls. By this system 
the real settlers of Illawarra were robbed of 
their rightful inheritance, to wit, the finest 
timber in the world. If my readers will but 
examine into the real benefactors of the great 
TllaM'arra district, from Bulli to the boundaries 
of the original county of St. Vincent (which 
embraced but a margin of land adjacent to the 
foreshores of Jervis Bay), it will be found that 
the small landowners — those who got the 
crumbs from the tables of the several gover- 
nors — were the real powers in the development 
of Illawarra. These men came on the scene 



after the large landowners had destroyed the 
wealth in timber that Nature had stored up for 
the use of. future generations. 

The following persons were registered in 
1832 at the post office, WoUongong, as receiying 
letters: — Mr. James Allpin, Dapto, WoUon- 
gong; Mr. Gerald Anderson, St. Vincent, Wol- 
longong; Mr. Henry Angel, Fairy Meadow, 
WoUongong; Mr. H. A. B. Bennett, WoUon- 
gong; Mr. Charles Bennett, Dapto, Illawarra; 
Mr. Edward Birmingham, Dapto, WoUongong; 
Mr. George Brown, Illawarra, WoUongong; 
Mr. Charles Campbell, Shoalhaven; Mr. Thomas 
Campbell, Kiaraa; Mr. William Clarkson, Dapto, 
Illawarra; Mr. Charles Clayton, Dapto Forest, 
Illawarra; Mr. Matthew Conroy, Kiama, Illa- 
warra; Mrs. Hannah Cooke, Illawarra, WoUon- 
gong; Mr. Edward Corrigan, WoUongong; Mr. 
Thomas Cowper, Shoalhaven; Mr. James 
'Brien Croker, WoUongong ; Mr. Henry Davis, 
St. Vincent; Mr. Robert Dixon, Illawarra, Wol- 
longong; Mr. Thomas Dundon, Illawarra, Wol- 
longong; Mr. John Egan, Illawarra, WoUon- 
gong; Mr. Christopher Echlen, Dapto, WoUon- 
gong; Mr. Jonathan Eddis, Kiama, WoUon- 
gong; Mr. Alexander Elliott, Crown Inn, Wol- 
longong; Mr. PhiUip Elliott, J.P., lUawarra, 
WoUongong; Mr. WUliam Elyard, sen., R.N., 
Brundee, Shoalhaven ; Mrs. Bridget Farraher, 
lUawarra, WoUongong; Mr. Samuel Foley, Illa- 
warra, WoUongong; Mr. William Garratt, 
Shoalhaven; Mr. WUliam Gates, lUawarra, 
WoUongong; Mr. Humphrey George, Illawarra, 
WoUongong; Mr. Richard Glenvill, Shoalhaven; 
Mr. WUliam Graham, WoUongong; Mrs. Sarah 
Greylish, Illawarra, WoUongong; Mr. Henry 
Harris, Fairy Meadow, WoUongong ; Mr. Henry 
Harris, lUawarra, WoUongong; Mr. Michael 
Hindmarsh, Illawarra, WoUongong; Mr. John 
Hoare, Dapto, lUawarra, WoUongong; Mr. 
Peter Howell, Dapto, lUawarra, WoUongong; 
Mr. Michael Hyam, Sarah's VaUey, Kiama, 
WoUongong; Mr. Thomas James, Illawarra, 
WoUongong; Mr. F. Jones, lUawarra, WoUon- 
gong; Mr. Thomas Kain, lUawarra, WoUon- 
gong; Mr. Michael Keefe, St. Vincent; Mr. 
Thomas Surfleet Kendall, lUawarra, WoUon- 
gong ; Mr. Joseph KendaU, UUaduUa ; Mr. Hugh 
Kennedy, Illawarra, WoUongong; Mr. John 
Kennedy, lUawarra, WoUongong; Mr. John 
Layton. WoUongong ; Mr. WiUiam Lloyd, Wol- 
longong; Mr. Patrick Lysaght, WoUongong, 
lUawarra; Mr. James Martin, lUawarra. Wol- 
longong; Mr. James Mitchell. Dapto, WoUon- 
gong; M'r. Robert Mitchell. Shoalhaven, Illa- 
warra; Mr. Thomas Nash, Illawarra, WoUon- 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



35 



gong; Mr. John NichoUs, Shellharbour, lUa- 
warra; Mr. Thomas O'Brien, Dapto, WoUon- 
gong; Mr. Cornelius O'Brien, J.P., lUawarra, 
Wollongong; Mr. Henry O'Neil, Appin, Woi- 
longong; Mr. John Osborne, Garden Hill, lUa- 
warra; Mr. Henry Osborne, J.P., Garden Hill, 
lUawarra ; Mr. James Pierce, Wollongong ; Mr. 
Charles Quinn, Dapto, Wollongong; Mr. Rae, 
St. Vincent; Mr. John Reddall, Wollongong; 
Mr. John Eiddell, Peterborough, Wollongong; 
Mr. John Ritchie, Kiama, Wollongong; Mr. 
William Ritchie, Kiama, Wollongong; Mr. Ben- 
jamin Rixon, Charcoal Creek. Wollongong; 
Mr. William Roberts, St. Vincent; Mr. John 
Robins, Dapto, Wollongong; Mr. John Robin- 
son, Mullet Creek, lUawarra; Mrs. Sophia 
Rogers, Kiama, Illawarra, Wollongong; 
Richard Rourke, Dapto, lUawarra; William 
Ryan, Charcoal Creek, Wollongong; James 
Shoobert, Illawarra, Wollongong; David Smith, 
Kiama, Wollongong; J. G. Spearing, Paul's 
Grove, Wollongong ; Marcus Spearing,^ Belam- 
bie, Illawarra; John Spinks, Wollongong; Ed- 
ward Swan, Mullet Creek, Illawarra, Wollon- 
gong; George Tate, Wollongong; Lawrence 
Timmins, Bull Hotel, Illawarra, Wollongong; 
Mr. C. Waldron, J.P., Spring HiU, Wollongong; 
William Wilson, Wollongong. 

In 1833 there was a drought in lUawari-a 
equal in severity to that of 1827-28-29. During 
these visitations many settlers left the district, 
and never looked back. In the early thirties 
great friction arose owing to the squatters me- 
morialising Governor Bourke with a view of 
preventing ticket-of-leave men taking up large 
holdings or owning any description of stock. 
Counter-charges were sent along to the Gover- 
nor, each charging the other with cattle-steal- 
ing and sly-grog selling, until there was little 
or -nothing withheld, and the Governor was 
forced to believe that both cattle-stealing and 
sly-grog selling were common practices, and 
he was compelled to fall in with the views of 
the ancient, intrepid mariner, that it was the 
rule of the road. To show that Illawarra was 
by no means free of the contagion of cattle- 
duffing, in the year 1836 William Na,irn Grey, 
Police Magistrate, Dr. John Osborne, R.N., 
Henry Osborne, Esq., J.P., and Colonel Leahy 
formed a branch of the New South Wales 
Cattle Association in Wollongong, and Messrs. 
John Lamb and David Berry formed a branch 
at Shoalhaven, with a view of preventing 
cattle stealing. Wollongong butter was selling 
in Sydney at 2/3 per lb. 



The trustees in the estate of the late Captain 
Richard Brooks were offering Barrangery, 
950 acres, at Kangaroo Valley, for sale on 
the ground at Brooks' stockyard, June, 
■1836. It was purchased by James Osborne, 
of Bong Bong, who in turn sold it to 
his uncle, Henry Osborne, of Marshall Mount, 
Illawarra. John Neale's farm at Dapto, Illa- 
warra, 110 acres, with stockyard, cow-shed, pig- 
geries, dairy and dwelling house erected there- 
on, was in the market for sale. The allotments 
of land in the newly-formed township of Wollon- 
gong were selling freely. Jas. Stewart bought 
19 half acre lots and William Wilson 9 half acre 
lots on 8th October, 1836. 

1833. — The Reverend Thomas Hassall per- 
formed Divine service in the Barrack Room, 
Wollongong. During the reverend gentleman's 
stay in Wollongong he expressed a hope that his 
people would soon hear the church bell ring- 
ing. The bench of magistrates received seve- 
ral complaints from other local magistrates and 
employers of labour in Illawarra to the effect 
that "Davy the Plogger" was not using the 
"cat and nine tails" with sufficient severity. 
Evil-doers, they contended, weren't frightened 
by his efforts at correcting their vices. Fur- 
ther, it was stated that some of the evil-doers 
would sooner have Davy at their backs all day 
than do the work they were put to. — Dated 
March, 1833. 

1833.— In April, 1833, Reverend Father 
Therry celebrated Mass in the Barrack Room 
Wollongong, christened a large number of chil- 
dren, and married two persons — in other words, 
joined in the bonds of holy matrimony the first 
pair in Wollongong! First school opened in 
Wollongong. 

Through Father Therry 's exertions the first 
building erected solely for the worship of God 
was erected by the Catholics and their friends 
in Wollongong. Rude in structure as it must 
have been in 1833, it displayed the depth of re- 
ligious feeling that was present. It was the 
first place of worship on the south-eastern 
slopes. 

1834.— In 1834 the list of magistrates in lUa- 
warra comprised: — Phillip Elliott, Esq., Wil- 
liam Nairn Gray, Esq. (Police Magistrate, Wol- 
longong), Cornelius O'Brien, Esq., Henry Os- 
borne, Esq., Captain Waldron, R.N. Postal ar- 
rangements had improved. The Campbelltown 
Royal mail left thrice weekly at 4 p.m. for Illa- 
warra, leaving Wollongong for Sydney by re- 
turn. Mr. Jas. O'Brien Croker was postmaster 
at Wollongong. Francis AUman, Esq., was 



36 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAERA 



Commissioner for taking Affidavits in 111a- 
warra. The Registrar stationed,- at Wollon- 
gong was Mr. James O'Brien Croker, and Mr. 
Edward Corrigan, Court Crier. The police es- 
tablishment at Wollongong, Mr. William Nairn 
Gray was Police Magistrate, and Mr. Jas. 
O'Brien Croker was Clerk of the Bench. The 
Ecclesiastical Department in lUawarra was in 
charge of Rev. Frederick Wilkinson, A.M., and 
Mr. W. Davies was in charge of the primary 
school at Wollongong. 

1836. — There were 6000 acres of land under 
cultivation in the Illawarra district, the labor 
of small settlers. The formation of the Aus- 
tralian Auction Company, 1836. 

Extracts from "A Narrative of a Visit to the 
Australian Colonies," by James Backhouse, of 
the Society of Friends, consisting of a tour 
which lasted six years, commencing at Hobart- 
town, Tasmania, on 2nd March, 18'32: — 

Without attempting to follow the writer un- 
til the party began their journey to Illawarra, 
the narrative runs as follows : — ' ' Stayed with a 
widow who had a large family at Appin. One 
of her sons guided James Backhouse to Illa- 
warra (after describing the scenery, the flower- 
ing shrubs and timber, etc.) ''A spot of culti- 
vated land on the coast affords a treat to the 
eye, such as is seldom enjoyed among the vast 
forests jof Australia. We descended by a rough 
track called the Bulli Road." (Then follows 
niore description of the scenery.) "This road 
is difficult for horses, and impracticable for 
carts, except by the assistance of ropes passed 
round conveniently situated trees, by means of 
which in a few instances they have been brought 
down. After reaching the beach, our way for 
eight miles was along loose sand to Wollon- 
gong, near which our toils for the day found 
an end in the hospitable dwelling of Charles 
Throshy Smith, the chief proprietor of the 
place, which we reached when it was nearly 
dark, after a walk of 27 miles. 

We went to Wollongong, which is on a small 
boat harbour. The buildings at present erected 
are a police office, two stores, two public 
houses, a Roman Catholic chapel, a few dwelling 
houses ; a barn is also fitted up for an Episco- 
pal place of worship. In the afternoon we met 
a large road party, in charge of a military offi- 
cer, at a place a mile and a half from the town 
(date 21st September, 1836). They were as- 
sembled in a large open shed with a number of 
military, who were under arms, where they had 
their meals, the wives of the military being 
present. The prisoners were those sentenced 



from Great Britain to work on the roads for 
certain periods before being assigned. They 
were at one time ordered to work in chains, 
and for periods as long as seven (7) years, but 
this excessive and injurious severity has been 
relaxed, and they are exempted from chains, 
unless as a punishment for improper conduct, 
and if they behave well they are assigned at 
the expiration of two years. Hope is thus kept 
alive, while strict discipline is likewise main- 
tained, only three being flogged from 1st to 
22nd September, 1836. The prisoners are 
lodged and guarded in the same manner as the 
ironed gangs., Though the station is called a 
stockade, there are no defences around it." 
(Then follows more descriptions of scenery, but 
more of a coinparative nature than previously.) 
"Being furnished with horses by some of our 
friends, we accompanied a young physician a 
few miles off the coast, off which there are five 
islands that gave the district the name of The 
Five Islands, by which it is familiarly known 
by the lower class of the colony. On- a little 
cleared spot of land near the margin of the 
Lake, is the habitation of a settler in humble 
life; it IS a very rustic hut, covered with bark, 
and internally having much of the sombre hue. 
.... From this place we went to the hut 
of a friend to dine. It was of rough slabs, 
covered with bark, rustic, in the full sense of 
the word, and scarcely protecting his valuable 
library from the weather. Here he is super- 
intending a flock of sheep, the joint property 
of himself and one of his friends, who is also 
temporarily dwelling in same habitation. But 
Illawarra not being favourable country for 
sheep, though a delightful climate, and fine 
soil, well adapted for agriculture, and which 
will no doubt become the Egypt of Australia, 
our friend is about to remove his flock, to pne 
of the more elevated southern districts. The 
person referred to here was William Shelley, 
who had relatives at Parramatta. (Then fol- 
lows more description of scenery, the word 
painting of which, like the narrative through- 
out is pleasant reading.) "Accompanied by 
two of my .acquaintances, we proceeded to 
Dapto, a little settlement, on 25th September. 
1836. on the following day we were detained 
at Marshall Mount. On that day we engaged 
a native black named Tommey, to be our guide 
to Bong Bong^a native of the Kangaroo 
'Ground. He was of middle stature, rather 
broad shouldered, and had a depressed nose, 
throuffh the cartilage of which he wore a bone." 
(More descriptions, and the mention is made of 



■67 



JOHN HARDCASTLE, Jinbiggaree, Dugandan, Queensland. 





CHA-MPIOX REfi BILL, ,TA:MRER00. 



EARL OF DUNMORE. 





WIIITEFOOT -JllCl OF JINBIGGAREE. 



DARLING OF !\IAYFIELD. 
(No. r.8i, Vol. 11, I.II.B., O'ld.) 




BITTERCLT II OF JI.NRIGOAREE. 



DIANA 7tll OF .IINBIGGAREE. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAW/iRKA 



39 



calling on a few settlers on the way to Kiama, 
which is described as follows) : — -"Kiama is 
situated on the Coast, at a little boat harbour; 
it consists of about a dozen cottages, built of 
wood, occupied by a blacksmith, a carpenter, 
a shoemaker, and a constable's house, where 
the. police magistrate holds his court. We 
passed a mile beyond it to the house of a 
settler, where we were hospitably received," 
etc. (Then follows more descriptive reading 
matter.) "We left the rich district and emerged 
on the coast, about seven miles north of Shoal- 
haven, where we received much hospitality by 
Alexander Berry, the proprietor of extensive 
territory. When Coolangatta was approached 
religiously; there was little response. Here 
black Tommey left without notice, and Lewis, 
an aboriginal from Tasmania, and Bani, a 
local black, became our guides. Broughton 
Creek station was under the charge of a res- 
pectable Scotch family. We reached the Kan- 
garoo Ground, a stock station, before sunset. 
A man was in charge of a hut, who was a 
prisoner, in a bridge party, at Windsor, when 
we visited that place a year ago. Forty men 
of the Kangaroo Ground tribe were going to 
the cow pastures to learn a new song invented 
by the black people there. For this purpose 
they often travel great distances. All the men 
had gone through the ceremony of having a 
front tooth knocked out. There were 200 in 
the tribe. We reached Throsby Park, and were 
received with great hospitality by Mrs. Charles 
Throsby, of Bong Bong. An aged man named 
Joe Wild, who accompanied Robert Brown, in 
his botanical researches in N.S. Wales and Van 
Diemen's Land, and who discovered the dis- 
trict of Tllawarra, was sent with us as a guide 
to Black Bob's Creek, and to bring back the 
horses on which we rode, as we wished to pur- 
sue our journey southward on foot, after visit- 
ing the bridge and road party. This part 
of the Colony is about 2000 feet above sea 
level. On 7th October, 1836, we visited the 
ironed gang at Marulan. The Marulan gang 
consists of such as have committed offences 
after assignment. Here the punishment, to 
which they are subjected, for misconduct in the 
gang is flagellation; and in some instances 
they have received 600 to 800 lashes within 
a space of eighteen months, at the rate of not 
more than 50 lashes for one offence." Reader, 
pause, and think of this punishment. The 
flogger was black Francis, a huge negro, who 
was employed by the authorities for that pur- 
pose. What must the state of things in Aus- 



tralia, prior to the arrival of that somewhat 
humane Governor, Sir Richard Bourke? Echo 
answers clink, clink! swish, swish! 

The chains, the cat-o '-nine-tails, and the cuffs 
were much the same everywhere in N.S. Wales, 
wherever a gaol was erected. So was the sys- 
tem; 23 hours utter darkness in each day, one 
hour for daylight and exercise. This would 
continue every day for from nine months to 
three years, according to the sentence. In 
country gaols, a week or a month in the dark 
cells was the limit for magistrates. All those 
sentenced meant so many days on bread and 
water. Hence the vast numbers of what were 
termed run-aways, who faced death from 
starvation or life or death among the myall 
blacks. Run-aways and those Avho harboured 
them suffered severely when caught, yet, they 
demonstrated the possibility of a pure democ- 
racy. The only distinction to be won was that 
of being trustworthy to their benefactors. The 
good man was he who was kind and true; the 
bad man was he who was capable of betray- 
ing a confederate. In order to destroy brother- 
ly love the system offered large bribes to the 
bad men-. 

The lUawarra, or Five Island District. 

Mr. Surveyor Wells, in his Gazetteer of New 
South Wales, published in 1848, described lUa- 
warra as follows :— 

Illawarra as an Incorporated District. 

Illawarra, an incorporated district of New 
South Wales containing 570,557 acres, of which 
137,'917 are alienated. It embraces the eastern 
portion of the County of Camden, and a small 
portion of the County of St. Vincent, bounded 
on the north, by a line west, to the head of 
the Cataract River, commencing on the -shore 
near Bulli ; on the west by the Illawarra Range, 
thence by a line to the middle sources of the 
Kangaroo River, thence by that river to its 
confluence with the Shoalhaven River, and by 
this river to its confluence with the Endrick 
River; on the south, from thence by a line 
bearing north-easterly to the source of the Yer- 
rimong Creek, thence by Yerrimong Creek to -. 
a point from which a line due east would meet- 
the north-west corner of Daniel Cooper's grant 
of 880 acres, thence by the south-eastern mar- 
gin of Saltwater Lagoon to the northern point 
of Robert Lambert's grant on the sea shore,' 
which forms the eastern boundary to near Bulli 
aforesaid. This council contains seven (7) 
members, including the warden. 



40 



THE nisrOBY OF ILLAWARKA 



lUawaira as a Police District. 

2. lUawarra. — ^A police district of New South 
Wales, embracing the eastern portion of the 
County of Camden, and the northern portion 
of St. Vincent, bounded on the north by a 
line west to the head of the Cataract River, 
commencing on the sea shore near BuUi; on 
the west by the Illawarra Range, thence by a 
line to the middle source of the Kangaroo River, 
thence by that river to its confluence with the 
Shoalhaven River, and by this river to about 
two miles south of the Warreamungo, on the 
south by the range north of Endrick's River, 
to the source of Yalmal Creek; and again by 
a range to Lamb's grant, and by the eastern 
shore of St. George's Basin to Sussex Haven, 
and thence by the sea shore, which forms the 
eastern boundary to near Bulli. It contains 
4210 inhabitants and 763 houses. 

Note. — ^A few years after publishing the 
Gazetteer of N.S. Wales, Mr. W. H. Wells was 
drowned in Ritchie's Creek, Jaraberoo, in a 
flood whilst endeavouring to reach his home — 
Kiama. 

Illawarra, by David Christie Murray: — "A 
home of beauty which I visited was the Bulli 
JPass, and, if there is anything better worth see- 
ing in Australia, I will go to see it, though it 
cost me a thousand miles of travel. Half way 
up the winding ascent we paused to look at a 
giant gum tree, which stands retired, as great 
beauties sometimes will, and hides its splen- 
dour in the lowly vale. We paid our homage 
to the giant — a living giant — and, making our 
way back to the road, resumed our ascent of 
the pass. The vegetation on either hand grew 
dense, and splendid cabbage palms, cactus, 
aloe, tree-fern, and scores of other families 
were there in glorious tangle. It was not until 
we reached the first outlook, that the rich 
beauty of the place we had come to visit de- 
clared itself, no word painter ever lived who 
could actually convey to the imagination of 
another the image of everything he had seen. 
But futile as the task must be, let me essay 
it. To begin with, picture to yourself a rough 
little paling at the precipitous edge of the 
road, lean over it if you have the nerve, and 
if you choose you may drop a pebble which 
will fall more thnri 200 feet without touehinur 
clay or foliage. Below to the front, the left 
and the right, lies the sea — a scene of most 
delicate azure fading on the horizon into palest 
torquoise. The sands are ever golden, and 
curved into innumerable bays. A line of white 



foam following the delicate outlines of the 
shore, breaks utterly unheard away and awayj 
and away to the right waves this most undula- 
ting triple line of blue and white and gold 
until they are met together in the distance. 
The land sweeps boldly up in striking lines, 
and every hill side is a very riot of verdure, 
and every hill side is pleasing. The gum asserts 
itself here and there, but mixes its grim grey 
with many more cheerfully coloured growths, 
and in the mid-distance slender columns of blue 
smoke mark the whereabouts of some unseen 
manufactory or mine. On the extreme verge 
of the distance the white houses of the town 
of Shellharbour gleam softly with brightness 
chastened by the intervening air. An un- 
broken stillness broods over all, and though the 
atmosphere is as clear as crystal, as the vivid- 
ness with which all objects at moderate dis- 
tances are seen declares a tender blue gauze 
seems everywhere drawn across the distance. 
It seems half to shroud the brightness of the 
sunlit sky, and thickens softly towards the 
horizon, so that sea and sky melt one into the 
other." 

According to the Picturesque N.S. Wales, 
published in 1901: — "In 1797 Surgeon George 
Bass saw the Blowhole (at Kiama) and was 
the first white man to give a description of it. 
He was obliged to stop during a eoa.stal voy- 
age, in a little bight just south of Illawarra, 
and found behind the shore, in a hollow cir- 
cular space among the rocks, a hole 25 or 30 
feet in diameter, into which the sea rushed 
by a subterranean passage." 

This account was no doubt obtained from the 
log kept by Bass. But the old settlers used 
to tell us that the old black king — Captain 
Brooks — used to speak of having been present 
at the landing in Botany Bay of Captain Cook ; 
and in Sydney when Captain Phillip landed; 
and also in Kiama when Bass landed under the 
old fig tree. It was a tradition among the old 
black-fellows — that in the long ago — a black- 
fellow was cast down the Blowhole for a crime, 
and a big wave east him up again alive. The 
tribe never visited the place again. 

Captain Brooks (an aboriginal king), native 
name unknown, claimed to have seen Captain 
Cook at Botany Bay, and to have been at the 
landing in Sydney of Captain Phillip; and in 
Kiama when Surgeon George Bass landed near 
the old fig tree in Kiama to explore the famous 
Blowhole. He got the name. Captain Brooks, 



THE HISTORY OF ILL AW AURA 



41 



from the sawyers who knew that he piloted 
John Cream and Captain Richard Brooks's 
cattle from Lake Illawarra to the Kangaroo 
Ground, in 1821. The old black king had, ac- 
cording to the old sawyers' views, tasted human 
flesh in various forms. He was a connoisseur 
and could describe roasting to a turn. He was 
in 1850 a very old man, totally blind, having 
to be led from place to place by the tribe. On 
July 4th, 1857, he was left alone in the camp 
near the lagoon, Kiama ; a westerly wind blew 
the embers from the fire into where he was 
lying, and his charred remains were discovered 
there. 

The Governor, Sir Richard Bourke, visits 
Illawarra, 1st May, 1834. 

In 1834 an address was published from the 
residence of Illawarra to the Governor, Sir 
Richard Bourke, on his visit to Illawarra. In his 
reply, His Excellency said that his principal 
motive in visiting Illawarra then was to see how 
the beautiful fertile district could be opened up 
by road, and its communications with the Syd- 
ney market improved. Messrs. Cornelius 
O'Brien, George Brown, William Gart, Thomas 
Coaply, William Wood, Thomas Smith and 
others signed the address to the Governor. 

When the land of New South Wales was 
thrown open for sale in unlimited quantities, 
at a minimum of 5/- per acre, all who had oc- 
cupied superior land, with or without licence, 
sought to purchase their occupations; many 
rounded off their grants, and took in slices of 
barren land for uniformity, for pasture, or for 
water. Others who had neither influence, nor 
ability to wade through the dreary forms of tho 
bureaucrats and martinets under Governor 
Darling indulged in freehold as soon as it he- 
came a matter of money, stimulated during the 
years from 1828 to 1836 by the offer of assigned 
servants, commissariat assurance, and a road- 
making Government, it paid the more wealthy 
settlers in Illawarra to improve their hold- 
ings and attempt better systems of cultiva- 
tion and dairying. Thousands of acres were in 
a short space of time brought into an improved 
state. This system enabled the wealthy to 
overrun their poorer neig'hbours who could not 
find money to fence their grants of land. Hence 
the man who had money bought up for a few 
pounds sterling thousands of acres between 
tnose years that lay between 1830 and 1838. An 
alarming number of "land transfers" are to be 
found in our Lands Office, Sydney, dealing with 
lands lying between BuUi and Jervis Bay dur- 
ing those years. 



The great ruin wrought through the financial 
failures of the late twenties compelled the au- 
thorities to issue practically a new map of New 
South Wales. It was commenced in 1831, and 
completed in 1835. Only a few men were 
strong enough financially to withstand that 
crash Fat bullocks could be bought for £1 per 
head, and sheep were purchased in flocks at 1/- 
each. Henry O'Brien, who had removed from 
the Five Islands to Yass Plains found a way 
out by establishing the Boiling Down industry. 
Alexander Berry and others purchased scores of 
land grant orders and converted them to their 
own use at ridiculously low prices by means 
of barter. Influence was then brought to bear 
on the Government to issue deeds to the holders 
of these cheaply acquired lands. Applications 
for transfers of rights to such holdings follow- 
ed, and a Court of Appeal appointed, consisting 
of Captain Peter Bishop (40th Regiment of 
Foot), Chairman; Captain John Moore Foley 
(3rd Regiment of Buffs) ; Lieutenant Henry 
Miller (40th Regiment of Foot) ; Lieutenant 
John George Richardson (40th Regiment of 
Foot) ; and Lieutenant William Wilson (48th 
Regiment of Foot). 

Many applications were considered by this 
Court of Appeal. Scores of soldiers' grants in 
Illawarra passed into the possession of those 
who sold rum wholesale and retail. This caus- 
ed another tribunal to be created in 1835, known 
as the commission for hearing and determining 
upon claims to grants of land within the 
Colony of New South Wales. President Sydney 
Stephen, Barrister-at-Law ; Thomas Livingstone 
Mitchell, Surveyor-General; Roger Therry, 
Commissioner of Courts of Request, Secretary; 
John Dillon, Lower Elizabeth-st. ; non-commis- 
sioned officers and privates who were discharg- 
ed from the service for the purpose of settling 
in the Colony were allowed free grants to the 
following extent: — Sergeants, 200 acres; Cor- 
porals and private soldiers, 100 acres each. All 
officers desirous of becoming settlers after 1832 
had to purchase it at public auction sales. They 
were, however, entitled to remission of the pur- 
chase monev according to length of service— 
20 years £300, 15 years £250 ; 10 years £200 ; 7 
years £150. Crown lands, on the other hand, 
were leased to anyone from year to year. 

Sufiicient has been stated to show those who 
are in possession of the deeds of their farms 
how the said land came to pass tlirough so 
many previous owners. In some instances land 
in Illawarra was in one way or other in the 
hands of six persons, not one of whom ever did 
a day's work on the land. 



42 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



lUawarra. — "What is the meaning of the 
name ■ In Governor Maequarie 's first pro- 
clamation regarding the permanent settlement 
of the district he referred to it as "The Illa- 
warra or Five Islands district." In the 
writer's school -days the schoolmaster, a clever 
man, and a native of Sydney, used to say: 
"Illawarra is the black man's meaning 
for Five Islands." Later on Mi-. Thomas Sur- 
fleet Kendall said: "Illawarra means happy 
place. I called my first home 'Happy Villa' on 
that account." Later still we are told that 
Illawarra means "Water far away." Me- 
thinks this same authority has given us other 
meanings for Illawarra. 

With regard to the language of the pure- 
blooded blacks of Illawarra, all I have to say 
is this: In my schoolboy days when my hear- 
ing was as keen as any living white boy I 
could not catch the blacks' pronunciation of 
scores of places in Illawarra. I could not 
catch the words and passed on. I might as 
well add that at the old home on the banks 
of Jemara Creek, Kiama, we had black visitors 
back as long as my recollection can carry me. 

To Begin My Story. — ^Between a dying 
system and one waiting to be born Major- 
General Lachlan Maequarie stood as Governor 
of New South Wales on December 31st, 1809. 
When he took over the rulership there were 
ahead of him difficulties that would have 
caused a weak man to falter. 

Maequarie had this advantage — the naval 
rule in the young colony was doomed with the 
passing of Bligh, the old order had come to an 
end. Always advancing, the new ruler drove 
all before him over mountains and difficult 
river crossings. The pioneers under the 
favourable conditions off'ered them by Mae- 
quarie converted the Illawarra district into 
smiling homesteads in the course of a few short 
j'ears. It was he who laid the foundation of 
Illawarra 's first real settlement. He gave the 
land freely to those who desired to settle 
on it. 

It has been repeatedly said "that the his- 
torical instinct among the English people has 
never been very keen. So that it is much 
more difficult to form an historical society 
iimong the purely English-speaking people 
than in any other country." It is, therefore, 
])lain why so few of the objects of a truly 
interesting character have survived the life of 
(ine individual. Yet, there is a reason in 
nature as profound as the being of man why 



we should alwaj'-s pride ourselves in our past, 
])resent, and future. It is simply this: No 
other creatures on this planet has ever been 
able to create a history of its kind. To man 
alone belongs the faculty of looking before 
find after, and considering the story of his 
race from the first human being that walked 
on the face of the earth. Our first forefather 
brought with him something new — the power 
to store up and celebrate memories of the 
great dead. His elemental pieties have become 
part of the whole tradition of our humanity; 
and that history which he began, and to which 
(ve add day by day, is our witness of the 
lilivision of man from the other creatures of 
this world. When, then, we cherish this study 
we are proclaiming our pre-eminence among 
;B,11 living beings. 

Illawarra has its own history, and it is with 
ii view of putting that history on a sound basis 
that I have taken upon myself the task of 
I'ecording solid facts. It goes without say- 
ing that at least two governors before the 
arrival of Mlacquarie shut their eyes and closed 
their ears to much of what their friends did. 
In tliis they were merely human. From 1813 
to 1830 things were very different in Illa- 
warra from Bulli to Jervis Bay, and as far 
south as Ulladulla was under civil and military 
rule. It is difficult to say how far south the 
district of Illawarra extended in those days. 
We have the assurance of Thomas Surfleet 
Kendall that Illawarra extended as far south 
as Ulladulla. He said: "The whole of the 
country between the mountain range and the 
sea was originally known as the 'Illawarra or 
Five Islands district.' " We can, therefore, 
as natives of the district, peacefully await the 
discovery of documents that may throw more 
light on the subject. 

I am well aware that this book is open to 
a great multitude of criticism. It will be said 
for example, that it is unscholarly and un- 
learned, because to deal with a subject so 
.sacred as the history of our first settlement 
demands a knowledge of partristic literature. 
It must not be forgotten, however, that this 
book is intended for the dairymen of Aus- 
tralia and their sons, who — after all has been 
said and done — can claim, and must claim Ilia, 
warra as the first great dairying centre in the 
Commonwealth. It is patent, or it should be, 
to all readers o;f this book that we are each 
and all imable to discourse on the primitive 
state of Illawarra prior to the arrival of, say, 



THE HISTORY OF ILL AW ABB A 



43 



those who began to clear the land in real 
earnest. Its scenic beauty was prior to 1830, 
beyond the descriptive power of travellers who 
were evidently so overcome at the sights that 
met their view at every turn th^t they moved 
on and on — silently unable to comprehend the 
majesty of nature. 

Who despoiled the beauty spots of lUa- 
warra? At once let us saj'^ the most useful and 
progressive men that ever came to New South 
Wales, namely, the assisted emigrants who 
arrived in Illawarra between 1827 and 1857. 
Those who arrived between 1837 and 1847 faced 
the real solid bush, and cut it down, cleared 
the land and planted and reaped the crops. 
When they got going they helped those who 
came out year by year afterwards. These 
people and their families destroyed the scenery 
but they did for Illawarra what Illawarra re- 
quired. They made grass grow where no grass 
ever grew before on many thousands of acres 
of scrub land. 

It may be said, "Mtich of this history is 
rhetorical and inexact, emotional and un- 
charitable." Well, the book itself is its only 
defence. I stand behind the book, and if the 
biographies of our pioneers do not contain 
deep thoughts their histories are of a truly 
practical nature. These men, and women, too, 
had but one aim and one ambition. They 
wanted to get on the earth where they could 
make a living and build up honest homes. It 
is patent that the scrub lands with their 
scenic beauties was an obstacle in their pro- 
gress. It was at once a cover for marsupials 
and wild cattle that raided their crops at 
night, so it was cut down and burnt regardless 
of its future value. After all scenery is merely 
for the idle rich to delight in. Fruit, maize, 
potatoes and wheat, a few dairy cows, pigs 
and poultry were the support of the early 
settlers in Illawarra. From twentj^ to thirty 
acres were found sufficient to keep a family 
of six or seven human beings in comfort. The 
soil was rich in humus and potash, so rich, 
indeed, that fruits and vegetables were full of 
merit. The plentiful supply of rich food pro- 
duced great men and women. In the early 
days of Illawarra there were difficulties that 
had to be overcome with regard to getting 
produce to Sydney, and when it was delivered 
at a wharf there was no recognised system 
by which it could be disposed of. Conse- 
quently each of the farmers had to go with 
the boat on which his produce was carried to 
attend to its delivery and sale in Sydney. 



Goods were bought with the proceeds of the 
sale and brought back to Illawarra. There 
were many small vessels trading in this way 
on the coast from the earliest times. Among 
those traders were Thomas Barrett and John 
Cullen, who in conjunction, owned the "Fox- 
hound." Thomas Barrett owned by every 
right "Heme Farm," near the Figtree. His 
son, Thomas, was born there in 1824. In 1826 
the "Foxhound" with a cargo of farm pro- 
ducts left Illawarra for Sydney. She had on 
board Thomas Barrett, two soldiers, three con- 
victs, several settlers, and the crew. She went 
down at sea with all hands (17 souls), and the 
Barrett family were later on cheated out of 
their property by a few cunning residents. 

In 1836, ten years later, "The Black Swan," 
loaded up with farm products and cedar, left 
Illawarra for Sydney. She had — strange as it 
may seem — the same number of people on 
board as were on the "Foxhound," viz., 17, in- 
eluding Patrick Lysaght, of Fairy Jleadow, two 
soldiers, and three or more convicts. She was 
never heard of again. She went to the bottom 
with all hands. The Lysaght family were 
fortunate to hold papers relating to their hold- 
ing. It was a grant to Thomas Martin, who 
had sold it to Lysaght. 

Many stories come down to us from the old 
families who had lost their rightful property 
owing to their forebears trading with very 
cunning settlers whose main object in life was 
to grab property. 

The cunning people, whose names could be 
given, were always ready to bribe one set of 
convicts to lay false information against their 
fellow convicts. In this way useful men were 
compelled to serve an extra term of years. 
Certain convicts were bribed to steal produce. 
An imfortunate case of this kind happened 
near the "Figtree" where an ex-convict shot 
a fellow-convict. Another convict was duly 
hanged for being in the vicinity. Seldom did 
any of the ex-convict overseers remain long 
in Illawarra — a few certainly remained, but 
they were never respected. No one had a good 
word for them. The same may be said with 
much truth of the convict masters who had 
the reputation of sending their assigned ser- 
vants to the triangles from Bulli to Jervis Bay. 

"The Rust" in wheat gave the settlers in 
Illawarra their first set-back in 1860. This 
meant that more dairying had to be under- 
taken which at once demanded more scrub- 
clearing to get more grass for the cows. Ap- 



44 



THE HISTORY OF ILLA^¥ARRA 



parently, there was no part of Australia on 
which nature's generous hand, benigh and 
benedictory, seemed specially to have been laid 
in bountious blessing, than in Illawarra. As 
the train from Sydney to Nowra at the present 
time sweeps around Stanwell Park, what an 
unique enjoyment is at once obtained, as a 
western district man once stated the experience 
he had to the writer. "You come to a place 
where you can shoot wallabys from one side 
of the carriage, and catch sehnapper from the 
other side." 

Whilst enjoying, during that train route, the 
few rough patches of scenery that is left to us 
in Illawarra, how few there are who are 
capable of thinking of the labour and toil 
expended by men and women in making Illa- 
warra what it is to-day from a commercial 
standpoint. Does anyone realise what it cost 
to clear these scrub lands. Methinks, very few 
could think it. Does anyone know what 
cheap convict labour did for the wealthy class 
in the Illawarra district? I doubt it. Do 
many know that convicts, working like 
bullocks in pairs, ploughed land in Illawarra? 
It is true that they did so. 

One of the men responsible for these cruel 
acts caused one of his assigned servants, "a 
lifer," to be repeatedly flogged. On the last 
occasion the poor fellow was so severely pun- 
ished that, when being marched back with 
others, he dropped dead on the road. A tyrant 
overseer, an ex-convict, used to cut the rations 
off those under him and sell them. He was 
found out, eventually, and sent for a term to 
Van Diemen's Land to serve another term. 
What of the over-lord? The convicts had to 
deal with him — in their spare time. They 
caught him one night, tried him by convict 
rules, found him guilty, and gave him an 
unmerciful flogging. He became more cruel, 
and he was followed towards the Monaro 
plains. He got another flogging which cut 
short his days in Illawarra. He must have 
been a vile tyrant as the old convicts forgave 
much in those days. Let us pause and rest 
while we note certain events. If the flrst 
church erected in Australia was largely the 
product of convict labour, and, if many of those 
convicts were afterwards flogged for failing 
to attend the worship that was conducted 
there, if those who were termed free mechanics 
were paid for their labour in rum and tobacco ? 
What could be expected from those who had 
gi'ants of land in Illawarra? Certainly 



nothing more Christian could be looked for. 
As the tourist proceeds from WoUongong going 
south, he comes to Unanderra, the aboriginal 
name of this place was " CuUingung. " In 
early times the Government erected a stockade 
at this spot. A man named Beaver built a 
house there in which he traded with the 
prisoners and settlers. George Brown was an 
interested party in another direction, so he 
g;ave Beaver much trouble. Among the 
charges laid against Beaver was that of sly- 
grog selling. This shop changed hands more 
than twice, and then George Lindsay, grand- 
father of the present family of Lindsays of 
Dapto and Unanderra, took it over and com- 
bined farming with store-keeping. Edward 
Hammond Hardgraves lived in the vicinity. 
His son William Henry was born there in 1839. 
Hardgraves went to Gosford in 1840, and then 
on to the Californian diggings in 1849. 
Richards, who established Richard's Tannery, 
was an old Sydney native, born before the 
year 1815. Woods opened a public house at 
Unanderra, and E. Way opened a public house 
cm Barrett's Creek about 1853. 

The Illawarra range when viewed from the 
sea is in great measure destitute of naturally 
systematic arrangement, consisting not so 
much of groupings as of utterly irre^lar 
amassments. and occasionally of isolated 
heights, such as Kiera, Kembla, Cooby, 
Koorinan, Nuninuna and Cambewarra. 

The ravines and glens which fling the streams 
down to the sea, forming singular foils to the 
immense masses of rocks in fantastic or archi- 
tectural forms. But the det^ails of this 
magnificent series of slopes superbly adorned 
and opulently varied screens cannot be de- 
scribed by an historian beyond this. They 
must have been the scene of great events in 
former times. 

To-day, a visitor is struck with the beauty 
of this mountain side country, subdivided and 
diversified with homesteads, grass paddocks, 
crops, and dairy cattle grazing right up under 
the most rugged peaks. Many forms and 
shapes, both natural and artificial, create a 
countless number of these landscapes, all agree- 
able, many pleasant, some highly picturesque. 

The scenery of Illawarra viewed from Sad- 
dleback Mountain, is noug^ht but intricacy, 
multiplicity, uniqueness, opulence, and has in 
consequence baffled every attempt at either 
verbal or pictorial description. The surface 
or ridge of this plateau may, in a general 



KIAMA A. & H. SOCIETY, ILLAWARRA. 



45 





THE LAMlSCAPE. 



THE l'A\ ll.ll.LN. 



The Kiama Showground — The most picturesque site in N.SW. 




Z^ " *^ ^^•^T'* 



'.-T^-^ 



7-1^' 



f^_ 



^€^ 



Atr 









I'OUR PEiNS OF RED ILLAWARRA HAIRY CATTLE, EXHIBITED KIAJIA SHOW, 1953. THE EQUAL OF 
EXHIRIT HAS .N'OT YET B£E>' SEE.X CM ANY SHOWGR OL.N'D l.\ ACSTRALIA. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



47 



view, be characterised as being diversified with 
gravelly ridges sombrely patched, surrounded 
by a great variety of tiny, flowering shrubs. 
Some of these are beautifully gemmed. There 
are a variety of small bogs and swamps which 
in times of drought on the coast afforded a 
living for starving stock. The real view point 
of this range spur is that place where the grey- 
faced rocks stand overlooking, so to say, the 
Valley of Jamberoo. It commands, owing to 
its position and altitude, the one central posi- 
tion in the Illawarra range. A scenic power. 
If "Ilia" means water, and "warra" far 
away in our native black language, one could 
easily imagine a young black accompanying 
his chief for the first time to the coast for a 
"fish feast," as was the old-time custom, 
exclaiming on reaching the summit of those 
grey, stately rocks, "Ilia, Ilia, Warra, Warra." 
The Pacific ocean in front, gorges and gullies, 
glens and ridges displaying escarpivients, 
ravines, cliff's, pinnacles, with a general 
intricacy of outlines in sufficient amount to 
constitute both force and character in the 
higher orders of lands:nipe, and around the 
whole is hung out one of the most magnificent 
natural panoramas in the Commonwealth. 
The land behind this elevation is not inviting. 
It is, however, a place unequalled as a pros- 
pective health resort in the future. It is rig'Iit 
in the centre where nature blends mountain 
air with the sea air. All that is required to 
make it a tourist resort is good roads. 

When Mr. Surveyor Hoddle was laying out 
the old tracks that led from Bong Bong Street, 
Kiama, to the chief town in the county of 
Camden, is it not a pity that he did not attempt 
a description of what he beheld from the 
summit of Saddleback, and from that great 
wall of white shaded rock that overlooked all 
the valleys and gorges below both north and 
south of the range. 

One might easily imagine that the 
atmosphere, life and scenery of that ideal spot 
would adopt themselves to both the painter 
and the poet. A writer in his preface t-o Adam 
Lind.say R. Gordon's poems could have gained 
much had he visited that spot. However clever 
he may have been elevated to where sea and 
mountain air meet. As it was he wrote from an 
out-back position. "The dweller in the wilder- 
ness acknowledges the subtle charm of this 
fantastic land of monstrosities; he becomes 
familiar with the beauty of Loneliness. 
Whispered to by the myriad tongues of the 



wilderness, he learns the language of the 
barren and uncouth, and can read the 
hieroglyphics of gum trees, blown into 
odd shapes, distorted by fierce hot winds, or 
cramped with cold nights, where the Southern 
Cross freezes in a cloudless sky of icy blue. 
Thus the wild dreamland of the bush 
interpretes itself." Whereas on old Saddle- 
back there is an air of liberty, magnificence, 
and splendour that naturally inspires brilliant 
thoughts as she stands in her pristine beautj'. 
Then there is the almost indescribable lyre- 
bird. The beauty in tints of other birds. The 
mountain wild flowers. It is truly from such 
places that poets should write. Where on a 
clear day one can see rivers and streams wind- 
ing silvery to the sea. Just west from the 
summit of this range lie the Bishop's Lookout, 
and two very beautiful waterfalls — the Gerrin- 
gong and Kangaroo falls. Some day there will 
be a famous health resort built up in the 
vicinity of these places. 

The agricultural operations in Illawarra were 
for years carried out under great difficulties, 
and consequently in the rougihest style with 
the crudest implements, and ploughing was 
done by single-furrow ploughs dra,wn by teams 
of bullocks. Reaping was done by hand with 
reaping hooks. Threshing was done by means 
of a flail until the Maguire-Comerford, Duncan 
Bros., Henry 's, and Vidler 's threshing machines 
came into use. Newer systems of agriculture 
followed until the soil was too much cultivated, 
especially on the hill sides. Neither the soil 
nor the climate were at fault originally in 
Illawarra. It was the system of farming and 
farm-leasing which combined to bring about 
degeneration. Crop after crop was being 
solicited year after year from the same en- 
closure without rest or manure of any kind 
to restore the elements of fertility in continual 
process of exhaustion. Rotation of crops, 
change of seed are good so far as they go, 
but they do not replace the soil that is washed 
off the hill sides. Heavy rains have washed off 
thousands of tons of rich soil into swamps 
and gullies. In the course of a few years the 
swamp lands became the richest possessions in 
Illawarra, while the- uplands became useless. 

Tobacco growing was tried in Illawarra. 
There were several plots on the banks of Mullet 
Creek, Dapto. The Messrs Black tried it at 
Jerrara, near Kiama, and Michael Hindmarsh 
tried it at Gerringong. So far as the writer 
knows it was not a commercial success. 



48 



THE HISTOEY OF ILLAWAEBA 



Fruit and vegetable growing in early lUa- 
warra was such a simple process that almost 
■ever}' home had an orchard and vegetable gar- 
den, and a page of names could be supplied of 
successful orchardists. 

Flour Milling was carried out in many 
centres. Plants driven by wind power, water 
power, and later by steam power. Peek and 
Palmer, George Brown, Archie Graham, Henry 
Osborne, Captain Hart, I. Blay, John Sharpe, 
Berry, and Macpherson in far away Cambe- 
warra. 

Tanneries were plentiful. NiehoUs had a 
tannery on the site of the present railway 
station, WoUongong. Allan followed, then 
Howarth, Richard Bros, at Charcoal Creek, 
Unanderra. Michael Hyam, Jamberoo, was 
followed by Harry Doddens, Greenwood at 
Kiama, where Blay's Creek was afterwards 
<'alled Jack the Tanner's Creek. 

Horse racing, the sport of kings, was in- 
dulged in by all classes. 

Shortly after the arrival of Governor Sir 
Richard Bourke in the colony, a number of 
gentlemen held a meeting in WoUongong with 
a view of forming a race club. As the 
Governor was considered to be sympathetic 
George Brown applied to his Excellency for 
permission to hold a race meeting in Illawarra. 
The application was granted, and in due time 
a course was laid out on land originally 
granted to Edmond Burke on which George 
Brown had erected an hotel. The first race 
was won by George Brown's "Black Jack." 
^' Black Jack" was the horse that Dan 
Sullivan, better known as Dan the Postman, 
was riding, carrying the mail between Camp- 
belltown and WoUongong, when he was 
drowned trying to cross the Loddon river 
when flooded. George Brown's grey mare, 
''Fanny," won the third race. "Fanny" was 
the dam of George Brown's noted grey entire — 
a well-known sire — named Schnapper. George 
Brown iised to ride Schnapper on his daily 
rounds watching his convicts at work on the 
banks of Mullet Creek. This first race meeting 
in Illawarra was on the flat due south of where 
the Commercial Hotel stands in Crown Street, 
WoUongong to-day, and was held on 17th 
March, 1832. 

A series of pages could be written about race 
meetings held in WoUongong, Jamberoo, and 
Kiama during the early forties. The Church 
of England and the railway station are to-day 
on the old Kiama course. Shoalhaven had im- 
portant meetings later on on the flat at Green 



Hills, and later at Numba, on the Shoalhaven 
River. Apart from those centres of sport and 
pastime there were a number of smaller meet- 
ing places where horses were tried on their 
merits. 

The Timber Trade. — Possibly the first in- 
dustry in Illawarra was the timber trade. 
Away back in Governor King's time cedar- 
getters were working in the bush depending 
on floods to carry the planks out to sea to be 
picked up bj' boats trading along the sea coast. 
The trees nearest the banks of streams were 
the first disposed of. It was not for some years 
that bullocks were brought into requisition. 
Captain Hart's mill at Jamberoo, and Berry 
Bros.' mill at Broughton Creek (now Berry), 
were both driven by water power. Nothing 
remains to-day of those large concerns but two 
mill races which carried the water from the 
creeks to the water wheels. Saw pits were 
numerous. McIUraith Bros, opened a sawmill 
on Jerrara Creek, near Kiama. 

Kiama. — The aboriginal names of this beauty 
spot is lost to us owing to its objectionable 
meaning. The first settler, David Smith — 
Davey the Lawyer — could not read nor write, 
and therefore, could keep no records. The 
military and tlien the postal authorities gave 
the place its present name, spelt Kiami and 
Kiama. The huge fig tree which stands to-day 
at the water edge has stood there for a long, 
long time. It was there that Surgeon George 
Bass landed when he discovered the "Blow- 
hole." A beautiful sandy beach graced the 
foreshore then. The old town was as well 
known by the name "The Beach" as that of 
Kiama. 

To "The Beach" the early settlers used to 
say they were going when they set out to meet 
the boats that' called in, and lay off near the 
old fig tree. An old-time store stood on the 
shore adjacent to the fig tree, which was pulled 
down, re-erected and added to, decade after 
decade. It became a boat store, a Presbyterian 
Church, a commercial store, and a council 
chamber, and its timbers are now in a dwelling 
house overlooking the North Kiama railway 
siding. 

The aboriginals had a story which they im- 
parted to the first white settlers about one of 
their tribe, in the long ago, committing a great 
crime for which he was thrown alive down the 
"Blowhole," and that a big fellow gush of 
water threw him up again. The would-be 
executioners ran away in fright and never 
returned to the ''Blowhole" again, which thev 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



4t? 



associated with an evil spirit. Hence the 
origin of the word, "Kiama." 

When shipping became more important a 
jetty was suggested. About 184-1 the Colley 
Bros., James and John, got the job of erecting 
the jetty. After finishing this work an 
interesting ease came before James IMackay 
Grey, J.P. Two men had been locked up in 
the old wooden lock-up by Constable Doyle. 
Next morning they were presented to the 
magistrate in a more drunken state than they 
were on the day before. This made the 
magistrate curious, so he investigated, and 
found that a friend of those in the lock-up, 
by means of two long straws, enabled the 
thirsty ones to get down a pint of rum each. 
As this was against the "Law of the Land" the 
Colley Bros, got the job of repairing the old 
lock-up. This was to the entire satisfaction of 
James Mackay Gray, J.P., and he then entered 
into an agreement with the Colley Bros, to 
build his home, "Omega House," on the 
Gerringong Road, which had a cellar on the 
lower side, and four secure cells, into which 
prisoners were placed when under arrest from 
Coolangatta and Numba, to be tried at Kiama, 
which was for years a police court centre. 

Up to the mid-forties a military magistrate 
attended each month at Kiama. Then the 
lesser cases came before three local magistrates 
which included James Mackay Gray, Dr. 
Robert Menzies. and David Lindsay Waugh. 
Each of these local men were allowed a plain- 
clothed constable. Neither of these magis- 
trates were permitted to order more than 25 
lashes, and all three combined not more than 
50 lashes. Quite a number of men were flogged 
in Kiama. Constable Doyle was for years 
chief constable. Eventually all four constables 
wore uniforms, which included jet black 
glazed helmets, short trousers, and white cotton 

SOX. 

Since 1860 dairying and pig farming became 
the chief industries in Illawarra. Very little 
change took place in the system in vogue from 
the thirties and forties. It was all the same, 
namely, setting the milk in pans, and skimming 
off the cream by means of a tin hand-skimmer. 
Churns changed from the stationarj' up-right 
to the revolving barrel churn worked by hand 
power. The factory system began with a 
cheese factory on Thomas MicCaffrey's farm, 
near Jerrara Creek, Kiama. This was followed 
by a condensed milk factory at Omega, near 
Kiama. The pioneer butter factory followed 



near the old "Toll Bar," Kiama, in 1883. 
Albion Park opened in 1884. Two factories 
opened in 1887 in Jamberoo. Prom the Jam- 
beroo centres the factory system spread over 
the dairy centres of New South Wales, Victoria, 
and Queensland. 

The writer of these notes was the first 
manager of the Wanghope butter factory, Jam- 
beroo. I have a diary of events going back 
to the beginning of the co-operative butter 
factory business since 1886. During the past 
36 years there have been many changes. For- 
tunes have been made out of the sale of dairy- 
ing and refrigerating machinery. What has 
the dairyman to show to-day for all the money 
expended on those things? I have piles of 
literature on the export of butter and the 
establishment of city milk supply companies 
extending over thirty years. Yet, finality has 
not been reached. 

Kiama, situated midway between WoUon- 
gong and Nowra, and always in close touch 
with Gerringong, Jamberoo, and Albion Park, 
was throughout all those years of advanced 
thought the storm-centre. As it was the lead- 
ing members of the Kiama A. & H. Society 
who were the chief movers in all matters con- 
nected with dairying and dairy cattle breed- 
ing. It was from Kiama and its immediate 
surroundings that the first real co-operative 
movement sprung. This goes to show that 
it was an intelligent place. 

Kiama soon became an important centre, and 
then men and women, too, began to enquire 
about the meaning of the word Kiama. We 
have, however, conclusive proof that it is not 
the original name of the place from the diary 
of the Rev. Thomas Kendall as the following 
extract will show. "Illawarra, December, 
25th, 1827, buried a Govern-man-servant of 
Mr. Ritchie, about 20 years old. on church re- 
serve, named ." The name was with- 
held by the Rev. Thomas Kendall and his 
son, Thomas Surfleet Kendall. The latter 's 
explanation of the omission was that the 
original aboriginal name was a vulgar one, 
and that Kiama was substituted by somebody 
unknown to the Kendalls. That is what 
Robert Oscar Kendall told me when I returned 
the diary after carefully copying it. The spot 
where Ritchie's man was buried is the south- 
east corner of Bong Bong and Manning Streets. 
It is plain, then, that we would be to-day 
ignorant of this bit of his history were it not 
for an unfortunate man's death. As to when 



50 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABRA 



John Ritchie settled in the neighbourhood of 
Jamberoo no one knows for certain. He was 
there in 1825, and at that period was well 
established. Near the Christmas of 1827 a 
boat arrived in Kiama with provisions and 
other wares, and was seeking consignments 
for Sydney. John Ritchie despatched his team 
in fharge of a man known as "Big Will," and 
about the same time sent his stockman, "Red 
Jack," off with a mob of cattle that were to 
be delivered to Berry's stockman at the 
Crooked River, Gerringong. "Big Will" de- 
livered his consignments in due course at the 
"Old Pigtree," and re-loaded the goods for 
Ritchie. Afterwards he moved out to a spot 
a little to the west of the site of the Catholic 
Church to camp for the night. The bullocks 
were turned out on the adjacent point. He 
was joined later by Ritchie's stockman, who 
was hungry and thirsty. A jar of rum and 
a pint pot were convenient. Next morning 
when "Big Will" awoke he found his com- 
panion dead. He at once reported the matter 
at the barracks that stood due north from 
the present police quarters. An officer came 
from Red Point to hold an enquiry only to 
find that all the chief witnesses were drunk, 
so he locked them all up until they were 
sober enough to explain matters coherently. 
In the meantime Rev. Thomas Kendall had the 
unfortunate victim's last mortal remains buried 
as already stated. 

Some people may be disposed to ask if 
there is really need for this sort of informa- 
tion. It would, however, be difficult, if not 
impossible, to find any given number of persons 
who are really agreed on anything important to 
mankind. Why ! there are men who look upon 
records of many and repeated failures as being 
out of place in their advanced times. This 
latter class cannot see much that is attractive 
in any history book. Their experience to them 
is apparently everything. But experience is 
often a very narrow, dear school in which to 
learn. Wise men study the failures of others 
and thereby learn in time to avoid danger. 

Unfortunately, too many writers and 
speakers who dwell upon by-gone days, and call 
back the heroes of the wild bush from the 
land of shadows, do not write or speak from 
out of the fulness of knowledge. On the con- 
trary, their knowledge is often misty and 
dim, and they are ignorant of many things 
in the lives of those very men whose memories 
they invoke. With regard to the original or 
aboriginal names of places we are left to the 



mere imaginings of those who were not born 
when the aboriginal kings and queens ruled 
over their several tribes in peaceful Illawarra. 
What was old Illawarra when cruelty 
reigned supreme ? Most of the inhabitants were 
at best mere slaves, and many were worse off 
than slaves. During the old slavery days the 
slaves were well fed ; in old Illawarra the slaves 
were starved and then flogged for complaining. 
What of the newer Illawarra ? Selfishness now 
takes command. The coal mines are owned by 
men who have no interests in the district out- 
side the coal pits or coke stacks. The old 
type of dairyman "is fast disappearing. Men 
who are on the best farms care but little for 
anything outside their own fences. 

These men have no interest in settling 
people on the lands in other parts as they 
fear competition. True this is a characteristic 
of the men on the rich soil of Illawarra. The 
men struggling on the poorer lands are far 
more generous. Consequently a day will come 
when the people will demand equality. Then 
we will see justice meted out to the miners 
and small dairymen in Illawarra. Verily, the 
old pioneers were as a rule cruel, but those 
in their places are dreadfully selfish. They 
hate anything that tends to disturb their easy- 
going selfish habits. They have made the most 
beautiful spot in Australia a hum-drum place 
to live in. 

Kiama LaJid Sales. — In 1835, fifty acres 
realised .£50; in 1836, 558 acres realised' £342 
19s ; in 1837, 97 acres realised £331 8s. ; in 1838, 
252 acres realised £465 10s. ; in 1839, 4675 acres 
realised £6.134 Is.; in 1840', 477 acres 3 r. 
4 p. realised £14,943 12s.; in 1842, 100 acres 
£100; in 1848, 251 acres, £538 Is. 4d. ; in 1844, 
246 acres 3 r. 16 p. realised £389 lis. ; in 1845, 
118 acres r. 24 p. realised £231 3s. Id.: in 
1847, 375 acres 2 r. 24 p. realised £578 10s.; 
in 1848, 212 acres 3 r. 12 p. realised £239 16s. 
9d. The total land sold in Kiama from 1835 
to 1859 was 25,792 acres 1 rood 37 perches 
which realised £81,535 18s. Id. The total 
expenditure on public works from 1847 to 
1859 was £1,323 6s. 9d. The remarkable high 
prices of land in Kiama in 1840 called for the 
attention of Governor Sir George Gipps who, 
in a report to the Home authorities, declared 
that a block of land comprising %-acre had 
realised £400, and was the third highest price 
realised for land in New South Wales. The 
block in question is situate at the corner of 
Perralong and Mianning Streets, now in the 
possession of the Rural Bank. 



51 



WILLIAM H. DUDGEON'S STUD CATTLE, Glenthorne, Bangalow, N.C. 





KITCHENER OK BIRRAHALE. CARNATION OF GLENTHORNE. 

Sire, "Oils ul' ilill View"; nam, "Fussy III uf Hill View. ' Sire, "Kelso or Clenthorne"; Dam, "Posey of Hill View. 





LAMY KELSO OF CLENTHi )Ri\E. 



MOLLY OF i.lLENTHORN. 





MOLLY H OF GLENTHORNE. 



BLUE BELL OF GLENTHORN'E. 
Test cow lor lull yeur; — 17,809 lbs. of Mjik; 3.9 pei' cent. 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAWAERA 



53 



'"The Kangaroo Valley," originally known 
to the white population as the "Kangaroo 
Ground," is an extensive gorge in the South 
Coast Range drained by numerous streams 
that in turn drain several lesser gorges. Its 
history embraces the past and the present in 
its silent bosom. Under the green foliage of 
to-day, there lie, rotting slower or faster, the 
forests, and animals, yea, humans — black and 
white — of other years and days. Some have 
rotted fast, such as plants of annual growth, 
and are long since quite gone to inorganic 
mould, others like our gigantic cedars, growths 
that last a thousand years. You will find 
them in all stages of decay and preservation, 
down deep in the history of man. The "Kan- 
garoo Ground" was, possibly, for centuries a 
black man's paradise. No one seems to be 
quite clear on the question, "When did the 
white man first invade this gorge?" It 
abounded in cedar. Who were, then, the first 
cedar-getters to enter upon the great task of 
getting it out ? It was a secure place for cattle- 
stealers. To prevent cattle-stealing in Illa- 
warra. Captain Richard Brooks got a grant 
of land, Barrengarry, which, by the way, is 
an Irish place name, and may have been assoc- 
iated with someone engaged in earlier times 
who raised bullocks for hauling cedar logs to 
the banks of streams to be convenient in flood- 
time to be floated down, down to the Shoal- 
haven River. Many may say: "The course of 
those streams were far too savage for cedar 
logs to survive the forces of Nature." Many 
now living can remember that a bullock was 
taken away by a big flood from Barrengarry, 
and landed safe and sound at Greenwell Point. 
Just one, out of a mob of twenty, owned by 
Daniel Mclllraith. That being so. it is reason- 
able to suggest that cedar logs would be 
carried down safely. 

Prior to the death of Captain Richard 
Brooks, the Rev. Parson ileares had a large 
gang of convicts engaged in "cedar-getting" in 
the Kangaroo Ground. To get at the situation 
of this important gorge we must take our 
survey from the range beyond Panton's 
Estate, Bombala, where the stations of Jen- 
kins, Nicholson, Chisholm, Bell, and Dr. Hill 
ad.joined. Prom these estates eastward the 
country broke into very deep ravines that feed 
the Shoalhaven River. They were, generally 
speaking, inaccessible in the early days. Into 
one of them, however, a path led down the 
Meryla Mountain into the valle3' of the 



Kangaroo Ground and the Bujjon River. 
Another path led from Bong Bong into the 
gorge, and then there was Jack Cream's track 
from the lUawarra side. In point of fact, the 
Yarringa Creek, Kangaroo River, and Bunda- 
noon Creek joined the Shoalhaven River before, 
it was joined by the Bungonia Creek. Near 
the head of Bungonia Creek there was a stock- 
ade. It was on Dr. David Reid's Estate, named 
"Inverary. " It was from here that three 
soldiers and a flogger were sent into the 
Kangaroo Ground to carry out their duties in 
Parson Meares' time. A leaning tree took the 
place of the "triangles." 

After the death of Captain Brooks, Barren- 
garry passed into the possession of James 
Osborne, a nephew of Henry Osborne of lUa- 
warra, who placed an ex-convict named Ben 
O'Brien in charge. Later on Henry Osborne 
bought it. James Osborne then took up 
"Yacandandy" Station on the IDurray River. 
About 1839 Henry Osborne sent James Me- 
Grath to take charge. He was the father of 
James McGrath of Cambewarra, and Henry 
M'cGrath, Green Hills, Shoalhaven. Horses and 
cattle were raised there in those days. About 
1840 James McGrath went to Woolomi, on the 
shores of Jervis Bay. The country was wild 
in those days, with the exception of the meadow 
land where only a few scattered trees stood. 
English grasses soon displaced the natural 
grasses. All that was required then was to 
erect barns to hold the English grass hay. 
Each year the meadow was mowed and the 
hay cured and stored. No scarcity of any kind 
of food for man or beast. Wild bulls were 
man's worst enemy. A rifle soon drove them 
into the ranges. They were of the Cape of 
Good Hope breed, and they flourished in the 
ranges for many years. 

Further down, the Shoalhaven River was 
joined by the Yarralla Creek, Werriamungo 
River, which is fed by Budgong Creek. (Grose 
had a station on Yarralla Creek). Curro 
Creek and Windella Creek (where Cartwright 
had a station). 

Going back to Barrengarry. After James 
McGrath left, a man named Leech, took charge. 
He was a good judge of "beef Shorthorn," and 
bred for the station owners until 1840. In 
1846 the writer's father took chfirge, com- 
menced dairying on shares. He left in 1852. 
From 1852 until the death of Henry Osborne 
in 1858 the management was taken over in 
quick rotation by Johnston, Tritton, Wallace, 



54 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAKRA 



Brownlee and Swan. Then for a short terms 
the management was under the control of 
Henry Hill Osborne, the eldest son, who was 
living at Avondale, Dapto. Later on Alex and 
Ben Osborne took possession of Barrengarry 
and Glenmiirray. "Murray" is an aboriginal 
name. The peace of the Osbornes was soon 
disturbed by a host of free selectors, who took 
up much land under Sir John Robertson's 
famous Land Act. Among these selectors came 
Daniel Melllraith from Sea View, Kiama. He 
succeeded in getting hold of a splendid block 
of meadow land on the Barrengarry holding. 
Pie surprised the Osbornes. Others got hold of 
Kood holdings in the .Kangaroo Ground. The 
selectors had their difficulties — no roads, no 
bridges, dangerous crossings. The pack-horse 
was the chief means of getting produce in and 
out. The roads were mere tracks for years. 
When Mr. Alex Campbell was elected to Parlia- 
ment in 1894, he proved himself to be a friend 
to the settlers. He worked hard to better their 
position. He obtained grants of money to form 
roads and build bridges. Shortly afterwards 
the town of Broughton Creek, Nowra, and Moss 
Vale could be reached by wheeled conveyances. 
A township sprung up, and the locality became 
linown as the Kangaroo Valley. 

Bendeela, an ad.joinding holding in the 
Kangaroo Ground to Barrengarry, was in 
charge of a man named "Conroy, " in the 
interests of Alexander Brodie Spark, a Sydney 
merchant, in the late thirties. Conroy had 
previously been in charge of the stockade at 
Kiama. Samuel William Gray later on became 
the owner. Several people went to Bendeela 
from Coolangatta. Also a few newly-arrived 
emigrants from Great Britain. It was there 
where old Mrs. jMacDonald was born in 1842. 
This good lady left her mark on lower Shoal- 
haven. She is now spending the evening of 
her days with her daughter, Mrs. James Watts, 
at Brundee. Many other children were born in 
that lonely gorge — the writer's two brothers, 
Charles in 1848, and John in 1850. Just how 
those children were taken over the ranges to 
be baptis?d in Wollongong is not easy of 
explanation. The strong faith of their parents 
faced the difficulties and accomplished much. 
We have heard of the pack-horses and pack- 
mules, and of coffins and butter being sent in 
and out empty and full astride a mule. We 
have heard of graves that the old pioneers 
fenced in, and of men who kept the fences 
in repair. Who could be found to point out 



one of those old sacred spots to-day? In a 
lonely valley such may be expected. But if 
we go to Kiama there may be seen a plot of 
land where a cemetery was fenced in, tomb- 
stones erected over old pioneers. What has 
happened? The fence was taken away, the 
railing burned, the tomb-stones used for hearth- 
stones in houses, and potatoes grown in what 
was once called "God's Acre." Full of grief 
for a time, then wanton destruction. 

Jervis Bay is in the county of St. Vincent, 
and situated 80 miles south of Sydney. It forms 
a safe port for ships of all sizes, being large 
and commodious, easy of access, affording 
shelter from all winds, convenient to coal and 
fresh water. It extends about twelve miles 
inland. On one side there is a small inlet with 
a depth of five feet at low water, and in the 
past this was considered an excellent site for 
a dock — a natural dock, so to say. What is 
now called Bowen Island was named "Long- 
nose Bay," by Captain Cook. Bowen Island, 
the most desirable spot in the bay, has a sea 
front formed of hish vertical rock, in many 
places deeply rent, from which the land slopes 
gradually on the opposite side. In the early 
thirties it was moderately wooded or covered 
by long grass. Perpendicular Point marks the 
northern entrance of the bay, and rises from 
tlie sea in a perfectly vertical direction to the 
height of 600ft. It forms a conspicuous object 
on the coast showing neither tree nor shrub as 
viewed from the sea front. 

We are told that Jervis Bay and the county 
of St. Vincent which was originally a small 
area of land around the foreshores of the bay 
were named after Sir John Jervis, who after- 
wards became Earl Vincent. Captain Arthur 
Phillip reported very favourably on Jervis Bay 
to Secretfiry Stephens, from information re- 
ceived from Captain Weatherhead, November 
18th, 1791, who had called in there in the ship 
"Matilda," for repairs. Lieutenant Richard 
Bowen called in at Jervis Bay in the ship 
"Atlantic," November 8th, 1791. 

In order to get at the origin of the old 
township, Huskisson, I wrote Mr. Hugh 
Wright, who is in charge of the Mitchell 
Library, Sydney. He suggests that the town- 
ship of Huskisson "may have been named 
after the Right Hon. William Huskisson, who 
.vas Secretary of State for the Colonies when 
Darling was Governor -of New South Wales." 
If that is the origin of the name it seems plain 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



55 



that Governor Sir Ralph Darling sent the 
soldiers, gangers, and convicts down to build 
wharves, erect houses, and cut the road, "The 
Gap," through the "Jerawangle" Mountain. 
The Right Hon. William Huskisson was killed 
by the first motive engine running between 
Liverpool and Manchester in 1830. The old 
jetty was built at the same time. Men of 
eighty years, who were born near Jervis Bay, 
speak of the old township as being of ancient 
origin. That the "Gap" was cut by convict 
labour in the long ago goes without saying. 
Upon the sandstone walls of the "Gap" were 
to be found many years ago the initials of 
human beings which were cut in the long ago. 
Fifty years ago no one could recognise the 
men whose initials were deeply cut in the 
face of the rock. These initials may not 
represent convicts' names, as the convicts, 
under a cruel taskmaster, were not permitted, 
nor allowed the time to indulge in such 
pastimes. We may, then, conclude that there 
is nothing left to us of the original of 
Huskisson beyond ruins that cannot be 
deciphered to-day. All we know about the 
old township is that it was at its zenith in 
1829, with 1500 people formed into what was 
supposed to be a permanent settlement. About 
this time, or early in the thirties, a heavy 
easterly gale destroyed the jetty, carrying it 
away, together with much produce. The jetty 
was not rebuilt, and the old township was 
condemned. Edward Deas Thompson, who 
married a daughter of Sir Richard Bourke. 
owned the old township, or what was left of 
it, in 1841. He had a grant of 2560 acres on 
the foreshore. John Lamb had a grant of 2560 
acres on "Wool Road," St. George's Basin, 
and on Gockrow Greek, Parish of Bhenwerre. 
Yet, nothing was done of note. The old 
inhabitants were hanging on waiting for 
future developments. In 1841, Edward Deas 
Thompson commenced to establish "South 
Huskisson." His land was in part sub-divided, 
and 100 lots sold bj' auction realising £3519, 
which would average £117 6s. per acre. Sub- 
scriptions totalling £800, came to hand to form 
a new road to the "Gap," and beyond it 
to Nerriga. Colonel Mackenzie was the first 
to send a load of wool from Nerriga. The 
steamer "Tamar" called for a series of cargoes. 
Later, the "Sophia Jane" took up the running 
between Sydney, Wollongong, and Jervis Bay. 
Yet this newer township did not progress, 
which makes the matter of getting at any 
definite history very confusing owing to those 



who did not see the old township, Huskisson, 
confusing it with the newer town. South 
Huskisson. The most' reliable information 
comes from those who took notes on the spot 
and preserved them. No writer can expect to 
please everyone. There are always men who 
look at things from different angles. 

A Valuable Diary. — A man named Bernard 
Brown, who entered the employ of David Berry 
in 1849 as overseer of the Jindyandy dairy, 
afterwards became a policeman, and finished 
up as an auctioneer, kept a diary up to the 
time of his death on January 1st; 1884, at the 
age of 72 years He never missed a day during 
all those years, and dated down everything 
that caine under his notice. He placed on 
record many notes relating to Huskisson, and 
the several places around Jervis Bay. He has 
Edmonds. Joseph Ricketts, John Scott, William 
Lake, John Bascombe, John Payne, during 
1837-8. which time he had entered into a 
private agreement with a Mr. Sly which was 
to last until 1839. In 1837 there is mention of 
an agreement between Mr. Wareham and 
Arnold Poole re an advance of £700 on a wool 
property. 

There are names given as follows : — John 
Coffin. Robert Cox, Rev. Mr. Cooke, S. Saxby, 
James Gillingham, Richard Symonds, James 
Saunders and Mr. Head. Then we have Sly, 
Pitt, and J. W. Carter, Richard White, Robert 
Cox, and John Jarvis, Richard Hopkins ^nd 
William Westbrook. These people had to do 
with Huskisson at Jervis Bay. He mentions 
in his diary horse racing, cricketing, law suits, 
accidents, a few deaths, and a case or two of 
murder. It's a valuable diary, and should be 
placed in safe keeping in the Mitchell Library. 

Old men of to-day who saw the ruins of 
Huskisson in their youth are emjjliatie in their 
opinions that the old township was laid oat 
with great care, and that some of the buildings 
were equal to those in Sydney at the time, 
which included numerous storied buildings, 
erected with bricks locally made. The locality 
abounded in excellent timber, so that sawn 
timber and shingles were easily obtained. At 
one time when Jerivs Bay was an important 
place of call for masters of ships to replenish, 
there were several licensed hotels, and many 
persons were to be found who were prepared 
to risk the business without legal authority. 
Many people understood the "fine art" of 
making "poteen," (mountain dew). Illicit stills 
were numerous. A running stream, known as 



56 



THE Til STORY OF 1LLA^YAREA 



Dawson's Creek, supplied the township with 
water, and higher np, supplied water for the 
"stills." These stills were kept going long 
after the township had disappeared in order to 
supply the sliip masters. 

The ruin of Jervis Bay may be put down 
solely to Sydney merchants. Ben Boyd applied 
for land on the foreshores of the bay. The 
combine blocked him. He was in consequence 
forced to go to Twofold Bay. Had he been 
liiven space there the Riverina trade would 
have been soon developed as he had the money 
at his command to build it up, whereas the 
Jervis Bay magnets had little or no capital at 
their command. Their stock-in-trade was 
selfishness. 

The Berrys tried to make use of Jervis Bay. 
An old convict was supplied with the ways and 
means to cut a track through from Numba to 
Jervis Bay. His name was McNamara. He 
made his task light by composing doggerel 
about the people with whom he came in contact 
and on all passing events. The hides, salt beef 
and tallow from^ the Coolangatta boiling down 
works, and butter from Jindyandy dairy went 
to Jervis Bay. Bernard Brown was in charge 
at Jindyandy in 1849. William Robinson was 
in charge of the boiling down. Robinson 
married a girl named Drinkwater. Their son, 
Charles Drinkwater Robinson, was a^ store- 
keeper and butcher at Broughton Creek in 
after years. John Watts who had been a 
cooper at Jervis Bay, became the cooper at 
Coolangatta. Many names could be mentioned 
— men who settled here and there for short 
periods on the land : others who were usually 
in charge of small vessels on the river. 
Lieutenant-Colonel John Thomas Leahey, who 
was for some time a visiting magistrate, whose 
headquarters was at WoUongong, had a grant 
of 1000 acres within the Crookhaven and its 
branches up to the boundary of Monaghan's 
holding. "Red Jim" (?) was on part of it grow, 
ing potatoes. Leahey was interested in land 
near the West Dapto centre of Illawarra. He 
passed out of memory long ago with the burst- 
ing up of tlie convict system in New South 
Wales. 

Governor ]\Iacquarie was anxious to form a 
settlement at Jervis Bay. and on two occasions 
he made an attempt to do so ; first in 1818 and 
again in 1820. His plans were not put into 
execution owing to the lack of military force. 
Colonel Erskine and Major Morriseh could not 
spare sufficient military men to take charge of 
both Jervis Bay and Port Macquarie. 



CULBURRA. 

The popular new Shoalhaven seaside town- 
ship, near Crookhaven Heads, Jervis Bay, Lake 
Wolhunboola and surfing beaches. 

Most of the little bays upon the coast of 
Illawarra from Stanwell Park on the North to 
Jervis Bay on the south were originally as 
useless from a commercial point of view as 
they were beautiful. They are both healthful 
and delightfully picturesque. Select ac- 
commodation is now available for tourists, 
sightseers, nature lovers, and sportsmen. 

If we consider that the shores lying between 
(ireenwell Point and Kinghorn Point, or the 
Penguin's Head were practically unnoticed 
from 1822 to 1922, it will go to show that it 
was merely the lack of population and access 
that left these beauty spots so long isolated. 
Enterprising men have recently discovered 
their great worth, and are taking advantage 
of their opportunities and are opening up and 
developing this "Landscape" so that the 
people of the crowded cities can behold its 
great beauty which one might safely say is 
not excelled in any part of the world. 

Famous as Illawarra is for its exquisite 
beauty and the ever, dazzling brilliance of its 
seaboard, one has to visit Culburra to get ari 
insight into its real worth. Situated, as it is, 
at the estuary of the Crookhaven, there is 
great scope for fishing, with secure anchorage 
for small craft. The little bay with its islands, 
is surrounded by highly diversified and 
strangely picturesque shores varying almost 
from the sublime to the romantic. Yet it has 
been until quite recently frequented by com- 
paratively very few tourists, and shamefully 
little known to men of refined tastes, owing, 
possibly, to the want of decently formed roads 
to and from it. If this was the chief obstacle 
in the way of sight and pleasure seekers it is 
being removed, and the fine broad new avenue 
with its sweeping curves, named by the Prince 
of Wales after himself as Prince Edward 
Avenue, is now available for all comers. 

Nor is this all. Culburra 's water attractions 
include both Culburra and Wairain beaches, 
with incomparable surfing, and Lake WoUum- 
boola, a most beautiful inland sheet of water, 
teeming with fish and waterfowl. 

Bay, ocean, and lake all within a mile of each 
other, and in between them all a skilfully 
planned area for man's occupation and 
pleasure. Prom obscurity it will become world 
famous. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



57 



The coast and for some few miles inland, 
with very few exceptions, is placed within a 
general view of the higher parts of the main- 
land where look-outs have been wisely 
reserved for the benefit of the public where a 
labyrinthine expanse of green and blooming 
herbage vie with each other in their beauty 
and variety. 

The country around Jervis Bay is of an un- 
dulating character, well-drained and eminently 
suited for building purposes. 

Much of the adjacent country near the 
Shoalhaven River having been successfully 
drained now forms the richest portions in lUa- 
warra, which will grow in importance and 
value as towns arise to be served by its won- 
derfiU productiveness. Trees and scrubs — 
the most gorgeoTis features of our landscapes — 
and, which enter as much into the composition 
of picturesqueness as either hillside or dale as 
plumage does into the beauty of birds, is far 
from being meagi-e in these parts. We have 
then all that is capable of making a deep im- 
pression on the mind of a Britisher as we 
know the sea and the land differ as widely as 
light and darkness, yet in turn both have their 
exquisite charms. 

The country around the present scene of 
operations in general conformation of surface 
possesses the singular character of a central 
plain surrounded by a seaboard and a moun- 
tain. If we take theoretic topography, or that 
which loves to fuse detached hills into ranges, 
and combine dispersed heights into systems, 
and to trace imaginary concatenations of 
mountain across valley and sea, we are con- 
fronted with this idea — a great upland falling 
on the Eastern side into valleys like ribs reach- 
ing into a basin, and fed by numerous creeks 
and streams, siich is the Shoalhaven Valley. A 
systemising topographist is, therefore, required 
to do justice to my picture in order to describe 
the grandeur and loftiness of portions of the 
seaboard as compared to the undiversified 
lower declivities of the environing mountain 
ranges. 

Historically, not much is left to us regarding 
the early settlement of the northern parts of 
Jervis Bay. It was used by settlers whose 
addresses were registered at the Sydney Post 
OfBee as St. Vincent. That much trading in 
cattle was carried on in that locality goes 
without saying. Gerald Anderson, an early 
settler, between Bulli and what is now "Wollon- 

D 



gong, had two mustering yards south of what 
is now called Brundee. It was originally 
called Narellan. One of these mustering yards 
was at Falls Creek, and were both there in a 
neglected state sixty years ago; so neglected 
were those places of one time hustle and bustle 
that old residents only knew them as Gerald's 
yards. Adjacent to Falls Creek is the home- 
stead, known as Cumberton Grange. It claims 
as owners in successive years, Captain Brooks, 
and a man named Blue, who owned a station 
property at the head waters of the Shoalhaven, 
where an early stockade was established to 
look after straying stock and wandering 
human beings, which goes to show that much 
traffic in stock was carried on between the 
Shoalhaven valley and the higher tablelands. 
It was the general opinion of the old settlers 
that manj^ lives were lost in the wild mountain 
gorges that were and are to-day impenetrable. 
Among the lives said to have been lost there 
was that of a man named Huon of whom no 
trace has been found. 

These mountains are rent and torn, gaps and 
gorges abound in them, thus forming great 
congeries that combine with a great aggregate 
of wild rugged broken hilly country. Much 
of the scenery might be technically termed as 
wild, savage, grand. 

A writer recently described life in those 
wilds as follow: "Seek one of those ranges. 
There to be drugged into a luxurious scenic- 
coma by nature's anodyne by the fragrant 
perfumes of wild flowers — where contentment 
reigns amidst the unviolafed realms of sweet 
scented musk — where creeks croon and bubble, 
and the permeating breath of golden wattle, 
outrival the scenes of the Orient." The 
variety of plants and shrubs in those ranges 
is very considerable indeed. Unfortunately, 
bush fires, the result of careless wanderers, 
have destroyed much of God's precious gifts 
to man. 

The Shoalhaven River, whether tempest torn 
or placidly at rest, gilded by the rays of the 
sun, or silvered by the beams of the moon, 
foaming madly, or gently breaking over 
obstacles in its course to the sea, exerts a 
peculiar charm. Who has ever stood on -the 
uplands and watched this river rushing on 
and on towards the great bridge opened for 
traffic in 1881, without feeling as the eye 
roams eastward to the great ocean, his soul 



58 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAKKA 



expand and his mind inspired with a noble 
idea for 

" Oh wonderful thou art, great element 
And fearful in thy spleeny humours bent, 
And lovely in repose ; thy summer form 
So beautiful. And when thy silver sheen 
Laughs in its wildness, we think of the Unseen 
And harken to the thoughts Thy waters teach — 
Eternity! Eternity! and power." 

The po.ssibilities afforded by the waters of 
the Shoalhaven for important water supply 
and power schemes that will sooner or later 
be required on the eastern slopes are patent 
to those who have seen the great gorges that 
are to be found higher up the river. Deep 
valleys, mantled with velvety green, stupen- 
dous cliffs forming natural basins, that only 
require to be closed at the outlet to store up 
millions of gallons of the purest water, and 
pour out hundreds of thousands of horse 
power. No one should neglect an opportunity 
that would enable them to see what nature has 
done for man in this respect. 

The Shoalhaven River, which is more than 
250 miles lonii'. takes its rise in a gully near 
Ballalaba at a height of 2800 feet above sea 
level. Its source is surrounded by lofty ranges 
including the Uranbeen Ranges. The Woulee 
Creek; between Jindulian and Uranbeen Moun- 
tains, is an important tributary. Hence the 
Shoalhaven is a phenomenon in the story of 
rivers, owing to its tortuous nature through an 
immense gorse or gap in the mountain where 
it takes the form of the letter "S." 

The Macquarie Rivulet takes its rise in one 
of the morasses of the Wingecarribee, whence 
it flows through moors and bleak uplands, on 
through the mountain gorge, down through 
lowland farms to the south-western extremity 
ef Lake lUawarra. It was crossed in the early 
times with much difficulty, especially so in wet 
seasons at Johnston's and Terry's Meadows. In 
more recent times these crossings have been 
bridged, and since then little or no incon- 
venience is experienced by the travelling public. 
The aboriginal name of "Terry's Meadows" 
was "Tupma." When John Terry Hughes 
came into possession of the estate he called the 
place "Albion Park," after his Albion Brewery, 
now Toohey's, in Elizabeth Street, Sydney. 
What is known as Johnston's Creek was the 
original "Yarra Yarra, " so said old "Micky 
Nuninama." an ancient aboriginal, who ruled 
the destinies of his race in Illawarra. He was 
pos.sibly the father of the old broom merchant 
of that name? On the John Terry Hughes' 



Estate a dairy was established about the middle 
thirties. Mrs. O'Leary was in charge. She 
was an expert, and when several Scotch 
families, who were engaged in Scotland by an 
agent, arrived during the years 1839-41, Mrs. 
O'Leary was their guide, philosopher, friend. 
Included in these emigrants were the McGills, 
Russells, Erasers, Beatsons, etc. When they 
started dairying on their own accounts it was 
to Mrs. 'Leary they went to get the best cattle, 
and she did not deceive them. She afterwards 
married the manager, Jim Stroud, and tided 
him over his financial difiieulties later on. 

The first important sub-division sale at the 
Meadows was in 1860, when the executors of 
the John Terry Hughes Estate sold 3000 acres 
of land, watered by Cooback and Eraser's 
Creeks, in 48 lots. It would appear that the 
combined grants of Samuel Terry, Esther 
Marsh, John Terry Hxighes and Andrew Allan 
extended from Harry Angel's grant on top of 
Mount Terry down either side of the main 
Jamberoo, Wollongong Road, right along to 
what is known to-day as Mathie's property. 

It is easy enough to trace the relationship of 
all the parties, with the exception of Andrew 
Allan. He was a Sydney merchant, but 
Mdiether he was a relation of David Allan who 
owned the Five Island Estate, or not, is not 
easily explained. Malcolm Mathie's property 
embraces about 51 acres, and 335 acres on Mac- 
quarie Kivulet, Albion Park (a) part 700 acres, 
portion 6, granted to Andrew Allan (b) part 
2000 acres to Samuel Terry. 

Among the first to buy land at the Terry 
Hughes Estate sale was Gabriel Timbs. His 
property was situated immediately under 
Mount Terry. He moved from Jerrara Creek 
(near Kiama) to his new holding in 1864, and 
brought with him a small herd of cows bred 
from the Osborne strains. He was a most suc- 
cessful dairyman as may be seen by the ac- 
counts given throughout this volume about the 
interest that was for many years taken by the 
dairymen in Illawarra in his strain of dairy 
cattle. 

The auction sales of the Johnston's Meadows 
Estate took place at Kiama on January 20th, 
1876. This would be about ten years after the 
death of David Johnston, second eldest son of 
Major George Johnston. D. L. Dymock was the 
auctioneer. He made a special day's gathering 
for Kiama : 1751 acres were disposed of in 
12 lots. Lot 1. 100 acres, occupied by William 



'S 



CULBURRA, 

The new Shoalhaven Seaside Township, near Crookhaven Heads, Jervis Bay, 
Lake Wollumboola and surfing beaches. 





I ME M\l,\ H(i\l) ^(i rilK _NA\'AI, Ddl.EEiiE A'l 
JERVIS ew. 



AriCOMMOIiATIO.N IIOISE AT I'ACIFIC CITY, 
.lEUVls ItA', . 





\\ tMi III rilE (H.EAA I'.EACII AT CI LI'.LHUX. .\EAI! 
.lERVIS BAY A-M) I'.HOOKIIA VEX IIEAIiS. 



\ I'lHE'l'I'V BEACH l!\ .1EH\-|S MA^'. HICIIT iil'I'n-liL 
THE HEADS. HAELORAX EslATE. 




BEAUTIFUL BEACH AT JERVIS RAY. SIIEEVINC RAPIUEY 
TO IJEEP WATER. 




11. M.S. "REINOWN." AS SHE llROITEll AA'CHOR I^' JEIIVI 
BAY WITH ll.R.II. THE PRIX'CE OF WALES O.N' ROARD. 



THE IIISTOh'Y OF ILL A]]' AUK A 



61 



Swan; Jjot -. 140 aei'es, oecui)i('d bj- Herbert 
l-iartlett; Lot -'I, adjoining Lot 1, eontaiuing I'-'U 
acres, described as timbered country ; Jjot 4, 
100 acres, occupied by Joseph Ross; Lot 5, SO 
acres, described as Mrs. Ilowse's farm; ijot 6, 
containing- 91 acres, occupied by James lieed ; 
Lot 7, containing 126 acres, descrilx'd as 
]\attery's farm and adjoined Lot '2; Lot S, con- 
tained two 110 acre farms, descril)cd as Eraser's 
farm, adjoining Ijot 7; Lot !l, 235 acres, 
<lcsi'ribcd as Barker's farm, adjoiiung Lot 8; 
Ijot 10, 70 acres, described as open forest conn- 
try, adjoining Lot 2; Lot 11, 100 acres, adjoin- 
ing Lot 4, and used as a run; ]jot 12, 426 acres, 
known as tlie Middle Paddock, witli a frontage 
to the Macqnarie liivnlet. The vendors were 
Messrs. D. T., G. R., and A. A. Johnston, 
descendants of JIajor George Johnston, who 
put Governor Lligh under arrest. For this 
ra.sli act he was tried by court-martial in Eng- 
land and deprived of all militarj' honours. At 
the above sale John Russell of Croome, 111a- 
warra, bought the homestead lot. I'homas 
Bateman bought it from Russell. In 1922. 
James O'Gorman of Albion Parle, purchased 
it at Bateman 's sale at £70 per acre, which 
is more than three limes what John Russell 
gave for it in 1876. The O'Gorman farm, "The 
Gift," is the site on which ^Major George John- 
stfin caused to be erected a house for his over- 
seer and stockman to live in in Tllawarra. The 
adjoining i)ro|)erty has been ])nr('liased by John 



Dudgeon, late of llillvicw, Jamberoo, at £75 per 
acre, which goes to show the value that practi- 
cal dairymen place on the rich flats of lUawarra 
wduui it is a matter of feeding dairy cows to 
keep up the milk supply for the Sydney 
markets. 

All the land round Albion Park is not rich, 
Hat land; much of it is of very poor quality. 
This poor quality land is used for raising young 
stock which is a great mistake. The average 
(|uality of a dairy herd can never be kept up 
when young heifers are not properly nourished. 
To make this inferior land useful requires great 
intelligence, and a generous supply of lime to 
uuike the soil suitable for a still more generous 
supply of manure. (Jood soil means good 
grass, and good grass is necessary to raise 
young cattle. Adjacent to the township of 
Albion Park Johnston Bros, have a good dairy 
farm. Some of this land is ei|ual to any land 
in Illawarra, lieing i)art of the John Terry 
Hughes' Estate. 

When sold in 1861 the lot brought from 
£3 2s. 6d. to £4-3 per acre, averaging over 
£10 per acre, to wit, £30,519 4s. 6d. One of the 
most interesting peculiarities of good land is 
that its value is never stationary ; it is con- 
stantly progressive and increasing in direct 
ratio to the growth of the ]ioi)ulation. The 
very cause that increase i)opulation multiply 
the demand on i;0(>d land. 




'•v^-t fft^^^fi: 



LU\KLV (jF OllKEXDAI.E (.ND. :jS. I.D.C.H.B.). 



MOLiHL OF nj(EE.\LiALE (iN'n. 180. I.U.C.H.B. ) . 



<i2 



OUR BRITISH BREEDS OF CATTLE. 



A short, but faithful, account of the British 
breeds of cattle that formed the foundation 
of the original herds of dairy cattle in New 
South Wales. And from the blood of which, 
blended in various ways, our lUawarra dairy 
cattle have sprung. j\Ien may write and talk 
as much as they may, but, facts are facts. If, 
after carefully reading these notes, the reader 
will turn to the notes on the origin of the 
Shorthorn taken from one of the best English 
writers, he will see that the Shorthorn did not 
drop down from heaven in her present form, 
nor did our Illawarra assume its present 
characteristics in one fell swoop. 

The ancient wi'iters were evidently trained 
upon the same model as the majority of our 
modern scribes, and found the occupation to 
be more genial to their tastes, and profitable 
to write about the affairs of those who moved 
on the higher paths of life, such as Senators 
and rulers, than the callings of pastoralists 
and farmo-s. Books on wars and invasions, 
courts and courtiers, are abundant. But when 
we turn up the English translations of the 
classic writers and strive to get a glimpse of 
the men on the land we find the springs of 
literature very, very dry. Prior to the dawn 
of the Christian era, say, 2000 years ago, when 
the Roman Empire was the world, internal 
troubles created strife, which produced fright- 
ful wars. The wars of Roman against Roman 
quite exhausted the Empire. 

One wise statesman saw all the damage that 
had been wrought, and at once set to work to 
repair the damage. His name was Caius Cihiius 
Ma-r-enas. Avhich name we are told is identical 
with that of patron of Letters and friend of 
Art. He saw that the sword would have 1o be 
beaten into a ploughshare if Italy was to be 
saved from the rum. Ho resolved to ask the 
Virgil of the Ecloges to write a poem on Ag- 
riculture. The answer was given in a manner 
worthy of the subject, the patron and the poet. 
He gave us the "Georgies," which at once de- 
picts the life of the Italian farmer, his daily and 
annual round of duties on his farm — among the 
animals of his farm. But what of the brindled 



cow? Here it is: Two rural singers, proud of 
their vocal prowess, challenge each other. See 
Virgil Pastoral iii. : — 

" To bring to the trial will you dare, 
Our pipes, our skill, our voices to compare ? 
My brindled heifer to the stake I lay, 
Two thriving calves she suckles twice a day. 
And twice besides her milk never fail 
To store the dairy with a brimming pail. 
Now back your singing with an equal stake." 

In Mr. G. K. Chesterton's "Short History of 
England," we learn that Feudalism was the 
main mark of the middle ages, and that the 
word "mediaeval" was used for almost any- 
thing from "Early English" to "Early Vic- 
torian." He also states: "Feudalism was not 
quite logical, and was never exact about who 
had the authority. Feudalism already flourish- 
ed before the mediaeval renascence began. It 
was, if not the forest the mediaeval had to 
clear, at least the rude timber with which they 
had to build. Feudalism was a fighting growth 
of the dark ages before the middle ages — the 
age of barbarians resisting semi-barbarians. 
The feudal units grew through the lively local- 
ism of the dark ages, when hills without roads 
shut in a valley like a garrison. Patriotism 
had to be parochial : for men had no country, 
but only a countryside. In such cases the Lord 
grew larger than the King; but it bred not only 
a local liordship, but a kind of local liberty, and 
it would be very inadvisable to ignore the freer 
element in Feudalism in English history. For 
it is the one kind of freedom that the English 
have had and held." "We may thus take it as 
granted that "Feudalisni" had much to do in 
forming England into counties and shires — and 
the general isolation of these counties and 
shires has give us the numerous breeds of 
British cattle. 

It must have taken a long time to develop 
and perfect the several breeds of British cattle 
prior to the Peninsular wars. It has often 
been suggested that cattle are merely potters' 
elay. "ready to be moulded into any shape, 
form or colour at the whim of a skilled crafts- 
man." Breeders, however, have not in the past, 
whatever they may do in the future, found it 
quite so simple as moulding bricks. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAKEA 



63 



If we take a calm, unbiassed look at the 
varieties of colours that are presented before 
the cattle judges at any important show, we 
must at once admit that nature has an object 
in bringing about these varieties despite 
many efforts to obliterate certain objectionable 
show colours. The brindle streaks may have 
their virtues like the black hairs scattered 
through the white coat of the desert Arab, and 
through the cream coloured Russian horse so 
famous on the battlefields. 

Anglesey Cattle. — Anglesey is the Mona 
of ancient times, the peculiar seat of Druidical 
superstitions, and long the rallying point of 
British independence, and is distinguished from 
other parts of North Wales by the absence of 
an irregular and mountainous surface. It is 
diversified only by numerous undulations, that 
scarcely deserve the name of hills — covered 
with grass— although not of a luxuriant nature, 
and on which a considerable number of fine 
cattle are raised. 

Ayrshire (Scotland), 1790 to 1804; the old 
crumpled horn breed. — Ayrshire extends along 
the eastern coast of the Firth of Clyde, and 
the north channel from Renfrew to Wigtown- 
shire, while it has Kircudbright, Dumfries, and 
Lanark on the south. Ayrshire was divided 
into three districts. But it is with but one of 
those three, viz., Cunningham, that we will 
treat on here, as it is the locality that claimed 
to have developed the Aj'rshire breed of cattle. 
They were then called the Cunningham cattle, 
and were described as having a small head, 
rather long and narrow at the muzzle ; the eye 
icmall, but smart and lively; the horns small, 
clear, and curved; neck, long and slender, 
tapering towards the head, with no loose skin 
below ; shoulder thin ; f orequarter light ; hind- 
quarters large; back straight, broad behind, 
the joints rather loose and open ; carcase deep, 
pelvis capacious, and wide over the hips ; thighs 
thin, flat, and curved ; tail long and small ; legs 
small and short, with fine joints; udder capa- 
cious, broad, and square, stretching forward, 
and neither fleshy, long hung, nor loose; milk- 
veins large and prominent ; teats short, all 
pointing outwards, and at considerable distance 
from each other ; skin thin and loose ; hair soft 
and woolly. The Ayrshire was then, as now, 
essentially a dairy cow — a few of them equal 
to four Scotch pints per day (a pint was 24 
ounces). 

In 1851 Sir John Sinclair. President of the 
Agricultural Society of England, said: "But 
rne opinion prevails relative to the superiority 



of the Ayrshire cattle for the dairy, namely, 
they are the best." 

The Bridgewater cattle. — These cattle are 
red, with white face, or spotted red and white. 
They are the produce of crossing Hereford 
cows with Devon bulls. In a herd of 40 cows 
the colours would be found to be 25 red ones, 
ten spotted ones, and five red with white face — 
and this was fairly constant throughout the 
locality — yet a Hereford bull was rarely seen, 
nor used in the herds, 

A Mr. Wedge described the Cheshire breed 
of cattle in 1790 as follows: "A large thin- 
skinned udder, large milk-veins, shallow and 
light forequarter, wide loins, a thin thigh, a 
vrhite horn, a long thin head, a brisk and lively 
eye, fine and clean about the chape and throat. ' ' 
Many such opinions could be quoted from those 
old-time writers on cattle which hold good at the 
present time. Let us take Alton, in 1828, on 
the Ayrshire breed of cattle: "Head small, but 
rather long, and narrow at the muzzle ; the 
eyes full, quick and lively; the horns small, 
clear, bended, and the roots as considerable 
distances apart; neck long and slender, taper- 
ing towards the head, with no loose skin below ; 
shoulder thin; forequarters light and thin; 
hindquarters large and capacious ; back straight, 
broad behind, and the joins of the chine rather 
loose and open; carcase deep, and pelvis capa- 
cious and wide over the hips ; tail long and 
small; legs small and short, with firm joints; 
udder capacious, broad and square, stretching 
forward, and neither fleshy, long hung, nor 
loose ; the milk-veins large and prominent ; 
teats short and pointing outward, and at a con- 
siderable distance from each other; the skin 
soft and woolly; the head, horns, bones, and 
other parts of least value, small, and the gen- 
eral figure compact and well-proportioned. 
Dairv bulls to have a feminine aspect in their 
head, neck, and forequarter, not round behind. 
Broad buck bones and hips, with full flank." 

The Celtic Shorthorn, — Professor Daw 
thus wrote on the Celtic Shorthorned breed 
of cattle of Great Britain and Ireland 
in 1898 as follows:— "This small short- 
horned breed was introduced by the Neolithic 
(Later Stone Age) herdsmen and farmers from 
the Continent as a domesticated animal. The 
place where it was originally domesticated is 
unknown for certain, but it may be inferred 
from the absence of any wild cattle of this 
species in Europe that it was introduced from 
the East, from some part of Middle Asia, into 
Europe, It was introduced into the British 



64 



THE HISTORY OF ILL AW AREA 



Isles by the small, dark Iberic race, now mainly 
to be found in the western parts of our Isles, 
in Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, and still to be 
recognised elsewhere in our population by the 
small dark folk. These cattle were small and 
dark, with small horns, and were the only do- 
mestic breed in the country, so far as I know, 
throughout the whole of the Bronze and Iron 
ages, and during the time when Britain formed 
a part of the Roman Empire. There is no 
evidence of any large domestic cattle in Britain 
until the arrival of the English, who came over 
here with their families, their flocks and herds, 
and carved for themselves out of the province 
of Britain the land called after their own 
name. " " The larger breed, ' ' according to Pro- 
fessor Eutimeger, "was domesticated on the 
Continent, in the Neolithic age, as proven by 
the discovery of their remains in Switzerland. 
This larger breed spread over the Continent 
of Europe through the prehistoric and early 
historic period, and became defined from all 
others by its white colour and red and black 
ears, not merely in the British Isles, but also 
in Spain. It cannot be traced further back in 
England than the coming of the Scandinavian 
Vikings. The Chartley Park white cattle and 
the Irish long-horned breed are considered by 
R. Hedger Wallace to be identical. The Chil- 
lingham Park white cattle are considered to 
be the forebears of the Ayrshire breed of cattle. 
Since the uninvited incoming of the peoples 
from the Baltic provinces into England the cattle 
have been contained within defined boundaries, 
and then each county formed its own breed. 
The colors varied from either black, black and 
Avhite, white, red and white, and red, passing 
into reddish brown on one hand or dark on the 
other. Brindles were occasionally met with. 
Later on newer breeds were formed. 

There is evidence to show that in Gla- 
morganshire the Pembroke cattle are represent- 
ed by an allied breed with red coats. The 
connection between the Pembroke and Glamor- 
gan breeds is therefore of interest as showing 
how easily black passes into red among cattle. 
In Herefordshire, the home of one of the most 
unmistakable breeds of British cattle, we have 
a similar breed in point of colour of the skin 
and the medium length of horn, which gives 
them the appearance of hp'ng allied to the Pem- 
broke, Devon, Sussex, and the older types of 
Yorkshire cattle, owing no doubt to the con- 
stant mingling of British cattle before they 
were arranged systematically into defined 
breeds. The old long-horns were originally a 



western type, extending over nearly all the 
plains of Ireland, while in England their range 
reached from Lancashire northward to Cum- 
berland and Westmoreland, and southward 
through Cheshire to the Severn district and 
parts of Somersetshire, whence it extended 
through the Midlands to Leicestershire and 
Derbyshire. The prevailing colour of the old 
breed was black and reddish brown, with more 
or less white on body, and invariably a white 
streak was seen along the middle of the back. 
Many theories have been suggested as to the 
origin of the long-horn Irish breed of cattle, 
but as the histories relating to Ireland and 
Egypt are silent regarding the cattle of those 
ancient countries, we may pass the query on 
to future historians. In those days, prior to 
the story of Jacob and his uncle Laban, cattle 
were evidently valued most that happened to 
be whole-coloured. We might, therefore, infer 
that four whole-coloured breeds were in exist- 
ence, viz., black, white, red, and yellow. There 
is no mention of the colour of the bull which 
we can see in pictures standing with his horns 
touching the "Assyrian Symbolic Tree," other- 
wise we might claim him to be the forebear 
of one or other of our ancient breeds of British 
cattle. This may be considered too far-fetched. 
All the same, if anyone were to examine the 
illustrations of the several scores of breeds of 
cattle in Europe, it is certain that he would 
say, if born and reared on a dairy farm in Illa- 
warra sixty or seventy years ago, "I saw all 
those types and colours of cattle during the 
early sixties. ' ' So mixed and diverse were the 
colours of the hair, shapes of horns, and types 
of cattle then. 

The Chartley cattle show unmistakable signs 
of affinity with the long-homed breed on one 
hand, and the white Pembrokes on the other, 
the black Pembroke resembling the Hyland 
Kylocs. Yellow crossed with red gives light 
dun colour; dun comes crossing with black. 
The Norsemen introduced the polled, dun col- 
oured Scandinavian cattle to the Orkney Is- 
lands. Hence we have Channel Islands, Ork- 
ney, Shetland, and Iceland. The Norman and 
Channel Island cattle are identical in shape, 
and present two colours — silver-grey and 
yellow. 

The Derbyshire cattle. — This breed was ori- 
ginally a blend of the smaller size long-horned 
breed and the South Devonshire breed. They 
had wide outspreading horns of considerable 
length, red in colour, with traces of brindle 
in some of them. In 1830 they were essentially 



G5 



JOHN JAMES & SON, "Kurrawong," Dunmore. 



Champion group of M. S. Cattle at Nowra Show, 1922, and Grand Champion group open to all breeds 




lirading- Irini Ii'lt to liKilt — SNOWDROP vr OF KURRAWONG: SNOWPROP V OF k■^■RRAWO^fC.; SCARLET II OF 
kl RRAWONG; SALI,\ IV OF KinRAWOM.'.; C.LARIE II OF Kl RRAWOXU ; PREMIER OF KIRRAWOXG. 





lilRDlE \'. OF COSEY CAMP, .N.C 



MAY III.EE.N OF CDSEY CAJIP, N.C 



THOMAS JAMES, of Rosemount, Shellharbour. 





yOlE OF ROSE.MULNT. 



CASSIE OF ROSEMOUNT. 
(.Nn. ;i8-J. l.li.ll.R., Vol. I.) 



THE HISTORY OF ILL AW AURA 



67 



dairy cattle, equal to 17 lbs. of butter pev 
week. 

The Devon breed of cattle in England seeins 
to be identical with the Salers breed of cattle 
in France. If so, it is not probable that the 
two breeds were separately evolved in different 
countries. History says: "Cattle from ancient 
Gaul of the Salers type were landed on the 
shores of England, and gave the colours and 
distinction of the Devon and Sussex breeds." 
There is at the same time a possibility that the 
origin of the Devon in England may be as re- 
mote as the landing of the Phoenicians in search 
of Cornish tin. If so, the breed would be Span- 
ish, as the Phoenicians came to Britain from 
Spain, and their first settlement was in Corn- 
wall, and, curiously coincident, the earliest no- 
tices of red cattle in the west of England places 
them in that country. 

Sir Nicholas White, Master of the EoUs in 
Ireland, states, according to an ancient Irish 
manuscript of A.D. 1580, that Dingle Bay, in 
Kerry, was known as "Coon Edaf," which in 
Irish means "Eed Ox Haven." The early peo- 
ples of Cornwall were a race of Gaels that first 
landed in Ireland. 

In 1800 the Devon breed were distinguished 
by being of a high red colour, free from white 
spots, a light dun ring round the eyes, muzzle 
same colour. In 1808 Charles Vancouver 
stated: "The head of the Devon should be 
small, clean, and free from flesh about the jaws ; 
deer-like, light and airy in its countenance; 
neck long and thin; throat free from dewlap; 
nose and round the eyes of a dark orange 
colour; horns thin and fine at the roots, of a 
cream colour." In 1830 a Devon bull was con- 
sidered to be of good form when his horns 
were neither too high nor too low, tapering at 
the points, not too thick at the roots, and of a 
yellow waxy colour ; the eye clear, bright, pro- 
minent, showing much of the white, encircled 
by an orange coloured fringe. Robert BaVe- 
well, the celebrated improver of the Irish Long- 
horns, paid the Devons the highest compliment 
when he said: "The Devon cannot be improved 
by any alien race ; yet they improve the other 
breeds." Devonshire being situated at nearly 
the western extreme of England, they flourished 
on the Kiver Taw and towards the Bristol 
Channel, and more northwards, and prevailed 
in Somerset and Dorset, where a great supply 
of calves went to the Exeter market. 

More southward there prevailed a larger 
variety — a cross between the North Devon and 
Somerset. In 1830 both Somerset and Dorset 



had a reputation for producing the larger-sized 
Devons. The pure Devon was then distinguish- 
ed from other breeds by a full clear eye, sur- 
rounded by a gold coloured circle round the 
eye ; yellow skin, muzzle yellow or orange 
colour, placid face. As late as 1835 or 1840 
the Devons were whole-coloured, with the ex- 
ception of a small star in forehead. The South 
Devons were plentiful in Tavistock and New- 
port, where the herds used to average 21bs. of 
butter per cow per day. 

The majority of the Shorthorn breeders of 
New South Wales kept a small herd of Devons. 
If these Devon cattle were not kept to give 
tone and colour to the stud Shorthorn, it is 
difficult to assign any reason for their pres- 
ence. Without pressing the case to any logical 
conclusion, we will await a tangible theory 
from Shorthorn breeders. 

Glamorganshire. — This was tlie favourite 
breed of cattle of His Majesty George III., who 
was considered in his time one of the few best 
judges of cattle in England. He kept and bred 
a herd of Glamorgans at Windsor Castle. Old 
chroniclers agree that they were produced by 
crossing Norman bulls with Devon cows, and 
that the progeny were generally of a reddish 
colour, large framed, excellent milkers. A few 
were pied, and some were brown, with a dorsel 
streak; clean heads and tapering necks; silky 
hair. 

The Hereford breed, from 1750 to 1800, wei-e 
described as being light red in colour, white 
face, dorsel streak, middle horned, wide on 
hips, rump and sirloin, tolerably straight back, 
flat on ribs and sides, thin thighs, middle line, 
forequarters heaviest. 

The Holderness cattle were plentiful on the 
banks of the River Tees in 1750. An old oil- 
painting of a cow on the tower walls of Dur- 
ham Cathedral may have been very old, but 
judging by an illustration of that painting, if it 
is a true representation of the orignal Durham 
cattle, there has been remarkable changes in 
the breed as we knew them, say, fifty years ago 
in Illawarra. 

The Holderness breed were thin quartered, 
too light behind, and too coarse before; large 
shoulders, coarse necks, and deep dewlaps. In 
1810 they were described as being thick, large- 
boned, clumsy animals, large behind ; thick, 
gummy thighs ; always fleshy, but never fat. 
In 1835. on the banks of the Tees, in York- 
shire, they were much improved, and developed 
into good milkers by judicious crossing with 



68 



THE HISTORY OF ILL AW ABB A 



the Ayrshire breed. They then became the 
Yorkshire cattle of a variety of colours. 

The Kyloe. — The origin of the term Kyloe is 
obscure. Sir John Sinclair traced it to the 
word Kyloe, which meant a ferry, which 
abounded among the west islands of Scotland, 
and used for taking cattle across from island 
to island. Others say that it is a corruption 
of the Gaelic word spelt Kael, signifying high- 
land. Be that as it may, Malcolm McNeil, of 
the Isle of Islay, says: "The Highland bull 
should be black, the head not large, the ears 
thin, the muzzle fine and rather turned up, 
broad in the face, the horns tapering to fine 
points, but not rising too high, neck fine. ' ' They 
were introduced into England by a Mr. Moor- 
house, of Craven, Yorkshire, in 1763. He came 
to the Hebrides, and was entertained by Miss 
Flora McDonald, in the absence of the Lord 
of the Clan, and slept in the same room that 
17 years before was occupied by Prince Charley. 
Moorhouse purchased 1600 head of Kyloes at 
£2/5/6 per head. 

Kyloe cattle were, according to the traditions 
of the West Highland and Hebrides farmers, 
originally of two colours — white and dun — and 
as such were prized. The white Kyloes were 
called the "Fairy cattle" of the Fairy folk. 
These were the "Firbolgs" of Ireland — the 
early inhabitants of Scotland — known as Tur- 
anians, Aryans, and Picts, or mixtures of all 
three men. The owners or raisers of the ori- 
ginal West Highland cattle were evidently a 
very stern race of people, as Sir Walter Scott 
tells us that in the reign of Malcolm IV., A.D. 
1153, the Lord of the Hebridian Islands scarcely 
acknowledged even the nominal allegiance 
either of the Crown of Scotland or that of Nor- 
way, though claimed by both countries. Alex- 
ander II. died in the remote island of Kerrera, 
when trying to force his authority. Alexander 
m., in A.D. 1263, succeeded in inducing the 
the Lords of the Isles to submit to the rule of 
the Kings of Scotland. The cattle were then 
throughout the islands of the West Highland 
breed. Later on, by crossing upper Fifeshire 
cows with West Highland bulls, they were im- 
proved for dairy purposes, and in 1830 four 
gallons of milk per day per cow was the recog- 
nised production. 

The Lincoln Reds. — "Modern breeders," says 
Primrose McConnell, "claim that the breed is 
a Shorthorn— not merely an off-shoot of the 
breed, but a breed with a history of its own, 
developed alongside the others, introduced 



from Jutland, Holstein, and Friesland ; the same 
breed, with a distinction in colour. 

The Lincolnshire cattle, in 1835, were regard- 
ed as fair specimens of the best of the Dutch 
cattle. So prevalent was the opinion that that 
was the origin of the breed that metropolitan 
butchers dominated the 'Dutch cattle. There 
was a coarseness about the head and horn that 
was not observable in the common Holderness 
or in the improved Durham. The bones were 
comparatively larger, the legs higher, and the 
hips and loins wider — approaching ruggedness. 
Captain Thurnill improved them, and they were 
afterwards called the Thurnill breed. Their 
colour was red, and red and white spotted. 

The Longhorns were first produced into 
Craven (Eng.) from Ireland, and gradually 
spread along the western coast of England. 
They were to be seen in Craven, as in Ireland, 
in two sizes, and were considered, in 1750, as 
being two distinct breeds. But the difference 
in size was the result of the pasture lands on 
which they were raised being different, such as 
highlands and lowlands provide. 

A man named Webster, of Canley, near Co- 
ventry, purchased bulls from Lancashire, 
and in time established the Canley breed of 
Longhorns. It was he who bred the bull Blox- 
edge out of a three-year-old heifer. When one- 
year-old this bull was discarded and sold to a 
man named Bloxedge, hence the bull's name. 
His dam was by a Lancashire bull. Bloxedge 
became a noted stock-getter. Robert Bake- 
well, of Dishley, in Leicestershire, born in 1725, 
became a noted breeder of Longhorns in 1750 
by purchasing two Longhorned heifers from 
Webster and a Longhorned bull in Westmore- 
land. One of the heifers was known in after 
years as Old Comely, and was the dam of the 
noted bull "Twopenny." Readers of cattle 
history are familiar with the histories of the 
bull D (dee) and Fowler's bull " Shakespere. " 
The latter was said to be "a striking specimen 
of what naturalists used to term accidental 
variation." To look for the origin of these ani- 
mals in Ireland is useless, because when the 
English merchants took possession of the gra- 
ziers in England they were compelled to fall 
into line with the English graziers, and all re- 
cords were lost. 

The Norfolks were the native breed of Nor- 
folk, and they belonged to the middle-horn 
cattle. Their colour was usually red, and they 
possessed many of the characteristics of the 
Devons on a smaller scale, with pointed turned- 
up horns. 



TRE EISTOBY OF ILLAWABRA 



69 



The prices of British cattle when New South 
Wales was being peopled may be of interest 
here. At a sale of Mr. Fowler's herd at Little 
Rollright, in Oxfordshire, on 27th March, 1791, 
six bulls and two cows were sold as follows: 
Garric, a five-year-old bull, sold at 205 guineas ; 
Sultana, a two-year-old . bull, sold at 201 
guineas; Washington, a two-year-old bull, sold 
at 205 guineas; Young Sultan, a one-year-old 
bull, sold at 200 guineas; a one-year-old bull 
sold at 145 guineas; a one-year-old bull sold at 
100 guineas; Brindled Beauty, a cow, sold for 
260 guineas, and Washington's mother sold at 
185 guineas. At a subsequent sale of Mr. Paget 's 
stock in 1793, Shakespere, a bull bred by Mr. 
Fowler sold for £420. In 1792 Mr. Bakewell 
leased his bull for the sum of 152 guineas, to 
be used from May to September. 

The Pembroke cattle. — These cattle were con- 
sidered the most useful cattle in Great Britain. 
They were black, and the great majority of 
them were entirely so ; a few had a white face, 
or a little white on the belly and tail brush. 
The horns were white, and turned upwards. 
They were shorter on the leg and deeper bodied 
than the Montgomeries ; a keen look and a 
beautiful eye; small horns, and were good 
milkers when cared for. 

The Shorthorns. — Taking Coates' herd book 
as our guide with regard to the origin of our 
Shorthorns, we find that there are 710 bulls 
mentioned in Volume I. of Coates' English 
Shorthorn Herd Book. No mention is made 
regarding the cows, which were bought on 
general appearance, at Fairs, and scarcely one 
of them had a pedigree. 

James Brown's red bull. No. 79 C.H.B.; the 
date of his birth is not recorded, nor is his 
dam mentioned, or any mention of hei* breed- 
ing. Going back to Hubback, the Abraham of 
the Shorthorns, calved in 1777, colour yellow 
and white, No. 319 C.H.B. ; his sire was Snow- 
don's bull, No. 612 C.H.B. ; his dam's breeding 
was not given, nor was his pedigree enquired 
into until the year 1822. Then we have Lady 
Maynard, dam of Young Strawberry; she was 
first registered as Favourite ; no pedigree given 
of either her dam, g. dam, or g.g. dam ; yet she 
did more to found the Shorthorns than any 
other female. Lady Maynard was the dam of 
Phoenix and Favourite bull No. 252 C.H.B. 
Phoenix was the g. dam of the bull Favourite. 
Foljambe had a dark face, yet Colling Bros, 
thought more of him than any bull of his time. 
Charles CoUings purchased several of his best 
cows, sired by Fawcett's bull, and also a Stan- 



wick cow — regardless of pedigree, so far as 
we know. The Stanwick cow was described 
as a yellowish red and flecked; she was the 
forebear of the Duchess tribe. 

The American cow. Red Rose, and Red Rose 
I., established another family of Shorthorns. 
"Why Rose was termed the American cow is this. 
She was sold to order and shipped by her owner 
in England to an American buyer, who rejected 
her on account of her colour. Deep red was 
not a recognised colour according to the Ameri- 
can view at that period, and in consequence 
she was returned to England, and became the 
foundress of the Red Rose tribe of Shorthorns 
that afterwards became famous. 

Assertion is one thing, proof is another. We 
have to depend for our information from those 
authors of books who were on the spot and 
wrote first-hand information. If Foljambe was 
white, with a few red spots, and had a dark 
face and nose, we have often seen similar cattle, 
and no one questioned their pedigrees. We can, 
therefore, conclude that our informant may 
have stated what was true. 

Cherry, a fine cow, bought at Yarm Fair, no 
pedigree, was foundress of the Cherry tribe. 
A yellow cow, by Punch, produced a white 
heifer that was exhibited over England; no re- 
cord was given of her birth; no pedigree on 
dam 's side. Same yellow cow put to Favourite, 
252 C.H.B., produced North Star, 459 C.H.B. 
Beauty, dam of launch, 53 C.H.B., was a yellow 
red. Punch was the sire of the dam of Charles 
CoUings' celebrated cow. Old Daisy. What 
was the cause of all these varieties ? It amounts 
to this. The original Shorthorns were a very 
mixed lot, of which history is silent. If the 
Wildair or Hubback tribe could be traced to 
the stock of Sir William St. Quintin they would 
then be mixed and of no defined colour or 
breed. 

The truth is, Culley, Bakewell, and the Col- 
lings Bros, all believed in in-and-in breeding 
sire to daughter, and son to mother. They 
selected the best animals within their reach, 
and bred from them in this manner. Albion, 
for example, was both a son and a grandson 
of Favourite, No. 252 C.H.B. At the Ketton 
sale in 1810 16 head of the Phoenix tribe aver- 
aged £221/3/-. Comet brought 1000 guineas at 
Bramton sale, 1818; the Red Rose tribe aver- 
aged £269/3/6 ; Lancaster, 621 guineas ; and 13 
head of the Favourite-Wildairs averaged 
£142/17/6. This average included the bulls 
mentioned. 



<u 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAW'ARBA 



The Durham ox that was exhibited weighed 
3024 lbs. at five years old. His sire was Fa- 
vourite, No. 252 C.H.B. ; dam, a black and white 
cow, no pedigree. This points to Sir William 
St. Quintin's Dutch cattle being used in the 
breeding of the ox. 

When the first Shorthorns were being raised 
the calves got new milk till they were three 
months old ; then they got whole and half-skim 
milk and linseed or other meal and porridge. 
Nurse cows were kept for the choice bull 
calves. 

Dairy Shorthorn's Record Yield. For the 
first time in the history of the breed, a Dairy 
Shorthorn cow has produced 2000 gallons of 
milk in a lactation. The animal is "Lady," be- 
longing to Mr. William Ewing, of Gate Street, 
Bramley, Surrey, a well-known member of the 
Dairy Shorthorn Association and of the Surrey 
Milk Recording Society. "Lady" calved on 
9th May, 1920, and her lactation period ended 
on 15th April last, having lasted forty-eight 
weeks and three days. During that time her 
yield of milk was 20,163:| lbs., and on the last 
day of the period she gave 44 lbs. She is 7V^ 
years old, and this was her fourth lactation.. 
She was bred by Mr. Swing, and her ancestry 
is strong in milking capacity. Her sire is a 
Bates bred bull, "Claremont Red Waterloo," 
114,714, Vol. 59, p. 100, whose sire, "Waterloo 
King," 97,628, and dam, "Red Rose 19th" (of 
T. Bates' noted old Rose family) by "Car- 
dinal." were both bred by the late George Tay- 
lor. "Waterloo King" and the dam's sire were 
both successful in breeding heavy milkers in 
the Cranford herd. The dam of "Claremont 
Red Waterloo" was "Waterloo Rose 2nd," 
who gave 1184 gallons of milk in 1905. and 
won second prize at the Tring Show in 1906. 
"Red Rose 19th," the dam of "Lady," gave 
9677 lbs. of milk for the year ending 30th Sep- 
tember, 1911. In the production of her 2000 
gallons "Lady" has received no extra ration. 

Milking Shorthorns. — The English Dairy 
Shorthorn Association was established in Lon- 
don possibly in or about 1905, as the members 
held their tenth annual meeting on 30th 
October, 1915. Sir Gilbert Grenall, Bart., was 
elected President for 1915-16. 

Much notice was taken of the cow Liberty, 
the winner of the Spencer Challenge Cup for 
the best dairy cow giving the greatest number 
of points by inspection, milking trials and but- 
ter test. She won the Durham Challenge Cup 
and Lord O'Hagan's champion cup. She is 
described as a "non-pedigreed Shorthorn, the 



property of Mr. S. S. Raingill, The Grange, 
Cheshire." Another non-pedigreed Shorthorn, 
Silverton Verona, at the same show, won first 
prize for inspection, reserve for the Spencer 
Cup, and reserve in both milk trials and butter 
test. She is owned by Mr. J. L. Shirley, Silver- 
ton, Blatehley (Eng.). 

The theory about the breeding of these ani- 
mals is not definitely defined; neither is their 
milk or butter tests available at the present 
moment. 

It will be seen that the first volume of the 
English Shorthorn Herd Book gives us but 
little history anterior to the year 1780. Twenty 
years later New South Wales was making cat- 
tle history with the best material at the com- 
mand of its pioneer settlers. Even at that time 
nothing much was known about the pedigree 
of the best English Shorthorn bulls beyond the 
name of the sire and grandsire. For example, 
we can read of Ralph Alcock's bull No. 19, 
Allison's grey bull No. 26, Bartle No. 63, J. 
Brown's white bull No. 98, Dalton Duke No. 
188, Danby III. 190, Davison's bull 192, Dob- 
son's bull 218, Harrison's bull No. 292 (his re- 
cord only says bred by Waistell), Hill's red 
bull No. '310, Hollon's bull No. 313, Hubback 
No. 319, Jolly's bull No. 337 (nothing but the 
name is recorded), Kitt No. 357 (nothing but 
the name recorded) . Then we have Lady Kirk 
No. 355, Mansfield No. 404, Masterman's bull 
No. 422 (got by Studley bull No. 626), Pad- 
dock's bull No. 477, William Robson's bull No. 
538, Signer No. 588, Sir James Pennyman's bull 
No. 601, Jacob Smith's bull No. 603, T. Smith's 
bull No. 609, Snowdon's bull No. 612 (sire of 
the bull Hubback No. 319), Studley- White bull 
No. 627 (got by Studley bull No. 626), Wais- 
tell's bull No. 669. The same as Robson's bull 
No. 558, Walker's bull No. 670. The same as 
Masterman's bull No. 432. 

Of the 710 bulls recorded in Vol. I. of the 
English Herd Book lived prior to 1780, and 
belonged perhaps to the blood of the breeders 
mentioned. But it would be wild conjecture 
to attempt to define the blends of blood in the 
"Foundation Shorthorn." 

What is known as Coates' English Shorthorn 
Herd Book was being talked of in 1818, but 
it was kept back through want of funds until 
1822. When the first volume appeared the 
number of bulls recorded was 710, with an 
equal number of cows, a few of which had gone 
to America. The second volume appeared in 
1829, with 891 additional bulls, and a propor- 
tionate number of cows. The third volume ap- 



71 

Scottish Australian Investment Co. 

The Darbalara Stod Herd had its origin at Bolaro, on the uplands of West Monaro, in the year 1899. At 
that time, dairying on the share system had been carried on by the Scottish Australian Investment Co., Ltd., 
at Bolaro, for some years, and also at Talgai West, on the Darling Downs, Queensland. The chief object in 
starting a stud was to breed bulls of good quality and constitution to improve the producing standard of the 
dairy herds then in use on the Company's properties. 

On the Coast the proposal to breed high-class stud cattle on the bleak, icy plains of the Monaro was 
considered to be a hopeless project that could only end in failure ; but the Shorthorns found something in the 
climate that agreed with them, and the young stock bred there developed a robustness of constitution combined 
with a capacity for high productivity that has never left them, and may have much to do with their present 
day success. 

For profitable dairying the growing season on the Monaro was altogether too short and the winters too 
severe, and, for that reason, the change to Darbalara was a welcome one. At the same time, this writer will 
always maintain that as a nursery for young dairy cattle the volcanic tablelands of Monaro have no rival in the 
sunny land of Australia, and it would pay coastal farmers well to make more use of this country for that purpose. 

However, this is by the way — to get back to my subject. Thirty years of experience with Milking 
Shorthorn cattle had taught me that, for dairying purposes, the old dual purpose type has no superior, and I 
pinned my faith on that type, and carefully avoided the modem " beef " type as far as possible, and any 
admixture of other blood. 

The chief foundation cows of the old Bolaro Stud were selected by me in 1899 on the South Coast. 
Four of these were special heifers purchased from Mr. George Tate, of Kangaroo Valley, four from Mr. C. Lamond, 
who at that time had a high producing Shorthorn herd, and ten were purchased from Mr. Harry McGrath, of 
Terrara, Shoalhaven, who had previously bought them from Mr. E. McClelland, of Kiama. 

The four Tate cows are entered in Vol. I. of the Milking Shorthorn Herd Book, as follows : — 

Madame of Bolaro (406) Heatherbelle of Bolaro (291) 

Champion of Bolaro (90) Myrtle of Bolaro (502) 

The Lamond cows were : — 

Daisy of Bolaro (136) Primrose of Bolaro (568) 

Rose of Bolaroo (630) Shamrock of Bolaro (672) 

The heifers bred by Mr. E. McClelland were : — 

Dolly of Bolaro (159) Priscilla of Bolaro (586) 

Marie of Bolaro (421) Florrie of Bolaro (249) 

Emma of Bolaro (195) Camellia of Bolaro (83) 

Matilda of Bolaro (433) Daphne of Bolaro (147) 

Sophie of Bolaro (690) Eva of Bolaro (205) 

These heifers were specially selected to mate with " Banker of Bolaro:" (5), a bull of my own breeding, by 
" Victor " ex " Violet." Their progeny were mated with " Heather of Bolaro " (27). This bull was bred by 
R. W. Moses, of Myra Vale, and his sire was of the Tate strain of " Major." The best producing blood on 
Darbalara at the present time is that which has the strongest infusion of the blood of these two bulls. 

Other good bulls used in the Stud were : — " Combat of Coleville " (163), " Musket IL of Bolaro " (43), 
" Abram of Bolaro" (1), "Shoalhaven of Bolaro" (63), "Theodore of Bolaro" (72), "Chancellor of Bolaro" 
(12), and others. 

A close system of " line " breeding has been followed out since the foundation of the Stud, and all bulls 
used since were bred in the stud. 

In Official Testing the strongest family is the " Melba," the foundation cow of which was by " Banker 
of Bolaro " (5) ex " Madame of Bolaro " (406). " Madame " is also the dam of " Emblem of Darbalara " (100) — 
one of the chief sires. She is also the dam of " Madame II.", " Madame VI.", and " Madame X.", and others 
all good breeders, and she bred till she was 22 years old. 

Next to ''Madame," comes "Champion of Bolaro" (90), by the same sire, " Heather of Bolari " (27). 
This cow's females were all good under test, and her son, " Sunrise of Darbalara " (228), has proved himseli 
outstanding as a sire of heavy producers. 

" Daisy of Bolaro " (136) comes next to " Champion:" as a producer and breeder. Mated with "Banker" 
(5), she bred " Surplus " — a bull that did good work in the Talgai West Stud, and " Silver King of Darbalara " 
(130), that did equally good work at Darbalara. She was also the dam of " Lily of Bolaro " (366), " Daisy II. 
of Bolaro" (141), "Daisy III. of Darbalara" (1354), "Daisy VL of Darbalara" (1355). "Lily of Bolaro" 
(366) produced " Lily II. of Darbalara " (1019) from a union with " Heather of Bolaro " (27) and mated with 
" Carbine " produced " Lily III. of Darbalara " (1020), both great producers and breeders. Mated with " Emblem 
of Darbalara " (100) " Lily II." bred " Kitchener of Darbalara " (419), and " Lily III." produced " Lily's Cupid 
of Darbalara " (431), two bulls that have done good work in the Stud and were hard to beat in the Show ring. 
" Rose of Bolaro " (630) mated with "Banker of Bolaro " (5) bred " Banker II. of Bolaro " (6), " Prince 
of Raleigh " (52), " David Harum of the Hill " (93), and " Souvenir," all outstanding sires, and mated with 
" Emblem of Darbalara " (100) she bred " Rose III." (HOS), " Rose IV." (5253) and " Rose V." (5254). 



72 



DARBALARA 



SCOTTISH AUSTRALIAN 

STUD OF MILKING SHORTHORN CATTLE. 

GUNDAGAI, NEW SOUTH WALES. 





«t;^t^ 



EfttBLEM OF DARBALARA (Nu. 100, Jl.S.H.B.). 

Banker {5j ex Madame (406). 

Sydney R.A.S. Records: — 1st and Clianipion, 1910, 1911, 

191S, 19 13, 1914, 1915 and 1916. First In Bull and 

Prog-eny, 19 13, 19 15 and 19 16. Unbeaten for 7 successive 

years. 




KITCHENER OF DARBALARA (No. 419, M.S.H.B.). 
Emblem of Darljalara (100) ex Lily II ol Darbalara (1,019). 
Sydney R.A.S. Records: — 1st, as yearling-, 1914; 1st, 2 
years old, 19 15; 1st, 3 years old, 19 16; 1st and Champion, 
4 years old. 19 17; 2nd and Reserve Champion, 1918; and 
1st in Bull and Progeny. Inbeaten for 5 years, except 
once by Elected or Dai'balaia, bied by the same stud. 




MELBA III OF DARBALARA (105S .M.S.II.B.). 

1st and Champion Cow in milk, 4 years and over, 

R.A. Show, 1914 and 19 16. 

Govt. Omclal Test — 9 niontlis, 13 8181b Milk; 5851b. Butter. 

12 ,, 15,223 ,, 653 




LILY III OF DARBALARA (1020 .M.S.H.B.). 

1st Prize Dry Cow, i years and over, R.A. Show, 

1914 and 1915. 

Govt, omcial Test — 9 months, 14,7421b. Milk; 5801b. BulteP. 

12 ,, 17.576 ,, 689 




CAMELLIA 11 OF B0L.\RO (85 .M.S.II.B.). 

2nd to Melba HI and Resei-ve Cliampuui Cow in Milk, 4 
years and over. 191 I. 

1st and Chamnion Cow. 1915 iinil 1917. 
Govt, omcial Test — 9 monilis, I0.S96II). Milk; 4631b. Butter. 



CHAMPIO.\ HI OF DARBALARA {S39 M.S.H.B.). 
Winner oT the "Sydney Mornins- liei-ald" and "Sydney 
Mail" Test Prize. R.A. Show. Sydney, 19 14 
Yield, 10,299 lb. :\lilk; 5r,;! lb. Butter. 
Period of laclalion. y montlis. 



Bred by and the Property of the Scottish Australian Investment Co., Ltd., Darbalara Estate 

Gundagai, N.S.W. 

PURE BRED YOUNG BULLS FOR SALE. 
For full particulars, apply The Manager at Darbalara. 



The Illustrated Pedigree of the Darbalara 




M.S. Stud Herd, Gundagai, N.S.W. 




INVESTMENT CO., LTD. 



73 





LIMELIGHT OF DARBALARA (1105). 
Sire — Lily's Cupid of Darbalara (431). 
Dam — :\lelha VII nf narbalai-a (ilSl). 




EXI'EHT OF DARBAI.ARA i\u\. VI). 
Sire — Lily's Cupid ol' Oarbalara (431). 
Dam — Jlelba XVI of Dnrhalara (10059). 




IMELBA VII OF DAHBALARA (1181). 

Sire — Emblem of Darbalara (100). 

Dam — Melba IV of Darbalara (1576). 
omclal Test — 

6 years, 14,371 lb JlilU ; 83(1 \h. Buttfr ; 



273 diivs' 



i> years, 



17,3G4 lb. Milk: 1,U?IJ lb. Hiiller; 36.5 days 




SIELBA XV OF DARBALARA (4188). 
Sire — Kitchener or Darbalara (419). 
Dam — Melba VII of Daibalara (418 1). 
omcial Test — 

4 years, 18,131 lb. MUk: 031 lb. lliiller; 273 
4 years, 21.i;3.jJ lb. Milk; l.l."i(i lb. Riiltei-; 36: 




MELBA SI OF 1IARBALAI1.\ (4 IS,",). 
Sii-e — Lnion .laek of Darbalara (63 1). 
Dam — Melba VII of Darbalara (4181). 
Champion Cow of R.A.S., Sydney, i years in surcession. 



MFLIIA XXI OF DARIlAi.AUA (10064). 

Sire — Sllveianiiie of Harbalai'a (592). 

Dam — Melba XI of Darbalara (41,85). 

irst 2-year -old M.S. Cow Dry, Sydney Royal, 1920. 



Scottish Australian Investment Co. — Continued. 

Of the McClelland heifers the most outstanding were : — " Camellia " (83), " Dolly ' (159), " Daphne "' 
(1 17) , " Priscilla " (586), and " Eva" (205). " Eva," mated with " Banker " (5), produced the famous Champion 
bull " Kingston of Sea View " (187). 

" Priscilla of Bolaro " (586) bred " Victor II.", a Champion in the Show rmg, and the best sire used in 
the Talgai West Stud, also " Dividend,"another good Show bull and sire. 

" Dolly of Bolaro " (159) bred " Tarquin of Bolaro " (70) and " Redwood of Bolaro " (57) to " Banker " 
(5) and to "Emblem of Darbalara " (100) produced "Wellington of Darbalara " (1438), one of the best dual 
purpose bulls in the Commonwealth. 

" Daphne of Bolaro " (147) bred high testing stock, one of which has done pretty well in New Zealand. 

" Camellia of Bolaro " (83) to " Banker " (5) bred " Camellia of Bolaro " (85), and " Camellia IV. of 
Darbalara (837), two great producers, and, as Show cows, were hard to beat. Both these cows are breeding 
regularly now at 19 and 17 years old respectively. " Camellia II." was eleven years old when she was first 
exhibited in Sydney at the Royal Show of 1914. and when she was second and Reserve Champion to her herd 
mate " Melba III. of Darbalara " <1058). The following year " Camellia II " was First and " Melba III." Second. 
In 1916 " Melba III." again took preference, and in 1917, when 15 years old, " Camellia II." once more came 
to the front. 

For 12 years in succession the Darbalara bred buUs, " Emblem " (100), " Kitchener " (419), " Elected " 
(358), and " Melba's Emblem of Darbalara " (461) have held the Championship of Sydney Royal Show. For 
8 years " Melba III." (1058), " Camellia II." (85), and " Melba XI." (4185) have held in continuously. 

The following are some records of Darbalara cows under Official Test by the Department of Agriculture 
of New South Wales : — 



S.4ME 


AGE 


LACTATION 


MILK 


BOTTEE 


Mblba XV 


4 years 


273 days 


18,131 lbs 


931 lbs. 


„ 


4 years 


365 days 


21,635Jlb8 


1150 lbs. 


Melea VII 


6 years 


273 days 


14,371 lbs 


836 lbs. 


„ 


6 years 


365 days 


17,.364 lbs 


102Ulbs. 


Shamrock XIV. 


7 years 


273 days 


13,263 lbs 


689 lbs. 


Melea X. 


4 years 


273 days 


11,773 lbs 


591 lbs. 


Melea III 


8 years 


273 days 


13,818 lbs 


585 lbs. 


Melea IV. 


11 years 


273 days 


11,763 lbs 


582 lbs. 


Melba XVI 


4 years 


273 days 


10,996 lbs 


576 lbs. 


Lily III. 


7 years 


273 days 


14,742 lbs 


580 lbs. 


ClLAMPION III 


8 years 


273 days 


10,299 lbs 


563 lbs. 


Melea XVII 


3 years 


273 days 


11,747 lbs 


551 lbs. 


MiKNIE VIII 


8 years 


273 days 


10,775 lbs 


489 lbs. 


Melea IX. 


2 years 


273 days 


9,361 Ib^ 


471 lbs. 


Camellia II 


11 years 


273 days 


10,896 Ibfe 


463 lbs. 



The above cows were fed on bran, chaff, and boiled maize in addition to pasture. 



NAME 


AGE 


lactation 


MILK 


BCTTER 


Raptueb II. 


6 years 


273 days 


11,062 lbs. 


564 lbs. 


Bloomer 


8 years 


273 days 


10,827 lbs. 


556 lbs. 


Bessie II. 


10 years 


273 days 


10,4.55 lbs. 


548 lbs. 


Champion VIII. 


6 years 


273 days 


10,626 lbs. 


541 lbs. 


Melpa VIII 


3 years 


273 days 


11,295 lbs. 


516 lbs. 


VlKOINIA IV 


4 vears 


273 days 


10,221 lbs. 


485 lbs. 


Butterfly II 


10 years 


273 days 


10,378 lbs. 


472 lbs. 


Slipper II 


8 years 


273 days 


9,732 lbs. 


452 lbs. 


Sybil 


10 years 


273 days 


9,639 lbs. 


452 lbs. 


Virginia II 


7 years 


273 days 


8,896 lbs. 


449 lbs. 


POSBY 


12 years 


273 days 


8,570 lbs. 


447 lbs, 


Cameixia VIII. 


9 years 


273 days 


11,396 lbs. 


504 lbs. 



These cons were fed on pasture only, no hand feed of any kind, and they formed part of a herd milked 
by a share fanner in the ordinary way. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



10 



peared in 1836, with tlie American breeders in- 
cluded, which contained 2897 bulls and an aver- 
age number of cows. The fourth volume ap- 
peared in 1843 ; and even at this date the colours 
of the English Shorthorns were of many shades, 
and the black-nosed ones were the best milkers 
everywhere they tested. Our fathers who un- 
derstood the Shorthorns of the forties and fif- 
ties always maintained that they were larger- 
framed, coarser-boned, more mixed in colour 
than the modern type, and that the drab- 
coloured nose was a sign of constitutional vigor 
and dairy quality. 

Whatever difference of opinion may prevail 
respecting the comparative merits of the several 
breeds of cattle in England during the year 
1750 to 1800, it must be admitted that the 
Shorthorns presented themselves to notice in 
1810 under circumstances of peculiar interest, 
possessing in an eminent degree a combination 
of qualities which have generally been con- 
sidered irresistibly attractive to the eye, owing 
to their beautiful frame and varied colours. 
The only way to get an idea of the great im- 
provements in this breed is to compare the old 
type animals with the newer type. 

The Somerset cattle betrayed their Devon- 
shire origin. They were, however, remarkable 
animals, and may be accounted for in this way. 
The Somerset farmers were said to be the best 
cattle judges in England from 1770 to 1830, 
as they were in close touch with the breeders 
on one side and the graziers on the other. The 
farmers' cattle were sheeted — the head, the 
neck, and hindquarters were red, while the 
body was white, as if a sheet was passed around 
their body. In 1835 the old Somerset cows 
were sold to make nurses for the improved 
Shorthorns. 

The Sussex cattle were in 1750 to 1800 of a 
red colour, but middle-horned, and similar to 
the Hereford. While the horns of the Hereford 
were turned downwards, those of the Sussex 
were turned upwards. They were said to be 
of west country extraction. 

Westmoreland cattle.^ — In that part of Eng- 
land bordering on Lancashire and Yorkshire. 
and in the neighbourhood of Kirby Lonsdale, 
the breeds of cattle most favoured were, in 
1800, Longhoms, Teeswaters, and Shorthorns, 
and were being slowly introduced by fanciers. 
The smaller Craven also had admirers. H was 



a sort of battling ground lor the breeds and 
the blends of breeds which in time, say, 1835, 
gave the world the Longhorned Durham, the 
Teeswaters, the Yorkshire Shorthorn. About 
Manchester the Holderness cows gave nine 
quarts of milk per day, and the Longhorns 
seven quarts per day. The old Longhorn breed 
of cows gave the most butter, and in 1835 the 
Earl of Derby gave it as his opinion "that the 
Lancashire dairy cattle deteriorated with the 
loss of the Longhorned breed in that country." 
Note. — It will be remembered that both the late 
Mr. James McGill and the late Mr. John Kus- 
sell gave it as their opinion that we never had 
cattle in Illawarra to equal D'Arey Went- 
worth's Longhorns. 

A writer who has given us his opinions re- 
cently on Cumberland cattle says: "In the Eng- 
lish counties of Cumberland, Westmoreland and 
Yorkshire there is a race of cattle distinguish- 
ed for special dairying qualities. They are 
described as being uniformly of Bates' Short- 
horn character, with a definite reminiscence of 
affinity with the heavier and stronger Ayrshire 
types. This resemblance is not to be attribut- 
ed to any established relationship between Ayr- 
shires and these cattle. It is rather that in 
both breeds or varieties there has been a con- 
stant striving after dairying merit, and con- 
sequently there is a certain measure of common 
resemblance in type. These north of England 
cattle, for the lack of a better designation, are 
usually spoken of as non-pedigreed Short- 
horns." This is exactly in accordance with 
Professor Robert Wallace's views. As Profes- 
sor of the Edinburgh University in 1914 he 
wrote to say that the milking Shorthorns of 
England were non-pedigreed animals, similar 
in type to what he had seen in IllaM'arra in 
1888-1889. 

If, after carefully reading these notes, the 
reader will turn to the notes on the origin of 
the Shorthorn, taken from one of the best 
English writers, he will see that the Shorthorn 
did not drop down from heaven in her present 
form ; nor did our Illawarra assume its present 
characteristics in one full swoop. Mr. John 
Larkin, of Galway Farm, West Dapto, Illa- 
warra — a native of the district, born in 1835 — 
told the writer that "the original dairy cattle 
in Illawarra were coarse, large-boned, large- 
framed animals, with long horns, and varie- 
gated in colour." 



76 



DAIRY CATTLE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Our Dairy Cattle Illustrations. — Histories 
make men wise, and in proportion, as their 
minds are influenced by a natural love of the 
districts in which they have been raised, so they 
will always feel a desire to become more and 
more familiar with the most authentic accounts 
of the origin of their birth place, and the 
development and progress of that particular 
centre. With Illawarra men, who have an> am- 
bition to know anything outside their home — 
there are few things more fascinating than to 
study the improvements from decade to decade 
of the animals and plants of the district gen- 
erally. 

The most careful investigations are diverg- 
ing roads; the further men travel upon them, 
the greater the distance by which they are di- 
vided. In matters of dairy cattle development, 
the mind as well as the eye adds something of 
its own before an image of the clearest type can 
be painted upon it. In this we have many 
opinions as to which is really the better of 
two or more types, and in historical enquiries, 
the most instructed thinkers have but a limited 
advantage over the most illiterate. Those who 
know the most approach least to agreement. 
This is patient enough when we study the 
"Battles of the Breeders." 

It is thirty years since the writer of these 
lines went forth to preach to the settlers of 
the North and South Coasts and tableland dis- 
tricts of New South Wales and Queensland the 
advantages of dairying and the improvements 
of the herds and methods of dairying. Bitter 
opposition, north, south, and west, was my ex- 
perience. I took my experience with me every- 
where, and at all times advocated the import- 
ance of Illawarra dairy cattle to dairymen. 

I am proud of the stand I took during the 
past thirty years, and am proud to say that the 
breeders of those old type cattle thirty years 
ago, are still to the fore, as the grand illus- 
trations herein go to prove. Thirty years ago, 
one class of dairymen were constantly finding 
fault with their old neighbour's cattle. Un- 
fortunately that state of things still exists. No 
one knows it better than the writer. Where 
are those fault-finders' cattle to-day, as in the 
past? You, dear reader, would search the pages 



of anj^ illustrated journal in vain to find one 
animal worthy of a place, owned by such men. 
Envy is an ill-natured vice, and is made up of 
meanness and malice. It wishes the force of 
goodness to be strained and the measure of suc- 
cess abated. It laments over the prosperity of 
better things and sickens at the sight of pro- 
gress. When the illustrations in this volume are 
seen by the envious dairyman he will go forth 
ind say "If I only had my cattle ready in time 
10 be photographed they would out-do the best 
in that book." All one can say in reply is that 
no man is expected to send along that which 
he hasn't got. 

The au'hor can, with confidence, recommend 
those in search of stud animals, be they M.S., 
I.D.C. or Ayrshire breeders, to those whose 
cattle are illustrated herein, as they are each 
breeds of real worth. The breeders of high- 
class dairy cattle are few, while the peddlers 
of dairy cattle are many. 

The Founding of Poplar G-rove Stud Herd, 
Jamberoo, Illawarra. 

The Cole Family.— About the year 1847, Wil- 
liam Cole purchased Poplar Grove, Jamberoo, 
from John Kitchie. It is situated at the 
junction of Drawalla Creek, and Minnamurra 
Kivulet, where he carried on farming and dairy- 
ing until 1867, when he passed away, leaving 
a widow, five daughters, and three sons. James 
W. Cole, the eldest of the boys, was then 14 
years old, J. T. Cole was 12 years old, and 
Ebenezer 7 years. 

At the time of William Cole 's death the dairy 
herd consisted of long-horned and other breeds 
chiefly purchased from John Ritchie with the 
farm. Among these animals were a line of 
Durham heifers, purchased in the early fifties — 
quiet docile cows, easy to milk and appreciated 
by the boys. On that account, which doubtless 
created a liking for Shorthorns, the Cole boys 
took an interest in cattle, displaying the Short- 
horn type. 

Thomas McKenzie had been farming and 
dairying on the Terrara Estate, Shoalhaven, 
prior to 1860. The flood of 1860 sent him up 
the river in search of drier country. Mc- 
Kenzie sold his daughter, Mrs. William Cole— 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



77 



a few Durham type heifers. Among these were 
two very superior animals, "Roany" and 
"Mushroom." The whole line were more or 
less inbred, and therefore displayed the roan 
colour and Shorthorn character. Prom Thomas 
McKenzie, junr., came a very fine dairy bull 
called "Whisker," a bull of uncommon 
length and size — a strawberry roan in colour. 
He was the sire of the cow "Roany" already 
mentioned. 

In 1874 a roan bull was purchased from Ed- 
ward Smith who was dairying on Druwalla 
Creek. This bull was bred by G-eorge Tate. 
His sire was said to be by a bull owned by 
John Box ell, who had purchased him from 
Lowe, of Mudgee, and Tate called him 
"Boxer." This Edward Smith bull was the 
sire of "Slasher," whose record for one week, 
tested under the supervision of the Kiama A. 
& H. Society, produced 4201bs of milk, yielding 
181/t lbs. of butter. The Smith bull's progeny 
were healthy, good feeders, and all true to 
colour and quality. He, however, became a 
rambler which soon ended his career. 

The next bull was a strawberry roan of good 
size, purchased from John Tate, of Broughton 
Village, of George Tate's Boxer strain. He 
was a good bull, but not equal to the Smith 
bull. Then came the purchase of Henry 
Frederick Lame's bull, by Major. This bull 
was bred by Evan E. Evans, junr., from a Cox- 
bred cow. He was a soft roan, with a rich 
soft skin, and was of outstanding Durham type. 
His head was of perfect shape, and he looked 
all over a dairy bull. He did service in the 
Cole herd for six years. This bull left his 
stamp on the quality of the Cole Bros.' herd. 

Stud breeding was, after the Major period, 
taken up seriously, good cows were secured, 
gave the improved Shorthorn cattle a trial, 
and although good dairy cows were purchased 
of the old Osborne and McGill strains of blood, 
the produce from the improved Shorthorn bulls 
were not up to standard for dairying purposes, 
and were soon discarded. 

In dairy bulls the Cole Bros, kept solidly to 
the Major strain until the brothers separated. 
Three other bulls were purchased from Evan 
R. Evans, one which was closely inbred, and 
was much like the original bull. 

Then came a bull called "Creamy Jim," 
owing to his rich yellow skin. He was pur- 
chased from James Mann, of " Carraghmore, " 
Jamberoo, purchased by D. L. Dymock, and 
had come along from Evan R. Evans' stock. 
Following this bull came "Commodore," from 



a McGill bred cow. He was a typical Durham, 
of splendid size and frame. Rich roan in 
colour. His daughters, "Queen," "Violet," 
"Snowdrop," and "Nonsuch" are recorded in 
the A. & H. Society Show records, together 
with his bull produce, "King Slasher," Slash- 
em," "Sir Robert," and "King Cole." All 
these animals caught the judge's eye, and won 
at the several Illawarra shows. 

A cow that made fame for the brothers Cole 
was "Butterfly." She was purchased by D. 
L. Dymock from Patrick Tierney, who got her, 
a young heifer, from Osborne's Barrengarry 
Estate, Kangaroo Valley. She had lost one 
quarter of her udder, and advanced in years. 
She produced 151bs of butter per week under 
the old pan-setting system. The loss of her 
young bull, and that of the test cow, "Slasher," 
was considered by the Cole Bros, their greatest 
misfortune in dairy cattle raising. Another 
noted cow purchased by D. L. Dymock was 
"Lady-bird." She was the grand dam of 
William Graham's "Sir Robert." Other foun- 
dation cows came from the herd of Thomas 
Armstrong, of Oak Farm, Albion Park, of the 
Osborne-McGill strain. 

The parting of the ways. J. W. Cole got 
married, and took a share of the cattle, and 
settled at "Coleville." In 1887, Ebenezer Cole 
married and took a share of the herd to "Cole- 
wood." A few years later J. T. Cole sold out 
his interests to his brother James, and so the 
brothers drifted apart, after using con- 
secutively seven roan bulls in the Poplar 
Grove herd. The last being "King Slasher." 

The Founding of the ColeviEe Stud Herd. 
Jamberoo, Illawarra. 

The Coleville Herd. — James W. Cole began 
operations at Coleville by purchasing a stud 
sire. A red bull, bred by the Messrs. Black, of 
Genera Vale, Kiama, sold by them to Jules 
Sehreiber. This bull was used until he secured 
the bull "Slashem," sold as a calf by Cole 
Bros, to Kenneth McKenzie, of Cambewarra. 
"Slashem" was by "Commodore," from a 
daughter of "Slasher," by a youthful son of 
the cow "Butterfly." "Slashem" was a show 
bull as well as being a good stock getter. 

Following "Slashem" came "Major V." bred 
by Henry Nixon, of Kangaroo Valley. Sire 
"Major IV." bred by George Tate, of Oakdale, 
Kangaroo Valley, and purchased by Edward 
Moses, of Barrawang, near Moss Vale. "Major 
V." won show ring prizes until he was thir- 
teen years old. Then followed "Major VI„" 
also a show bull, and a winner of many prizes. 



THE HISTORY OF ILL AW AREA 



Contemporary with "MajorVI." was the bull 
''Comet of Coleville," No. 15, M.S.H.B. He 
was bred by Thomas McCarthy, from Michael 
O 'Gorman's bull, "Volunteer," from a cow pur- 
chased at Samuel Huxley's sale. Kangaroo 
Valley. (See particulars elsewhere in this 
volume). 

"Comet" was the sire of "G-old of Cole- 
ville," No. 215, M.S.H.B., a continuous 
champion prize winner for nine years in suc- 
cession at the Illawarra shows, and winner of 
several prizes at R.A.S., Sydney. 

"Comet" was followed by "Signal of Cole- 
ville," No. 65, M.S.H.B., bred by S.A.I. Co. 
Sire "Musket II.," No. 43, M.S.H.B.: dam 
"Scarlet," bred by John Otton of Bega. This 
bull suited the Coleville cows, and was in 
use in the herd for a number of years. Con- 
temporarj^ with him was the bull "Jeweller 
of Coleville," No. 184, M.S.H.B., bred by owner 
"Sir Admiral of Coleville," dam, "Jewel of 
Coleville," No. 991, M.S.H.B. "Jeweller of 
Coleville" was hurt at R.A.S., Sydney, and 
never quite recovered 

Then we have "Goldleaf of Coleville," No. 
389, M.S.H.B., sire, "Signal of Coleville." 
No. 65, M.S.H.B., dam "Gold of Coleville," 
No. 275, M.S.H.B. This bull's heifers are re- 
ported to be verj' promising. They should be 
good on account of their breeding, coming 
from a long line of show animals as our records 
go to prove. 

Many of the late J. W. Cole's old neigh- 
bours did not see eye to eye with him in his 
methods of dairy cattle breeding. He, how- 
ever, bred cattle and carried on dairying 
according to his own ideas, and in this he was 
successful as he won many valuable prizes at 
the best shows, and sold large numbers of young 
bulls each year. By this means he purchased 
and paid for much land around his original 
holding, which shows that he made his system 
pay. 

The Dudgeon Hillview Stud, Jamberoo, 
Illawarra. 

Hugh Dudgeon, senr., and Hugh Dudgeon, 
junr., and now Hugh Dudgeon and Son, have 
been carrying on dairying and dairy cattle 
breeding in continuation since 1857. In 1857 
the father of the Dudgeon family began dairy- 
ing in a small way at the source of Jerrara 
Creek, Kiama.with cattle purchased from the 
^lessrs. Black. The first start was with seven 
cows, 1 roan, 2 red and white, spotted, and 4 
reds. The roan cow was a failure. Those six 



cows made a keg of butter per week, and 
helped to pay for more cows. After a time a 
move was made to a farm at "Hell Hole," so 
named by the early sawyers. It is now known 
as "Fountaindale." Prom "Hell Hole" a 
move was made to Dr. Menzie's farm, Hill 
View. Before going up to the top of the hill, 
Hugh Diidgeon, junr., settled on Johnny Brad- 
ney's farm, "Plough Weary," on the roadside 
leading from Jamberoo to Mount Terry. Here 
the subject of this sketch began on his own 
account with a few cows, the progeny of the 
original purchase, and a roan bull called 
"Bob," which he purchased from Robert 
Graham, of Jerrara. Graham's herd was a 
good one, composed largely of the Osborne 
strain. All the members of Hugh Dudgeon's 
family were born at "Plough Weary" before 
he moved up to his present home, "Hill View." 
Some people have twitted Hugh Dudgon with 
"not being capable of seeing good cattle in 
his neighbours' herds." Such is not true, for, 
during his long career as a breeder and exhi- 
bitor, he has gone outside his own strain of 
cattle to select both bulls and cows. Take the 
Calvert bull, the Coughrane bull, the Reid bull, 
the McGuhen bull, the Antill bull, and the bull 
Noble, all these animals were from outside 
breeders. True, he never fancied the beefy 
Shorthorns. His ibnlls that were descended 
from the Gordonbrook Station stock were all 
crossed from Illawarra cows. The Gordon- 
brook cattle in 1892 were of a blend of Short- 
horn and Devon. Of this the writer is speak- 
ing from personal observation. 

Hugh Dudgeon always believed in large-sized 
roomy cows, and medium-sized bulls with well- 
sprung ribs. He never onee disputed the fact 
that from a good type of Ayrshire bull large 
bodied cows could be produced. The men who 
found fault with Hugh Dudgeon and his 
opinions on dairy cattle breeding had, 
generally speaking, no opinion of their own. 
We will take for example three bulls, ' ' Noble, ' ' 
"Red Prince," and "Gus." Each of these 
animals were placed in the Hill View herd for 
a wise purpose, and each in turn was a big 
success owing to the stern fact that the cows 
were there that suited them. It is possible 
that any one of those bulls in other herds 
would have been a failure. It goes to show 
that inbreeding, out-breeding, and cross-breed- 
ing, and line breeding are all useful in the 
hands of a man who understands his herd of 
cows, and who desires to see them carrying 
good udders. 



80 



GRAHAM BROTHERS, Mayfield, Dunmore, Illawarra. 




WARRIOR. 



:model oi' maii'ield. 




ROOSKN'KLDT IIF AIA "l I'IKI.U 
(Nn. 55S. \(il. i. .M.S.II.B. nf .N.S.W.). 




HAAOSO.ME OF MAVFJELD 
(iVo. 3iir,, Vol. 4. M.S.H.H. (if N.S.W.). 





DEFIANCE OF OAKDALE 
(No. 340, Vul. 4, jr.S.H.n., N.S.W. 



FAIRY OF :\i.\YFIELD 
(No. 340, Vol. 4, M.S.H.B. Of N.S.W.). 



GRAHAM BROTHERS, Mayfield, Dunmore, Illawarra. 



81 





FLOWER OF MAYFIELD. 



ILIIW'LH II Ol- 1IA\F:J£I.D 
(3249. \'(il. i, .\LS.H.I). or >'.S.Wj. 




:''»-x 




PINK PEARL OF MAYFIELD. 



MODEL III OF MAYFIELD 
(No. 4354, Vol. 4, JLS.H.B. of N.S.W.). 





MILK MAID'S LAD OF MAYFIELD 
(No. 1152, Vol. 5, M.S.H.B. of Ausiralla). 



MILK MAID OF MAYFIELD (No. 4225, M.S.H.B of N.S.W.). 



THE HI STONY OF ILLAWARBA 



83 



John Dudgeon is at the present time entirely 
in charge of the Hill View herd, and, need we 
say, few there are in the dairy cattle line with 
a keener insight into the science of mating 
dairy animals than he. No other member of 
the Dudgeon family has grasped the ideas of 
the head of the family as John has, owing, 
no doubt, to his continued association with 
his father. 

Hugh Dudgeon and Son have raised by care- 
ful attention to details many valuable test cows. 
Among the list we find Fvissy IH., Xo. 139, 
I.D.C.H.B. As a two-tooth cow she gave 48 
lbs. of milk in 24 hours, equal to 17 lbs. of 
butter per week At 6 years old for lactation 
test she gave 80 lbs. of milk in 24 hours, equal 
to 25 lbs. of butter per week ; three months 
later she gave 62 lbs. of milk in 24 hours, equal 
to 19 lbs. of butter ^er week; six months aftei' 
calving 44 lbs. of milk in 24 hours, equal to 
17 lbs. of butter per week. Same year she was 
placed first for cow in milk at Kiama Show. 
She is also the dam of several valuable cows 
and bulls. 

The cattle ilhistrations, in this volume, from 
the Hill View Stud prove beyond doubt that 
advancement on a large scale is going on and 
on in dairy cattle breeding despite the fact that 
the soil on which these animals are raised is 
of an ungenerous nature, which goes to 
show that a keen knowledge of the soil on 
which dairy cattle are bred is as essential to 
the system of mating of the animals as any 
other factor. 

John Hardcastle 's "Jinbiggaree Stud," 
Dugandan, Queensland. 

In the year 1898 Messrs. Lewis Thomas and 
Samuel Grimes, members for Bundamba and 
Oxley, in the Queensland Legislative Assembly, 
accompanied by Professor Shelton, of Gatton 
Agricultural College, visited Illawarra, and 
purchased a number of the famoiis Illawarra 
dairy cattle. After their return Mr. Grimes 
gave a lecture in the Corinda School of Arts, 
at which the subject of this sketch was an 
interested listener. The following year, being 
on a visit to Sydney in connection with the 
Rifle Association .fixture, he made a flying visit 
to Kiama and was quite convinced the cattl*^ 
there were far superior to the dairy cattle of 
Queensland. The bull, "Jamberoo," and 16 
heifers were purchased, and laid the founda- 
tion of the herd which in later years was instru- 
mental in giving many a young dairyman a 



start in the right direction. Messrs Waters, 
Pickels, and Dunn all obtained their foundation 
stock from this stud. In 1908 the bull "British 
Admiral" and 16 heifers by the famous sire, 
"Admiral," were purchased from Graham 
Bros. The "Jamberoo" and "Admiral" strains 
of blood appear to blend to perfection, and 
some of the progeny are giving very satis- 
factory results. For several years Mr. Hard- 
castle had an uphill fight to get the breed 
recognised by the National Agricultural Assoc- 
iation of Queensland ; he held the office of first 
President of the Illawarra Dairy Cattle Assoc- 
iation, and fought strenuously against amalga- 
mation. Ill health, however, caused him to 
retire from the post about four years ago. 

We find that some of Mr. Hardcastle's stock 
have proved themselves in the show-ring after 
passing into the possession of other dairymen. 
For instance, "Blossom III." was bred by John 
Ilardcastle, and sold to David Dunn, Beau- 
desert. She had an extraordinary record in 
the show ring, and won the championship four 
times at the National Show, Brisbane, 1912, 
1914, 1913, and 1916, and also won the milk- 
ing competition at the same show in 1912 and 
1916, a record no other cow has yet beaten. 
At the age of 15 years she gave 15 lbs. of butter 
per week. "Buttercup II." was champion at 
Brisbane, 1911, and was the first Queensland- 
bred cow to win that honour. "Earl of Dun- 
more" and three of his progeny won the bull 
and progeny class in 1913, being the first 
Queensland bred group to win that prize. They 
were all bred and owned by the exhibitor, who 
considers- this his most brilliant win in the 
show ring, having beaten the champion bull 
and progeny out of .sight. 

"Darling II," one of the gi-oup from 
"Darling," an "Admiral" cow, bred by 
Graham Bros., holds the 2-tooth record oT 
Queensland — 86V2 lbs. milk in 48 hours. Vol. 
I, I.D.C.H.B., Q. "Diana VII," from another 
"Admiral" cow, has just been tested, and gave 
571/2 lbs. milk on second calf, which vrill go 
very close to a record for 6-tooth cows. ' ' Dam- 
sel II," another "Admiral" cow, bred by 
Graham Bros., has just been tested for the herd 
book at the age of 14 years. She gave 54% 
lbs. milk and 2.25 lbs. butter, equal to 153^4 lbs" 
per week. She has now been milking 70 days 
and has given 3223 lbs. milk, a convincing 
proof of the great milking qualities of the 
Jamberoo and "Admiral" strain. 



S4 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAHHA 



T. S. Mort's Great Enterprises. 

Bodalla. — About twenty miles south of 
Moruya a traveller in search of the beauty 
spots of New South Wales will find himself 
in the heart of the great dairy estate known 
as Bodalla throughout the dairy world. Prior 
to 1858 it was one of that sturdy, old-time 
pioneers — John Hawdon's oattle stations. It 
was in charge of a stockman, and in a state 
of neglect, practically speaking, unimproved. 

In 1858 it was taken in hand by that en- 
terprising and liberal colonist, Thomas Suteliffe 
Mort, and persevered with until Bodalla be- 
came the model dairy establishment of Aus- 
tralasia. All that active intelligence , sup- 
ported liberally by capital, could do for 
Bodalla, was done by its new and spirited 
owner. True, the land, the climate, together 
with its magnificent water supply, was all that 
men with capital and intelligence could desire. 
Much ridgj' open forest and valuable timber 
belts surround the rich well-watered flats on 
which grow a variety of the best English 
grasses. Bodalla was theu, by nature and 
care, capable of generous response. 

The Bodalla Estate comprising an area of 
22,000 acres. 5000 acres of which, by well- 
directed labour, were converted into the 
richest dairying and agricultural land in New 
South "Wales. "When the great farm was in 
working order, one of the first batch of cheese 
was brought to ]Mr. Mort's table, at which quite 
a number of guests were seated. "Do you like 
this cheese?" he asked. "Tes, it is excellent." 
"It ought to be so," remarked the host, "for 
it has cost me £40,000." 

In 1891, when Bodalla took the National for 
farms on the South Coast, it was pasturing 
3000 head of cattle, of which 2000 were cows 
(1020 of which were being milked), 134 horses. 
414 sheep, and 2348 pigs. The general returns 
were about £20,000 per year, principally from 
cheese and bacon ; 1000 acres of land were 
under cultivation. 



The milking was doue at eight stations, 
five of which were furnished with cheese- 
making plants. The bacon factory was sup- 
plied with the most modern refrigerating ap- 
pliances, so that the curing could proceed aU 
through the year. Silage pits held immense 
stores of fodder, and all which could be done 
to make the settlement profitable to its owner 
and the workers was effected under skilled 
management. Since 1891 no silage has been 
made on the estate — grass, good, fresh healthy 
grass with the addition of fodder crops has 
sufficed ever since. 

The Avriter visited Bodalla several times 
since 1891, twice while it was under the man- 
agement of Mr. Grierson, and at least five times 
since it has been under the able management 
of Mr. Douglas Hutchison, and can safely say 
that Bodalla has not only held its own, but in 
many instances, like its good cheese, improved 
with age. The grasses and fodder crops are 
growing luxuriantly, and the dairy cattle 
reflect the value of the soil in their contour. 

If at any time a subdivision of the Bodalla 
Estate takes place it should be borne in mind 
that there is only one Bodalla in New South 
Wales : furthermore, there is no estate superior 
to it in Australia. He who purchases a farm 
on that great estate, should an opportunity of 
doing so offer itself, he would succeed straight 
away. Avith the necessary energy and intelli- 
gence at his command, as the soil will respond 
quickly to generous treatment. The climate is 
genial, the rainfall abundant, and the water 
supply plentiful and good. 

Annual returns from ten oiit of fourteen 
dairy farms comprising the Bodalla Estate, 
New South "Wales, for year ended JMarch 31st, 
1921. It is difficult to draw a correct com- 
parison between the different breeds and grades 
as the farms are not of equal value. The 
Priesians occupy the best farm, yet the Red 
Shorthorns are on a farm of lesser value. 



Name of Farm. 



Home Farm 
Comerang 

Widgett 
Long Point . . 
Greenway 

Central Hails 
Tninketabella 
Greenwood Park 
Long Flat . . 
Gannon's Point 



Breed of Cowi. 



Friesian 
Friesian grade 

(yellow and white) 
Shorthorn (red) 
Guernsey grade 
Friesian grade 

(black and white) 
Shorthorn grade . . 
Ayrshire 

•Shorthorn (roan) . . 
Ayrshire grade 
.\vrshire ^redl 



Average 


Average 






Average 






Average 


Cows 


Cows 


Total 


Total 


Galls. 


Test. 


Butter 


duration of 


Milking. 


Dry. 


Cows 


Milk. 


per Cow. 




Fat. 


Lactation. 


71 


20 


91 


63,710 


700 


3.54 


247 


285 


76 


13 


89 


61,891 


695 


3.65 


253 


311 


48 


14 


62 


37,132 


598 


3,52 


210 


282 


49 


15 


64 


37,053 


578 


3.95 


227 


277 


.57 


19 


76 


43,389 


570 


3,81 


217 


273 


63 


16 


79 


44,521 


564 


3.83 


216 


291 


59 


23 


82 


46,164 


563 


3.77 


212 


262 


61 


18 


79 


40,692 


515 


3.71 


191 


281 


65 


19 


84 


42,520 


506 


3.89 


196 


282 


1 32 


10 


42 


19.655 


468 


3.95 


184 


277 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARKA 



85 



George Lindsay's Ayrshire Herd, Horsley, 
lUawarra. 

The Lindsay Family. — John Lindsay, the 
founder of a very excellent family of dairymen, 
settled down to dairy cattle breeding in 1851. 
This herd comprised the cattle that were bred 
in Illawarra for dairy purposes. They were 
very good milkers, while the ground was new 
and clover and rye grass plentiful. He, in a 
few years' time, raised a large herd and 
acquired more land. The pure sire craze came 
his way, and he purchased Shorthorns from 
Jenkins and others, but soon found that their 
milking qualities were not satisfactory. He 
got a "Major" bull from Evan R. Evans, whose 
dairy quality was good, and he bred bulls for 
his own use from this bull until the progeny 
became delicate. He then introduced a Devon 
bull which proved to be unsuitable although 
his progeny had good constitutions and gave 
rich milk. He then went to Victoria and pur- 
chased the ' ' Earl of Beaconsfield, ' ' a pure Ayr- 
shire bull from James Buchanan, of Berwick. 
This was early in 1878. This bull, mated as he 
was on cows of mixed breeding, soon proved 
himself a wonderful sire. Later he returned to 
Victoria and purchased three bulls and five 
cows, and the result was so satisfactory that 
John Lindsay became a prominent exhibitor 
at Illawarra Shows. His three prize cows, 
"Honeycomb," "Whiteback," and "Butter- 
cup ' ' won many show-ring and milk and butter 
test prizes on the Coast, and in Sydney prior 
to 1891. 

Since the death of John Lindsay, of Kembla 
Park. Unanderra, the Lindsay Bros, have fol- 
lowed the breeding and exhibiting of pure-bred 
Ayrshire cattle. George Lindsay, of Horsley, 
Dapto, has been a successful Ayrshire breeder. 
Now the breeding and exhibiting is carried on 
under names of George Lindsay and Son. If 
the reader will turn to page 199 he will see the 
present types of Horsley. Ayrshire (No. 1), 
"Pansev II., of Horsley," sire "Glen Elgin's 
Royal Scot," No. 587, dam, "Pansey." She is 
a very consistent milker; (No. 2) "Duchess II 
of Horsley," sire, "Glen Elgin's Royal Scot," 
No. 587, dam "Duchess," descended from "Earl 
of Beaconsfield," a very heavy milker (No. 3). 
"Polly of Horsley," 'No. 5341, sire, "Glen 
Elgin's Royal Scot," No. 587, dam, "Mary of 
Horsley." She was champion cow, competing 
against all breeds, Dapto Show, 1921, and has 
a record of 9543 lbs. of milk. (No. 4) "Mary 
Scot of Horsley," No. 5339, sire "Glen Elgin '"s 



Royal Scot," No. 587, dam "Mary of Horsley," 
champion Ayrshire cow, Dapto Show, 1920, 
"Mary Scot" gave 7850 lbs. of milk in eight 
months. 

It will be seen from the foregoing records 
that the business of breeding and exhibiting 
Ayrshire cattle at Kembla Park has been con- 
tinued in ever since the death of the good old 
pioneer, by his son and grandson at Horsley, 
Dapto. 

"Horsley," Dapto, Illawarra, is an old-time 
place. It was a grant to Lieutenant William 
Frederick Weston, who was born at West Hors- 
ley, Surrey, England, and who died at Dapto 
on April 26th, 1826, aged 33 years. Many old- 
time memories cluster around those ancient 
homes in Illawarra. 

All those early grants of land were cleared 
and worked by convict labour. When the lord 
and master appeared on the scene it was hats 
off every time. The tenant farmers, however, 
came on these lands with their dairy cattle, and, 
in a few years, most of the original owners be- 
came but a memory throughout Illawarra. The 
late John Lindsay atid his family with their 
Ayrshire cattle have secured many of those 
early holdings. 

Michael O'Donnell's Ayrshire Herd, Allendale, 
Illawarra. 

The O'Donnell family have been for many 
years large and important dairymen on the 
Five Islands Estate prior to any developments 
in and around Port Kembla. The old home 
of the family has been pointed out to the 
writer fifty years ago as being the site 
of the "Htit of Dr. Throsby Stockman," where 
the first meeting of bona-fide settlers took place 
in 1816, and where the first division of the 
lands in Illawarra was decided by Surveyor 
John Oxley, by order of the Governor, Sir 
Lachlan Macquarie. 

When those old sites are not marked out at 
the proper time, there is always a difference 
of opinion as to the exact spot. As the Five 
Islands Estate was given on that occasion to 
David Allen who was anxious to secure for his 
own use that which Dr. Charles Throsby was 
merely using on sufferance, people (may or 
may not be able to read between the lines. 
David Allen was, however, a resourceful man. 

Their early cattle were of the general run of 
Illawarra dairy cattle until the beef boom 
set in, when they secured stud bulls from 



86 



rilE HISTORY OF ILLAWAERA 



William Warren Jenkins and Henry Hill 
Osborne. The usual result followed in their 
case — increases in the carcase, and decreases in 
the milk bucket. The Ayrshire became the 
ideal dairy animal. The mere carcase of an 
animal at so much per lb., as against the 
yearly return in butter at, say, 1/- per lb., the 
cost of raising each animal being about equal, 
has caused many graziers to think since those 
beefy days down about the region of their 
pockets. 

The late Frank O'Donnell evidently followed 
np success after success with his Ayrshires. 
The Illawarra "Mercury" of May 27th, 1897, 
states: "Mr. Frank O'Donnell, of Five Islands, 
has sold two bulls by champion Ayrshire bull, 
'Sir James,' and two Ayrshire heifers by the 
Ayrshire bidl, 'Noble,' to a northern district 
buyer. Three years previous to this the sami; 
buyer took away a few head of 'Noble's' 
heifers, and pooled the shows in his district. 
'Sir James,' after five years' service at Five 
Islands, went to McKenzie's herd at Moss Vale. 
At Moss Vale Show he lowered the colours 
of the South Coast champion. Hugh Dudgeon, 
of Hill View, Jamberoo, having purchased 
heifers by 'Noble,' and found them so good 
that he came back for more, and secured 'Noble' 
for his Hill View stud. About the breeding 
of 'Noble' there hangs a doubt. At the time 
'Noble' was sired, the Woodhouse's of Mount 
Gilead, Campbelltown, had a noted Devon bull 
of superior dairy quality named 'Nobleman,' 
and a herd of Ayrshire cows that were kept 
to provide milk to feed stud Shorthorn calves 
for show purposes. There may be nothing in 
the name, but the colour of 'Noble' and the 
colour of his progeny, especially the reds, ac- 
counted for much suspicion." 

Going back to "Berkeley House" things were 
carried on there in fine style. The best of 
everything. On race days and show days a 
drag, four well-groomed horses, coachman and 
footman, left for the scene of pleasure. Picnic 
parties were formed under the ti-trees and 
honeysuckle tree clumps. Yes, everything was 
carried out in a big way by the Jenkins'. It 
has been said that much of this pomp was kept 
up by means of free convict labour in the 
earlier times. In those bad old days, good, 
brave men were compelled by the military 
authorities to take off their hats to these lord- 
lings and their families. Eventually the dairy- 
man with his cattle pushed the original owners 
over the edge. 



With regard to Michael O'Donnell's ex- 
periences of Ayrshire cattle, he frankly states : 
"I have been breeding and using Ayrshire 
cattle for forty years, and have not any desire 
to change for other breeds. I claim no records 
over other breeds, nor do I aim at world's 
records. I just demonstrate year in and year 
out their ability, as a uniform, persistent pro- 
ducer, and their ability to produce for a longer 
period of years than any other breeds of dairy 
cattle. I am at the present time keeping 40 
Ayrshires on a back run where 20 Shorthorns 
failed to get a living. In proof that Ayrshires 
remain productive over a long period of years 
(the cow 'Jaunty,' whose photograph I en- 
close with others for illustration), was photo- 
graphed at the age of 21 years. She is still 
hail and hearty, and looks as if she will be 
useful for some years to come. She is one of 
a number I have in use who have reached this 
age." 

The foregoing statement is made by a 
gentleman whose veracity no lUawarranian 
would for a moment doubt. An honourable 
exhibitor and a modest winner. 

The founder of the family, Michael O'Don- 
nell, was born, reared, and educated for com- 
mercial pursuits in the County Tipperary, Ire- 
land. His wife, Avhom he married in 1840, was 
a native of County Cork. In January. 1841, 
the young couple decided to try their luck in 
Australia, sailing from Queenstown for 
Botany Bay. They arrived in Sydney in the 
following jMay. Business not being too bright 
in Sydney ^Ir. O'Donnell got a position in 
the B'ducation Department at WoUongong. 
This country was in a most disturbed state 
owing to the large number of convicts and 
ticket-of-leave men who were becoming masters 
of the situation. Mr. O'Donnell's WoUongong 
experience caused him to relinquish teaching. 
He formed the acquaintance of W. C. Went- 
worth, the owner of the Five Islands Estate ; 
was joined by another school teacher from 
Jamberoo named James Rigney, and the firm 
of O'Donnell and Rigney took over the man- 
agement of the estate comprising 2,200 acres as 
a farming and grazing proposition. After 
a short period Rigney withdrew and went into 
business in Sydney. Michael O'Donnell took 
over the whole concern and ran it success- 
fully until the time of his death, 1861. His 
widow and her fine family took charge. She 
was a very superior woman, and carried on 
sueeessfuUj'- until her death in 1887. Prior to 



S7 
MICHAEL O'DONNELL'S AYRSHIRE STUD CATTLE, Allandale. Unanderra. 









mm^ 



^IR JAMES II III' I'INK !Jl,A>TiS. 



.I\|\|V ri|- ALLANCi.M.E (agi.'fl i l' yoMr- 





NOBI.E OF FI\'E ISLAMi 



SIH nOl'GLAS OF I'ORI|ii;a. 
( 135. A.ll.B.. X.Z. ( 



i ^ 





FAW.X itil 01- AI.LAMiAEE. 



JAI ^IV l[ OF ALEA.MiALF. 





MYKA OF EFMAKALLA. 



CHOICEST OF ^,Y^F.AR^. 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



89 



the death of Michael O'Donnell much land 
was sub-let as clearing leases. In consequence 
manj> families were raised on the Five Islands 
Estate. Since Mrs. O'Donnell's death large 
^reas of the estate has been resumed for 
harbour accommodation. 

The Mayfield Milking Shorthorn Herd, 
Dunmore, lUawarra. 

Graham Bros. — This stud of milking Short- 
horns was started over half a century ago by 
William Graham (who was born near Jamberoo, 
Illawarra, 78 years ago), at "WatersiJe," a 
snug little farm adjacent to the picturesque 
Minnamurra Falls, about three miles from 
Jamberoo. 

During his years as a dairyman and a dairy 
cattle breeder he always stood for Shorthorn 
dairy-type bulls. He purchased no other type 
of bull, and strictly avoided the beef-type 
animals. After a few years at "Waterside" he 
removed down to one of the Menzie farms ad- 
joining Dr. Eobert Menzie 's old homestead, 
Jamberoo. It was on this farm that he used 
"Sir Robert," bred by J. W. Cole, and 
"Comet," bred by Mat. Keen. Both of these 
were Shorthorn type animals. 

Then came the founding of the "Warrior" 
family by the purchasing of "Robin Hood" 
from Thomas Fredericks. Going back to 
Paulks Bros.' stockyard mountain and their 
bull, "Sojer Boy." The F'aulks Bros, pur- 
chased a very fine roan cow from William 
Williams, of Foxground, and mated her with 
"Sojer Boy," and her calf, a bull, was pur- 
chased by Thomas Fredericks, and he grew up 
to be a very excellent animal indeed. Thomas 
Fredericks purchased a heifer from Patrick 
Creagan, of Shellharbour, of William James' 
"Robin Hood" strain. She was mated with 
the Faulks' bred bull, and produced a red 
roan bull which William Graham fancied, and 
eventually purchased. He called this bull 
"Robin Hood." "Robin Hood" was mated 
with "Old Flower" (sold later to the New 
South Wales Government). The produce of 
this mating was the celebrated bull, "Warrior." 
"Warrior" grew up to be an ideal type of 
milking Shorthorn bull as his photograph pic- 
tures him. "Warrior, mated with a cow 
named "Rat," alias "Robina," produced 
another cow named "Flower." "Flower" 
mated with "Admiral" produced George 
Grey's "Togo." 

Now we come to some show-ring ex- 
periences. William Graham sent "Warrior" 
to a Berry show. Two expert dairy cattle 

E 



judges turned him down as not being of the 
true dairy type according to their ideals. 
Graham said but little, simply waited until 
the "Warrior" heifers showed up. He then 
confronted these two experts with a few 
heifers. Their opinion was: "It would be 
difficult to find better dairy animals." "Well," 
said Graham, "they are by the bull you gen- 
tlemen rejected at Berry." 

In 1905 the Graham Bros, took over the 
Minnamurra herd from their father, and re- 
moved to their present home, Mayfield, Dun- 
more, where they continued the breeding of 
high standard cattle. Their first sire was 
"Young Warrior," bred by their father. They 
then decided to purchase the noted bull, 
"Admiral," who blended in an unique manner 
with the "Warrior" and "Young Warrior" 
cows. He was a wonderfully successful sire, 
bred as he was on true dairy lines by Denis 
Kelleher, sire "Sir Henry," dam "Dairymaid." 
The next sire was "Rooseveldt," bred by C. J. 
Cullen, of Rose Valley, Gerringong. He was 
champion Shorthorn bull four years in suc- 
cession at Illawarra shows. Mated with the 
"Admiral" cows, "Rooseveldt" sired excellent 
cows, many of whom were prize winners. 
"Champion of Mayfield" was champion Short- 
horn cow at Kiama Show, 1921 ; also at Albion 
Park Show same year, "Model V.," another 
great cow, and a heavy producer. Both these 
cows display the old Illawarra Shorthorn type. 
It is plain that in this type of cow Graham 
Bros, have aimed at Shorthorn type and 
character. Next bull placed in the Mayfield 
herd is "Defiance of Oakdale," purchased at 
the R.A.S. Show, Sydney, for 200 guineas, and 
was bred by George Tate, of Oakdale, Kangaroo 
Valley, and is descended from that noted cow, 
"Tot of Oakdale," and, therefore, a half- 
brother of "Tot VIII. of Oakdale," purchased 
at the late sale by auction for 246 guineas. 

"Defiance of Oakdale," has won many 
prizes, including first and champion at Albion 
Park, and Kiama in 1920 and 1921, and 3rd 
prize at R.A.S. Show, Sydney, in milking Short- 
horn classes. Contemporary with "Defiance 
of Oakdale" in the Mayfield stud, is "Milk- 
maid's Lad of Mayfield." He is being mated 
with the "Defiance" cows, a beautiful red, 
sire, "Kitchner of Mayfield," dam "Myrtle 
of Mayfield," going back to "Warrior" and 
"Milkmaid." No one possessed of a milking 
Shorthorn type eye could fail to grasp the out- 
standing type and character of the Mayfield 
M.S. cattle illustrated in this volume. 



90 



r/zr HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



Ben O'Connor's OakvaJe Stud, Colinton, 
Queensland. 

Ben O'Connor has not been before the public 
of Queensland as a breeder and exhibitor of 
dairy cattle for many years; he has neverthe- 
less made rapid progress, and has gained a 
good reputation for his Oakdale stud. Perhaps, 
he was fortunate in getting hold of the progeny 
of the blend of two noted bulls, "Gentle's 
Prince of Hill View," and "Gus of Hill View." 
A glance at the illustration in this volume of 
"Gentle's Prince" and "Lovely H" will, no 
doubt, suffice to show the quality and type of 
the blood "Gus" was mated with at Hill View. 
This blend of blood has been successful in the 
prize ring of Queensland, New Zealand, South 
Australia, and throughout the North Coast of 
New South Wales. 

No. 1. "Charm of Glenthom. "— No. 213, 
I.D.C.H.B., Queensland, is the winner of 24 milk 
and butter competitions; also the winner of 20 
champion prizes. She has a 48-hour record on 
the Brisbane Show Ground for 1918, producing 
139.60 lbs. of milk. On the same ground in 
1920, she produced 6.76 lbs. of butter in 48 
hours. In a six months' test she produced 
12,394 lbs. of milk, equal on test to 650 lbs. of 
butter, producing a calf each year. 

No. 2. Bluebell of Oakdale— No. 202, I.D.C. 
H.B., Queensland, is the winner of several 
prizes in the show ring, and a few milk and 
biitter tests. She defeated her stall companion, 
"Charm of Glenthorn," at the Ipswich Show. 
She has a test record of 19.81 lbs. of butter 
per week; and in a nine months' test, produced 
11,607 lbs. of milk, equal to 649 lbs. of butter. 

No. 3. Wakeful of Oakvale.— She is by 

"Gundagai," bv "Abram," ex "Heatherbell," 
by "Victor II." Her test is 19.59 lbs. of 
butter per week. 

No. 4. Shamrock of Hill View.— No. 221, 
I.D.C.H.B., Queensland, sire "Gns of Hill 
View," ex "Biddy," dam "Silky," by "Prince 
Larry," by "Gentle's Prince." At three years 
of age she produced 20.40 lbs. of .butter per 
week, and gave up to 74 lbs. of milk in 24 
hours; she has also won several show ring 
prizes. 

George Grey's Greyleigh Stud, Kiama, 
lUawarra. 

George Grey, of Greyleigh, Kiama. — His 

grandfather, as may be seen elsewhere, settled 
on the Eobb Estate, Kiama, 1843, and later on 



settled at Omega Retreat, and eventually pur- 
chased "Mount Salem," adjacent to the town 
of Kiama. His son, William, in due course 
settled on an adjoining farm. Both father and 
son carried on dairying, and were closely 
associated with the original A. & H. Societies, 
and helped to push on the best interests of the 
district. They bred good dairy cattle. William 
went in for the Jenkins' Shorthorns when the 
beef cattle boom was on in lUawarra, and soon 
regretted having done so. 

At an early age, William Grey's son, George, 
of Greyleigh, learned to discriminate between 
beef and dairy types of cattle. At the age of, 
say, 10 or 11 years, George Grey's ideal cattle 
were six cows his father purchased at Boyd 
Bros.' sale at Broughton Creek, and two cows 
purchased at Booth's sale, near Kiama, in the 
year 1876. The descendants of those eight 
"clinking cows" in after years formed the 
foundation stock of the Greyleigh stud. 
Another choice cow was purchased from W. H. 
Grey, of Saddleback. She was of the "Boxer" 
strain from Mrs. Lee's herd, Gerringong, a 
roan cow of good dairy type, but her progeny 
were more productive at the pail than she 
was. "Plorrie II" is descended from that 
"Boxer" cow. The first bull of note was M. 
N. Hindmarsh's show bull, bred by Evan B. 
Evans, a roan Shorthorn. His progeny were 
passed out. Then came an "Earl of Beacons- 
field" bull, colour red, bred by John Grey, of 
Berry, out of a red cow bred by William 
James. This was the first stud bull at Grey- 
leigh in 1891. The next bull to move the herd 
forward was "Rupert," bred by Hugh 
Dudgeon. He was a red bull of great merit. 
A blood-red cow called "Redman" and 
"Rupert" produced "Princess." "Princess" 
was mated with "Ranji" and produced "Red 
Prince." Either before or after those two 
bulls, there was in the Greyleigh herd a red 
bull bred by William Graham called "Rupert 
II." This bull was by "Robin Hood," alias 
"Fredericks." He left some full red animals 
behind him which goes to show that there 
was plenty of red blood in the veins of his 
sire and dam which can be very easily ac- 
counted for owing to William Graham having 
purchased a line of heifers from William Mus- 
grave that had the blood of P. H. Osborne's 
Devon bull in their veins. George Grey, how- 
ever, had much red blood in his herd from 
sources which would develop under varied 
conditions 



THE HISTORY OF ILL AW AREA 



91 



Going back to the nucleus of the Boyd cattle, 
they had, at the beginning of their cattle breed- 
ing, purchased ten prime red heifers from Dr. 
Kenneth McKenzie, of Bundonan, and a red 
bull from Thomas Black. In a conversation 
with the late Hugh McKenzie about his 
father's red cattle, he said: "My late father 
purchased a mob of dairy cattle with calve* 
at foot, of the Rev. Samuel Marsden breed. 
The ma.iority of those cattle were blood-red, 
and were of the red Sussex breed, with horns 
of various shapes." 

With the best cattle at his command George 
Grey began with energy to build up a dairy 
herd. The females from the "Red Prince" and 
"Rangi" matings proved to be full of vitality 
and dairy quality. He was then most fortunate 
in his choice when he secured "Togo," whose 
sire was "Admiral," and his dam "Flower," 
from Graham Bros. "Togo" put the real dairy 
type and quality into the Greyleigh herd. 
Then came "Rufus" with much of the Hugh 
Dudgeon strain of blood in his make up; sire, 
"Dudley," dam "Empress." "Dudley" was 
by "Gentle's Prince,' ex "Ruby." 

The "Rufus" blood, like good wine, "re- 
quires no bush." The "Rufus" cows, illus- 
trated on pages 78-79, will be a sufficient 
explanation. "Foch" is at the head of the 
Greyleigh herd to-day. His sire is "Fussy's 
Pride," and his dam is "Gentle," and as 
"Gentle"" was by "Togo," it is plain that 
George Grey is not going too far away from 
the foundation blood of the herd. 

Much is expected from "Foch" as a sire, 
and those interested in dairy cattle breeding 
will watch with interest the result of the 
mating of this bull with the "Rufus" cows. 

David Dunn's Valley View Stud, Beaudesert, 
Queensland. 

David Dunn, Valley View, Beaudesert, 

Queensland, has had a life-long experience 

among the best Shorthorn breeders of Southern 

Queensland. When his mind was centred on 

dairying and dairy cattle breeding he visited 

Illawarra and made several purchases. His 

greatest success was with "Blossom III," No. 

57, 1.D.C.H.B., Queensland. "Blossom III" was 

bred by John Hardcastle, Jinbiggaree, 

Dugandan. 

First Prize, National ^how, Brisbane, 1906, for Illawarra 
Heirer under 15 months (15 entries). First Prize, Boonali 
and Beaudesert. Third Prize, Milking: Competition, 
National Show, Brisbane, 1909 (16 entries). Reserve 
Champion, Beaudesert, 1912, Dry, and beaten by her stable 
mate, Buby. First Prize, National Show, Brisbane, 1912; 



Illawarra Cow, over i years in milk. First Prize, 1912, 
Home Milking Competition, -48 hours; best on farm; 41bs. 
butter. Champion Illawarra Cow of Queensland, 1912, and 
winner of Trophy value 10 guineas. Champion Butler Cow 
of all breeds, Brisbane, 1912. First Prize National, Bris- 
bane, 1912; Class 263; First Special. XVI, First Special; 
XVll, First Special; XVIII, First Class. 164 First Special 
XIX; First Special XlXa; also Certificate of Queensland 
Chamber of Agricultural Societies. First Special Prize, 
National, 1912; B.N. Cash Prize, £2/2/-, Mtional Buuer 
Fat Best. First Prize, Beenleigh Show, 1912; Illawarra 
Cow. Champion Illawarra Cow, Beenleigh Show, 1912. 
Not shown in 1913. First Prize, National Show, Brisbane, 
1914; Illawarra Cow. Third Prize, Natiohal Show, Brisbancj 
1914, House Milking Competition, being badly scalded from 
dipping while competing. First Prize, Pair of Illawarra 
Cows — "Blossom" and "Jemima" — Brisbane National Show, 

1914. Champion Illawarra Cow of Queensland, Brisbane, 
1914-15. First Prize, Brisbane National; Illawarra Cow in 
Milk. First Prize, Brisbane National^ Home Milking Com- 
petition; 48 hours on farm; 5,092 lbs. of butter; having 
been down with milk fever three weeks before competing 
in this competition. Second Prize, Brisbane National Show, 

1915, for cow yielding largest supply of milk in 48 hours. 
Champion Illawarra Cow of Queensland, Brisbane National 
Show, 1915. Second Prize, Brisbane National Show, 1915, 
for Butter Fat Test. 1916, First Prize Brisbane National 
Show, Illawarra Cow, 4 years old and over in milk. First 
Prize, Brisbane National Show, Home Milking Competition, 
Test on Farm, 48 hours, 5 lb. 15 ozs. Butter. 2 First Prizes, 
Class 1331-134, Brisbane National Show, Butter Fat Tests, 
all breeds, 26 entries. Second Prize, Brisbane Show, 
Largest Supply of Milk in 48 hours, 100 lb. 12 ozs. 
Champion Illawarra Cow of Queensland, Brisbane National 
Show. 1916, Champion Butter Fat Test Cow, all breeds 
competing. 1912, Winner of Two Trophies (Cupsj. 1914, 
Winner of One Trophy (Cup). 1915, Winner of One 
Trophy (Governor's Cup). 1916, Winner of Two Trophies 
(Cup and Case of Cutlery). 1916, Brisbane National Show 
(Cash Prize, £2/2/-. Also First and Champion Illawarra 
Cow, Beaudesert, 1919. 

Hugh CoUey's Greendale Stud, Jamberoo, 
Illawarra. 

The Oolley Family. — Four brothers, John, 
James, William and Hugh settled on dairy 
farms near Kiama in the early fifties. They 
took up separate holdings, and being of a prac- 
tical turn of mind they soon became possessed 
of good dairy cattle. They took a very 
prominent part in the founding of public in- 
stitutions, and a very keen interest in the 
Kiama A. & H. Society. Their names are 
written on the many pages devoted to agri- 
cultural and dairying progress. For years John 
William and Hugh Oolley had herds of cattle 
second to none in New South Wales. They 
made money out of their cattle. 

At Jamberoo, after Michael Hyam left 
"Sarah's Valley," property became the posses- 
sion of the Howar(3 family, and what is now 
Greendale, was knowu as Howard's Flats. In 
1865 John CoUey purchased Howard's Flats, 
and for years it was known as Colley's Flats. 
It was considered a spirited purchase in those 
days. At present the property is owned by 
John Colley's son, Plugh, who, like his father 
and uncles, has taken a keen interest in 
public matters. He has been for years an im- 
portant member of several of our best institu- 
tions. He helped in no small way to carry out 



92 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAWABRA 



the milk and butter tests for the Kiama A. & 
H.' Society's herd book. In this he neglected 
his own interests to serve his neighbours. 

Hugh Colley took a leading part at the 
founding of the Illawarra Dairy Cattle Associa- 
tion in 1910, and had a number of very excellent 
types of dairy cows tested for the I.D.C. Herd 
Book. Two of those cows, "Lovely" and 
"Model," whose illustrations may be seen on 
page 61 of this volume, suffice to prove their 
value. And one would be safe in stating to-day 
that no better types of Illawarra dairy cows 
•could be found within the Commonwealth. The 
trouble, however, lies in the difficulty of 
getting men who are appointed to act as 
judges of dairy cattle at agricultural shows 
Ijeing able to pick out the salient points of a 
dairy animal when low in condition. Such per- 
sons are not .judges of dairy cattle who go into 
a show ring looking for what has gone down 
the throats of each animal. The method 
adopted by the majority of our A. & H. Society 
committees when judges are being appointed 
has not by a long way advanced the best 
interests of these institutions. A judge of stock 
should be capable of educating the visitors, not 
a mere automaton, to serve his friends. 

The following records have been put up bj' 
cows bred at Greendale by Hugh Colley. Their 
breeding goes back to cows tested for the 
Kiama A. & H. Society's Herd Book, founded 
in 1879. See page 309. 

Lovely.— Tested for I.D.C.H.B. in 1910 ; produced 59 lbs. 

of milk per day, equal to 16.93 lbs. of butter per week 
Mema.— Tested for I.D.C.H.B. in 1911 ; produced 4Ulb8 . 

of milk per day, equal to 18.65 lbs. of butter per week. 
Gazelle.— Testedfor I.D.C.H.B. in 1911 ; produced 50ilbs. 

of milk per day, equal to 15.39 lbs. of butter per week. 
Venus.— Tested for I.D.C.H.B. in 1911 ; produced 54i lbs. 

of milk per day, equal to 16.43 lbs. of butter per week. 
FoBTU-NE II.— Tested for I.D.C.H.B. in 1912 ; produced 

19 lbs. of butter per week. 
Model. — In six months' test for Kiama A. & H. Society's 

Show in 1913 ; produced the grand average result of 

20.82 lbs. of commercial butter per week. She was 

the winner of butter test for Royal Show, 1914, with 

156 lbs. of milk — average test of which was 6.2912 lbs. 

of butter fat. For entry in I.D.C.H.B. she produced 

23.62 lbs. per week. 

James W. Musgrave, Illawarra. — The iMus- 
grave family have been dairying and farming 
in Illawarra for upwards of sixty years. 
William L. Musgrave, the founder of the 
family, came from the County Tyrone, Ireland, 
in the fifties, and commenced farming at Dapto 
when wheat growing was a profitable industry, 
•and continued to do so up to about 1860, when 
he turned his attention entirely to dairying. 



Pie was successful because he was always on 
the look-out for any improvements that sug- 
gested to his mind the uplifting of his herd, 
and his herds" of dairy cattle were always good. 
He fancied the old Shorthorn type. At the 
same time he had no objection to the dairy 
types of Devon and Ayrshire, and iised animals 
of those breeds in his herd profitably. In this 
way it was always noticeable that the Mus- 
grave herds had many notable deep red cows, 
and a bull of same colour, grazing in paddocks 
adjacent to the milking bails. He admired the 
red and roan dairy cattle. 

The subject of this sketch, James W. Mus- 
grave, as a boy took a keen interest in what 
his father had to say about the old types of 
dairy cattle owned prior to 1860 by Messrs. 
Johnston, J. Terry Hughes, and Henry 
Osborne, and when he started to found, on his 
own account, the "Riverside" herd, he 
followed, as far as possible, on the late father's 
ideas. The cow, "Lily II.", illustrated in this 
volume, could be traced by him generation 
after generation to a cow purchased by his 
late father at a sale, mentioned in this volume, 
of John Beatson's herd on the north bank 
of the Macquarie Rivulet, Albion Park. She 
may, therefore, be considered a true type of 
the old Illawarra breed of dairy cattle. 

The bull, "Belmont," was by James W. 
Musgrave 's champion bull, "Belmore," bred by 
by William Moles, Tongarra, Albion Park, 
whose sire, "Orion," was bred by Hugh 
Dudgeon, Hillview, Jamberoo. "Belmont" 
had been successful in the show ring and won 
championship prizes before being sold to 
Patrick Walker, of Mullimbimby, North Coast.. 
Needless to say "Lily II." won several prizes. 
James W. Musgrave was a member of the 
Albion Park Show Committee from its first 
year up to 1923, a period of 35 years. He 
sold his farm, "Riverside," during April, 
together with his dairy herd. The young 
stock, by a Dudgeon and Son bull, sold re- 
markably well. He now retires out of the 
business for an honourably earned rest. 

The "Riverside" farm was part of a grant 
to William Browne who was known in the 
early days of Illawarra as "Ya'llah Browne," 
and as Merchant Browne. Henry Osborne 
bought the estate in the thirties, and at his 
death in 1858 bequeathed a large area of it to 
his son, George, from whom the Musgrave' 
ramily leased it. George Osborne died in 



93 



MILKING SHORTHORN STUD 



AT 



BERRY EXPERIMENT FARM 

OWNED BY 

N.S.W. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



Jrish Milking Sliort- 
liorn Cow. "GIBSON 
GJKL" {imp.) (1-165 
M.S.H.B.). 

Milk yielil when 15 
years old, 10.702 lli. milk 
and 494.79 lb. butter in 
r>G5 days. 

Won ord Prize, Drv 
Cow, R.A.S. Show, 1918. 




Milking Shorthorn Bull, "MKLBA'S 
EMBLEM OE BARBALAEA (461); sire, 
Emblem of Darbalara (100); dam, Melba 
.5rd of Darbalara (1058) by Musket 2nd 
(4.3); g. dam, Mellja of Darbalara, by 
Banker (5); g.g. dam, Madinui- of Bolaro 
(406). 

Melba .3rd of ])arbalara yielded 15,2:«) 
lb. milk and 653 lb. Imtter in 365 days. 

Melba 's Emblem of Darbalara won 1st 
Prize anil Champion Milking Shorthorn 
Bull, R.A.S., Sydney, 1921. 



^^mf&. 



Young Bulls from tested stock always on hand — apply Under Secretary and 
Director, Department of Agriculture, Bridge Street, Sydney. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



go- 



March, 1920, and the property was sold in farm 
lots. James W. Mnsgrave purchased his hold- 
ing, and in less than two years sold out, as 
already stated, at nearly double the price, he 
paid for it, which goes to show the unstable 
nature of land values even in such an old set- 
tled district. When Patrick Larkin settled on 
that farm, away back in 1834, its value was 
estimated at £3 per acre. J. W. Musgrave 
purchased it at, say, £23, and sold at £40 per 
acre. A man named Blackman was an early 
settler on the north bank of the Macquarie 
Eivulet. He occupied a portion of the Mus- 
grave holding. Farms were small in the early 
times in Illawarra. Pew, indeed, were rich in 
those days. Want, however, was nowhere to 
be found. The old families have passed out 
and newer men are in their places. To-day 
'Riverside" is the property of Ernest Keys, 
and he is worthy of it owing to his industrious 
habits. 

Henry Spinks, Culwalla, Jamberoo, Illa- 
warra. — The founder of the Spinks family, 
James Spinks, takes us back a long way in 
the history of Illawarra. Although born at 
Campbelltown. N.S.W., in 1816, his people had 
been residents of Illawarra a few years prior 
to that date. He was a tall, straight, powerful 
man, a thorough bushman in every sense of 
that term. In the course of years he married 
a daughter of Peter Joseph Fredericks of 
Jamberoo (who had had the unique experience 
of having fought in turn under two of the 
greatest generals in Europe, namely, Welling- 
ton and Napoleon) by whom he raised a large 
and highly respectable family. 

James Spinks commenced dairying on the 
Wauchope property, Jamberoo, made money, 
and purchased a holding of his own on the 
northern slope of Saddleback, which he named 
"Woodgrove, " where he established the after- 
wards noted J.S.P. brand of cattle. He early 
in the fifties joined his brother-in-law, Henry 
Fredericks, and their neighbour, John CoUey, 
in the purchase of thirty dairy heifers from 
Henry Osborne of Marshall Mount, at £10 per 
head. They drove them to CoUey's Plat Rock 
farm, Jerrara, tossed for pick and picked turn 
about. Not one bad animal in the mob All 
three were satisfied, and all three became good 
dairymen and cattle breeders. James Spinks 
took a great delight in his home, and saw to 
it that all work done on tlje farm was done 



well. If he bought cattle at a sale he bought 
the best. In this way he purchased some 
excellent cows. He was an early member of the 
Kiama A. and H. Society, as was his father, 
of the old Illawarra A. and H. Society, and 
always exhibited high quality horses, dairy 
cattle, farm and dairy produce. 

The subject of this sketch, Henry, was his 
fourth son. He married a superior girl, a 
Miss Mitchell of Kiama, and commenced dairy- 
ing at Kiama. A good judge of dairy cattle, 
in truth, all the Spinks family were good 
judges of cattle. The brothers got hold of a 
bull called "Boxer," bred by Peter Quinn of 
Gerringong." He was by an Evans bred bull 
out of a Robb bred cow. In colour he was 
a sooty red, with a white flank, and of the 
lean kind. He was the sire of a noted roan 
bull called "Mlisket." "Musket" was the 
sire of "Musket II.", a bull that figures 
frequently in the pedigrees of the Darbalara 
stud cattle, and. no doubt, the blue streaks 
are noticeable in the fleshy part of the nose 
of "Musket II 's" descendents as recent as the 
Royal Show of 1923. 

Henry Spinks has made money on the land 
by means of honest dairying, and has purchased 
and paid for the Culwalla property, comprising 
250 acres, where, with his wife, son and 
daughter he enjoys much human comfort. 
Henry was one of those who helped to found 
the Illawarra Dairy Cattle Association, and 
for a number of years since then has been the 
inspector, whose duty it is to see that all 
animals entered in the herd book are true to 
colour, type, pedigree and dairy quality. In 
this he has been one of the most careful of 
those who have undertaken such duties. He 
has been a successful dairyman, which at once 
goes to show that he has, throughout his dairy- 
ing operations, kept good, profitable dairy 
cattle. 

The two cows, "Daphne" and "Mabel," 
illustrated on page 275 were bred and owned 
by Henry Spinks, and their type and quality 
has been influenced by the upland nature of 
the soil on which they were bred and raised. 
Had those animals been bred and raised on 
rich, low-lying land they would have been 
different. The soil has more to do with the 
distinction between the milking Shorthorn and 
the Illawarrp'^ than persons unacquainted with 
cattle raising under varied conditions can 
imagine. 



96 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



"Sam," the sire of Henry Spinks' cows, 
"Mabel" and "Daphne," was exhibited by the 
Spinks family, and won several prizes. He 
was bred at the old home, "Woodgrove," and 
was considered by good judges to be a true 
type of the old lUawarra breed. 

The James Family of Shellharbour, Illa- 

warra.— The founder of this family, William 
James, was born in St. Ives, Cornwall, England, 
and migrated with a trade at his command in 
the early fifties, and came direct to Illawarra 
where he erected several important buildings, 
including a "flour mill" for William Wilson at 
Shellharbour. He became interested in farm- 
ing and dairying and decided to settle on a 
portion of the Bassett Darley Estate, Darley 
having married one of the daughters of Sur- 
geon D'Arcy Wentworth he got some broad 
acres with his, on which were settled several 
tenant farmers. Greorge Osborne, who died 
recently at Holly Lodge, Burwood, was the 
agent for the property for years. 

William James was a good settler, and made 
g-ood quickly, and purchased his land at the 
first opportunity and called his home, 
"Bravella," after his native home in England. 
He became a prominent dairyman and cattle 
breeder. He was a consistent member of the 
re-constructed Kiama A. and H. Society in 
1867. The writer's brother, Thomas Mc- 
Caffrey, was a fellow committeeman for several 
years, and always spoke in the highest terms 
of William James' uprightness and unselfish 
motives throughout the seventies. He was one 
of those who spent time and money trying to 
place Illawarra butter on the London market, 
and helped to establish the Shellharbour S. N. 
Coy. to carry produce direct to Sydney. As 
an exhibitor of dairy cattle he was always 
consistent. In the mid-eighties he took a trip 
to England to buy two or more dairy bulls. 
He failed to see anything so good as was then 
to be found in Illawarra, so he did not buy 
any stock. He died in 1888, leaving his 
family well on the way to success. 

John James and James James went to Alne 
Bank, Gerringong, and carried on dairying on 
a large scale before their father passed away. 
Thomas James and other members of the 
family remained at "Bravella." The firm of 
James Bros, sold out their herd at Alne Bank 
at the expiration of their lease, and had, at 
the time, the best sale of cattle (up to that 
time) in the old district. Cows carrying bull 



calves were sold at that sale whose progeny 
have commanded attention to the present day, 
including some of the best types of the Dar- 
balara stud animals. 

The James Bros, then went to Rose Valley, 
Gei-ringong, and later on to Cosey Camp, 
Richmond. Prom Cosey Camp John James, 
returned to Illawarra, and settled in the old 
home in a new and up-to-date house. The 
firi^i is now John James and Son, Kurrawong, 
Dunmore. Throughout all those years John 
James, as head of the firm of James Bros., 
was a constant exhibitor of dairy cattle. The 
t\)ro cows, "May Queen of Cosey Camp" an(| 
"Birdie V. of Cosey Camp," have won 
honours at the best shows on the North Coast. 
They, are illustrated in this volume. The bull, 
"Premier of Kurrawong," is now at the head 
of the stud at the old home with his prize- 
winning progeny at Nowra Show, in 1922, 
competing against all breeds. "Premier of 
Kurrawong" was also placed at the Royal 
Show, Sydney, in aged M.S. bull class. This 
bull has many fanciers, while others equally 
versed in M.S. bull type do not admire him 
as a dairy bull. 

John James and Son's M.S. cow, "ilaggie of 
Kurrawong", has .just completed her 273 days*' 
test, producing 8379 lbs. of milk, testing 4 p.c. : 
equal to 334i/o lbs. of butter-fat. 

Thomas James of Rosemount, Shellharbour, 

was born at "Bravella," and grew up with hi.s: 
father on the old farm, an education which 
carries its own worth through life. When the 
father of this family went to England, he was 
capable of taking his father's place on the 
farm as chief director. He had been associated 
with his elder brothers at Gerringong and at 
Bundanoon, until he was 18 years. Having 
left school when 14 years old this would give 
him four years of extra experience. After his 
father's death he had complete control of 
"Bravella." It is only fair to say that Thomas 
James is of a modest and retiring disposition, 
yet, Avithal he possesses much sound sense in 
his dealing with show animals. He rarely 
misses an opportunity, when offered, to exhibit, 
and he invariably, through a long series of 
years, got his dairy cattle exhibits placed. He 
has often won coveted prizes, twice winning 
championships for dairy cow at Albion Park 
and Kiama, and twice carried off the prize for 
six dairy cows at Kiama. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABRA 



97 



For seventeen years Thomas James lived at 
"Bravella," now Kurrawong, and for seven- 
teen years he has been at Rosemount. " Since 
1893 he has been a most consistent member 
of the Kiama A. and H. Society, and was its 
president in 1911. The James family, it will 
be seen have been not only consistent sup- 
porters of lUawarra A. and H. Society shows, 
but also important exhibitors. Thomas James' 
two certified test cows are illustrated in this 
volume. They are ''Zoie of Rosemount," 
tested from April to December, 1919, at the 
age of two years yielded for 273 days, 238.975 
lbs. of commercial butter. "Cassie of Rose- 
mount," No. 982, I.D.C.H.B., yielded 400.489 
lbs. of commercial butter, in 273 days, tested 
from July, 1921, to April, 1922. His other 
two cows, "Daisy of Rosemount," winner of 
first and champion prizes at Albion Park and 
Kiama Shows in 1902, and "Easy of Rose- 
mount," that won first and champion prizes 
back in 1896 at Kiama were illustrated in the 
first volume of the I.D.C.H.B. Both animals as 
illustrated are typical of the Illawarra breed 
and type. Thomas James is spreading out, and 
has recently purchased the old home of the 
late William Moles at Tongarra, where mem- 
bers of his family has gone to reside. It i. a 
neglected farm, but can be much improved by 
intelligent energy. 

It will doubtless seem strange to many of 
my readers how it has come to pass that two 
brothers reared on the same farm, and using 
the same cattle jointly and separately for 
years, should find themselves in rival breeding 
camps, John being a leading light in the M.S. 
Association, while Thomas has all through 
stood for the Illawarras. On this subject 
nothing more need be said at present. 

William H. Dudgeon's stud herds of milking 
Shorthorns are the result of careful mating of 
the best sires procurable with the best types 
of dairy cows. There is much to be learned 
from a careless breeder of dairy cattle because 
the law that governs that subtle science, "The 
study of heredity," is apt to manifest itself in 
a neglected state. Who has not observed from 
time to time in our show rings a classic looking 
cow that upon investigation had no written 
pedigree. She came by chance, and these 
"come by chance animals" give an investigator 
much food for thought. In the building up of 
the Glenthorne and Burradale stud herds W. 
H. Dudgeon did not risk the chance system of 
herd building. He looked for the best and 



tried to improve on certain well-defined lines 
from his first start. 

William H. Dudgeon was born on his father's 
(Hugh Dudgeon) farm, "Ploughweary, " Jam- 
beroo, Illawarra. He from early boyhood had 
the opportunity of becoming an expert dairy 
cattle breeder because his father always owned 
good cattle, as the show records in this volume 
go to show, especially so after his removal up 
the hill to Hillview. 

Miss Dudaeon married John T. Young of 
Jamberoo, who had leased J. T. Coles' Poplar 
Grove farm, where he carried on dairying until 
about 1898 when he sold out his herd and 
joined his brother-in-law, W. H. Dudgeon, as 
partner in a dairy farm at "Newrybar" in the 
"Big Scrub," North Coast. They took with 
them from Jamberoo 43 heifers and four bulls, 
one half bred by J. T. Younsr, the other half 
bred by Hugh Dudgeon of Hillview. In Sep- 
tember, 1901, they dissolved partnership. J. T. 
Young remaining at Newrybar, and W. H. 
Dudgeon taking over Glenthorne. near Banga- 
low, and placed "Dairyman," a bull bred by 
H. Dudgeon at the head of the stud. Since 
then the Glenthorne stud has commanded 
notice. This bull's stock were mated with a 
noted prize winner, "Kelso." The writer of 
these notes gave "Kelso" his first champion 
prize against much opposition. Since then he 
won both medals and cups. He was not an 
easy bull to mate. W. H. Dudgeon states, 
"My best successes with "Kelso" were all in- 
bred to him. They were excellent testers." 
He was followed by "Red Prince," bred by H. 
Dudgeon, and "Young Kelso," bred at "Glen- 
thorne." The latter bull is the sire of "Blue- 
bell II. of Glenthorne." Then came "Captain" 
by "Vain Captain" (imp.). This bull has left 
some very good stock after him. Then 
followed "Westbridge," whose sire was 
"Gentle's Prince of Hillview." A bull called 
"Noble," bred by J. E. Noble, Jamberoo, was 
also used. 

The bull at present in W. H. Dudgeon's herd 
is "Kitchener," bred at the present home. Bur- 
radale, sire, "Gus of Hillview," dam, "Fussy 
III." g sire "Togo," and g sire "Gentle's 
Prince," a noted combination for milk 
quality. 

In March, 1920, W. H. Dudgeon bought J. 
T. Young's farm, known as Burradale, 'together 
with the stud herd thereon, about 50 head, in- 
cluding the bull "Kitchener." W. H. Dudgeon 



9S 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



now owns three herds, one at Burradale, and 
two on Glenthorne. His No. 2 herd is fully 
registered and tested by the Government 
officers. Part only of No. 1 herd is registered. 
The Burradale herd is registered and tested 
according to the rules of the United Breeders' 
Union. His cow "Molly II." recently put up 
a splendid 273 days' test under drouglity con- 
ditions — 13,788 lbs. of milk, average test, 4.1, 
equal to 560.68 lbs. of butter. "Bluebell II." 
is, under similar weather conditions, going 
strong in the 273 days' test, which is at once 
worthy of interest to those who are bent on 
improving their dairy, herds, and thereby 
setting a noble example for the younger dairy- 
men to follow; and, if possible, surpass. 

Dairy cattle breeding under the closer set- 
tlement conditions of the past in Illawarra 
brought out all that was best in the old 
pioneers. The energy that the more successful 
"bnes put into the business has been reflected in 
their families on the North Coast. Hence we 
are not surprised at the progress in breeding 
high-class dairy cattle by W. H. Dudgeon. 

Thomas Daly, Woodbine Stud Farm, Bolong, 
Shoalhaven. — The father of the above-men- 
tioned dairy cattle breeder was ilichael Daly, 
who arrived in Jamberoo, Illawarra, from the 
County Cork, Ireland, in the early forties. He 
was a clever man among horses and cattle, 
and soon found an opening for his energy in 
those lines at Cambewarra where David Berry 
had a cattle run during the year 1857. He 
then got into a larger job at Meroo where he 
had many cattle and horses to look after for 
David Berry. It was at Meroo that his son 
Thomas was born in 1862. Twenty-six years 
later we find him on Burraga, pig island, a 
married man, farming and dairying on his own 
account. His first dairy cows came from Alex. 
Emery, of Glen Murray, Kangaroo Valley, 
early in 1889. A bull was obtained from 
James Willey, of Meroo, who was then a 
prosperous dairyman. Thomas Daly carried 
on very successfully on Pig Island where he 
worked hard, long hours, day by day. He was 
fortunate in not being washed out by a big 
flood as was Dr. George Underwood Alley in 
1860, who lost everything, including a valuable 
library and all his cherished papers and docu- 
ments that would be valuable to-day. 

'J'homas Daly lost nothing on Pig Island; on 
the other hand he made money, and at the 
Berry Estate sales he purchased Dr. Grant's 



farm. Dr. Grant was a Presbyterian minister 
who supported himself and his family by 
farming. He preached alternated Sundays in 
Gaelic and in the English languages. His rent 
was fixed at one shilling per acre during the 
life of David Berry. Thomas Daly called his 
ncAvly-aequired home "Woodbine." It was an 
uphill undertaking, but he and his good wife 
faced it and made money and to spare. They 
are living retired at their cottage home, 
"Glenore, " Bomaderry, while their sons are 
carrying on at "Woodbine" the good work so 
well worked up by their parents. 

The present stud at Woodbine, Bolong, con- 
tains many M.S. registered animals, descended 
from a bull called "Donald," bred by Henry 
McGrath from his Knightly III. by Knightly 
II. After the third cross with the old 
Illawarra dairy cattle the Knightly blood gave 
good results. He used a bull called "Hector," 
by ' ' Sunnyvale of Bloomfield, ' ' bred by James 
W. Gorrell, who left a few good cows after 
him. On these cows he used a bull called 
"Ikey," bred by Harry King of Tabbegong, 
Kiama. This bull was full of Earl Beacons- 
field blood. Good results always came from 
the descendants of the Earl of Beaconsfield 
no matter how they were mated. "Ikey's" 
dam, "Princess," was a remarkably fine cow, 
bred by R. V. Boyd. Her sire was a Beacons- 
field bull, and her dam was of the Boyd strain. 

Michael 'Gorman was bom in "Ennis," 
County Clare, Ireland, in 1844, and arrived in 
Illawarra at the age of 16 years. Six years 
later he was farming and dairying on his own 
account. He gained his experience from 
Gabriel Timbs, who had married his sister 
(second wife). He obtained his cattle locally, 
and when he bought cattle they were invariably^ 
of good quality. His first noted bull came 
from Gabriel Timbs' herd, and was by the bull 
mentioned freely elsewhere. That went into 
George Tate's herd at Broughton Village. 
'Gorman called his bull "Volunteer," owing 
to his peculiar markings. From "Volunteet" 
he bred an excellent dairy herd. They were 
greatly admired by Thomas Fredericks, senr., 
who had carried out testing for the several A. 
and IT. Societies. That is to say, he Was 
interested to see that everything was done 
properly and free from suspicion which is, 
after all has been said, the better plan. 

Going back to history, the Anderson Bros, 
owned Bannoekburn Station, Inverell, in 1870. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



99 



They bred high-elass Shorthorn cattle, and 
bought good Shorthorns. They had learned 
of the high prices of pedigreed Shorthorns in 
Illawarra. so they sent a young man, Jonathan 
Lambert, to a farm on Mullet Creek with six- 
teen head of stud Shorthorns. Six more 
animals came through from Victoria with a 
consignment for W. W. Ewen of Ulladulla. 
The stud bull in Lambert's charge at Dapto 
was called '"Viceroy," a beautifiU roan, an 
attractive-looking animal. Lambert was milk- 
ing a few locally bred dairy cows of good 
quality. From one of these corns Michael 
'Gorman selected a bull in 1878, under two 
years old, which he called "Clare Boy." 
"Clare Boy'' gave colour and type to his 
progeny, and he bred a bull from him out of a 
"Volunteer" cow that sired very fine dairy 
stock. From this latter bull he bred a pen of 
six heifers that won first prize at WoUongong 
Show in 1885, in class, one year and under two 
years, beating that noted Illawarra breeder, 
Simon Dudgeon, who had to be contented with 
second prize. These and other young heifers 
bred by Michael 'Gorman grew into excellent 
types of dairy animals, and when the first show 
was held in Albion Park, Michael 'Gorman 
entered two pens of three cows each. William 
Sharpe, who lived adjacent to the show ground, 
admired these animals, and twitted 'Gorman 
with having made a great search among the 
neighbours to • get the collection together. 
O 'Gorman resented the remark, though it was 
made jokingly, and offered to lay a wager 
that he left three better cows in the paddock 
at his home. The wager was taken, and away 
'Gorman went, returning with three extra 
cows. The result created no little stir among 
the cattlemen when it was found thaf 'Gor- 
man won the wager and first prize with the 
pen he had left behind on the farm. John 
Lindsay got second place with a pen -which 
included the celebrated cow, "Honeycomb." 
Apart from the prize money, O 'Gorman won 
three trophies as special prizes, which included 
a silver cup, which is in the possession of his 
widow. Michael 'Gorman did not troiible 
about pedigree. He simply followed up what, 
in. his opinion, produced the best results. In 
this he succeeded. His sons were much of the 
same opinion as that of their father, and 
bought largely from their neighbours. They 
have also been successful as business men and 
cattle dealers. 

Pollowins ones judgments instead of study- 
ing out pedigrees is, wc know, often criticised 



without much reason. On this question the 
writer of these lines had much to say during 
the eighties and nineties of last century. At 
the beginning of these disputes there were six 
bulls to which cattlemen strove to base the 
success of their test and show cattle, to wit — 
Three Illawarra Shorthorns, and three Ayr- 
shires. These arguments were rife during the 
early stages of cheese and butter factory 
developments between Unanderra and Gerrin- 
gong. After being away for some years from 
Illawarra on the North Coast of New Soiith 
Wales and Queensland, I started on a task 
in 1905 to collect as far as possible first hand 
the pedigrees of the prize animals at our 
several shows, and got hold of a large collec- 
tion of written and verbal statements from "all 
and sundry." What are my conclusions? 
They are as follows : The three Shorthorn type 
bulls gave the general outlines; the three Ayr- 
shire type bulls gave the vitality and dairy 
quality. The rich, red colours, yellow circles 
around the eyes, and on the fleshy part of the 
nose came from a mingling of Devon blood if 
not by direct mating by that blood being in 
those Shorthorn and Aryshire bulls as shown 
in the long list of cattle sales in this volume. 
As will be seen in the article on the "Mac- 
quarie Rivulet" James 'Gorman is now the 
owner of JEajor George Johnston's old home- 
stead farm, which is a portion of the historic 
1500 acres, kno-WTi as the "^lacquarie Gift." 
Mrs. C. Gower has leased portion of it. ^Master 
Roy O'Gorman, an enterprising youth of 18 
years, is conducting successfully a dairy farm 
on the other portion, and will doubtless be 
the owner of the whole block, 150 acres, of rich 
meadow land in the course of a few years. 

At present M'aster Roy O'Gorman 's pros- 
pects are bright. What he may develop into 
as a dairy cattle breeder has yet to be seen. 
If, however, we are to judge by the page of 
dairy cattle illustrations in this volume which 
cover the last few years of the O'Gorman Bros.' 
cattle breeding efforts as well as animals at 
present in Roy's possession, it should not 
require a great stretch of one's imagination to 
predict a bright future for him, especially as he 
has an astute father to guide these early stages 
of his dairy education. 

Robert Mears, Morden Farm, Toogoolawah, 
Queensland. — Robert Mtears landed in Queens- 
land from England in April, 1910, with his 
wife, three sons and one daughter. He was 
a brickmaker by trade, but his ambition was 



100 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



to get on the land. He bought a farm in 
the following September from J. H. McConnel, 
on the Cressbrook Estate, about 4l^ miles from 
Toogoolawah, and set about getting a dairy- 
herd. , He picked up a few fairly good cows 
and a Shorthorn bull. There were many dis- 
appointments which was but natural as he was 
learning. 

In January. 1917, he purchased "Belmont of 
Nestles" (No. 125, JI.S.H.B.). He had prev- 
iously used two unregistered bulls bred by 
Nestle "s Coy. "Belmont" was by "Belmiore 
II." ex "Sweetheart II.", by "Royal 
Standard" (22). On February, 1918, he pur- 
chased "George of Nestles," No. 126, M.S.H.B. 
He then, during the following year, purchased 
three good heifers from Nestles Coy., and three 
more at the disposal sale of the Cressbrook 
herd. In 1922, Robert Mears journeyed to 
New South Wales, and bought three heifers 
from Walter James, Cosey Camp, and two 
from W. H. Dudgeon at Burradale — both 
recognised breeders on the North Coast. His 
more recent purchase is from Nestles Coy., viz., 
"Lady Rose," a grand-daughter of "Rose" 
(140) ; and "Pansy VIII.", related to "George 
of Nestles. " She goes back in line to a Sydney 
Royal Show champion bull, "Melba's Em- 
blem," illustrated in this volume, owned 
by the New South Wales Department of 
Agriculture. "Tulip of Morden" seems to be 
one of the most successful cows in the Morden 
stud. iShe is a half-sister to "George of 
Nestles," sired by "Royal George" (50), dam, 
"Minnie II. of Grasstree" (263). "She won 
two firsts and reserve champion at Toogoola- 
wah, 1921 ; first at Ipswich, 1921 ; first and 



special in all breeds in Brisbane in 1921 ; first 
in home milking competition with 63% lbs. of 
milk, 3.53 lbs. of commercial butter in 24 hours, 
Brisbane Show, 1922. In class, 3 years and 
under 4 years, 273 days test, all breeds, she 
was head of the list with 12,187^4 lbs. of milk, 
609.72 lbs. of butter. Her first calf was 
"Rufus of Morden," sire "George of Nestles." 
Sold at Bri.sbane Show, 1922, for 98 guineas. 

"Hazel of Morden," purchased from Nestles 
Coy., sire "Royal Standard," dam of "Hazel 
II." illustrated in this volume, in 273 days, 
beginning at 4i/^ years, produced 13.516 lbs. 
of milk, equal to 657 lbs. of butter. "Butter- 
cup of Morden," bred by owner, has in 273 
days, produced 12,144 lbs. of milk, equal to 
63i,93 lbs. of butter. "Bonnie II. of Morden" 
a grand-daughter of "Buttercup" (1083), by 
"Belmont" (125), ex "Bonnie of Morden" 
(977), has commenced a 9 months' test at 2 
years, and has every appearance of carrying 
the test through for 273 days successfully. 
"Hazel II. of Morden" was the first "George 
of Nestles" heifer to calve. The second heifer 
to freshen was "Norah III." ex "Norah" 
(771), at the age of one year 10 months. She 
has yielded 5A53% lbs. milk, 263.38 lbs. com. 
butter in 166 days, and is still under test. This 
heifer was second at the last Brisbane National 
Show. "Nina III." ex "Nina" (1082), is the 
only other "George" heifer in milk. She was 
just two years old when she calved, and gave 
341/2 lbs. milk, 1.565 lbs. com. butter in 24 
hours. This will be the first test for 273 days' 
record. The following cows have been 
officially tested for 24 hours with results as 
shown : — 











Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Name of Cow. 


Sire. 


Dam. 


Age. 


Milk. 


Com. Butter. 


Norah of Morden (771) 


Mayflower's Prince 


Fierv 


yrs. 2 mths. 


44 


2.07 


Silver of Mordon (1008) 


Royal Standard (22) . . 


Silver of Gunyah Farm 


3 yrs. 5 mths. 


35i 


1.74 


Cressbrook Bridget II. (1096) 


Discount (67) . . 


Bridget of Cressbrook . . 


3 yrs. 8 mths. 


52 


2.44 


Cressbrook Myrtle II. (1097) . . 


Redgum (68) . . 


Myrtle of Cressbrook . . 


3 yrs. 6 mths. 


47J 


2.00 


Bonnie of Morden (977) 


Mayflower's Prince 


Buttercup of Morden . . 


5 yrs. 2 mths. 


43 


1-955 



• HEIFER'S HIGH RECORD. (" 
The secretary of the Illawarra Milking 
Shorthorn Herd Book advises that "Hazel II. 
of Morden," an Illawarra Milking Shorthorn 
heifer, bred and owned by Mr. R. Mears, Mor- 
den Farm, Toogoolawah, Q., has completed her 
273 days' test with a yield of 8,794 lbs. milk, 
and 460.41 lbs. commercial butter. She was one 
year 250 days old when she started her test, 
and as far as the secretary is aware this is the 
best Australian performance to date for an 



Sydney Morning Herald," 19/10/"22.) 

animal of any breed of her age. "Hazel 11. of 
Morden" is ' by "George of Nestles" (126), 
from "Hazel of Morden" (1009). 

When the average Australian dairy farmer 
has studied the foregoing results he ought to 
blush to think that a man trained to make 
bricks in England, came to Australia in 1910, 
and in the very short period of twelve years 
has set them a task they are, apparently, unabl3 
to follow. 



JAMES W. MUSGRAVE, Illawarra. 



101 




BELMOM' OF WATEnVIEW. 




J. W. GORRELL, Unanderra. 





TI^I.IP II OF SUNNYVALE. 



TliLIP III OF Sl'N.N'Y\'ALE. 



R. MEARS, Morden, Toogoolawah, Queensland. 




HAZEL II OF MORIIEN. 
(No. I.^i, I. . M.S. II. B., Old.) 



GEORGE OF NESTLES. 
(No. 126, I.M.S.H.B., (:jl(l.) 



THE HISTORY OP ILLAWARRA 



103 



Mrs. Charles Gower, "The Meadows," 
Albion Park. — It is but seldom that one gets 
the opportunity of writing an appreciation on 
the merits of a lady in connection with dairy 
farming and the dairy cattle raising industry. 
Such an opportunity has, however, come to the 
writer. It is an easy task as the lady in ques- 
tion belongs by birth and marriage to two very 
old Illawarra dairying families. Mrs. Gower 
is a daughter of Levi Raison, who was born 
in Somerset, England in 1828. He arrived in 
Illawarra in 1852, and finally settled in Albion 
Park in 1867 where he died after a useful and 
honest career in October, 1904. The Gowers 
were an old family as regards their associa- 
tion with Illawarra and its dairy cattle. 
Charles Gower was a member of that family, 
and was born at Tongarra," Albion Park, in 
1874. Tongarra was originally part of the 
domniion of a celebrated aboriginal king 
named "Tullumbah. " That was when Major 
George Johnston sent his cattle down the 
range out of the reach of Governor Bligh. It 
was on portion of the Johnston "gift" holding 
that Charles Gower, after his marriage with 
Mss Kaison, commenced dairying on his own 
account. The young couple moved along in 
keeping with the times. Young Gower was a 
cattle fancier, and always bought the best 
available animals. He was a hard working 
man who spent much energy in forcing his 
way to the front. The pace began to tell on 
his spent energies. Yet, he continued to force 
things until it was too late, and passed out on 
26th June, 1921. Right here the great work 
of a woman with a small family begins. She 
carried on in the face of difficulties. She had a 
large herd of dairy cattle left on her hands 
and a high rent to meet every quarter. She 
had to pay labour at current rates. Yet she 
never faltered. She took the helm in her own 
hands and steered on and on through every 
trouble. What is the result? She is com- 
fortably and free from all worries. The farm on 
which she and her husband had lived being 
sold (John Dudgeon being the purchaser) she 
moved into the adjoining farm owned by Mr. 
James 'Gorman of Albion Park, where it may 
be said with all truth she is prospering, has 
one of the best dairy herds in New South 
Wales; can meet her liabilities with a smile. 
The bull at the meadow farm is "Triumph," 
bred by Hugh Dudgeon and Son (late of Hill- 
view, Jamberoo. Sire, " Fussy 's Lad," dam, 
"Miss Jean," "Pussy's Lad," by "Gentle's 
Prince," dam "Pussy IL" 



In Mrs. Gower 's page of illustrations in this 
volume may be seen the following animals, and 
there are many more equally good ones in the 
herd: — "Myrtle of the Meadows," sire, 
"Charmer," bred by W. H. Cook, Unanderra. 
Dam, "Daisy," bred by Charles Gower. "Silky 
of the Meadows," sire, "Prince," bred by 
Hugh Dudgeon and Son. Dam, "Ruby," bred 
by Charles Gower. "Amy of the Meadows," 
sire, "Prince," bred by Hugh Dugeon and Son. 
Dam, "Muriel," bred by Charles Gower. 
"Gwen of the Meadows," sire, "Prince," bre'd 
by Hugh Dudgeon and Son. Dam "Silky," 
bred by Charles Gower. "Dolly of the 
Meadows," sire, "Prince," bred by Hugh 
Dudgeon and Son. Dam, "Princess," bred by 
Charles Gower. 

The bull, "Prince," the sire of these cows, 
was by "Pussy's Lad," dam "Emma II," 
which goes to show that he is closely bred to 
the present bull, "Triumph," illustrated in 
this page of Mrs. Gower 's. The constitution 
of these animals being all that could be desired, 
a little in-breeding is sure to prove good. 

In the effort put forth to carry on the work 
her husband left in an unfinished stage, Mrs. 
Gower gave the Illawarra dairymen an example 
of a woman's pluck. Her success in finishing 
the work and carrying it on to a profitable 
state has set an example that but few men 
have been capable of performing, and in doing 
so she has also gained much in the way of 
womanly dignity. 

The writer visited Mrs. Gower 's home in 
November, 1922. She was then sending seven- 
teen ten-gallon cans of milk daily to Sydney 
off a farm containing 140 acres of land. Those 
figures speak louder than fancy returns from a 
few highly fed cows here and there throughout 
Australia. It is easy to pick, say, five or six 
cows out of a herd of 100, and force them 
up at the cost of the keep of a dozen animals. 
It is not so easy to get big returns for a herd 
of cows in a profitable manner. 

James Robert Knapp, Swanlea, Bolong, 
Shoalhaiven was born on the south side of the 
Shoalhaven River at Berallen, 1859. Since then 
the name has been changed to Brundee owing 
to confusion in the postal department. His 
father was a well-known agriculturalist and a 
prize ploughman. Stephen Knapp 's ploughing 
successes are mentioned in this volume, not 
only on the banks of the Shoalhaven River, 
but in the IJUadulla district, where he settled 
with his family in later years and carried oi 
both farming and dairying there with sucee.ss 



104 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABRA 



The subject of this sketch commenced dairy- 
ing at Moruya in 1881, and obtained his first 
dairy cattle in that district, and bred from a 
bull bred by Cole Bros., Jamberoo. He 
obtained a red bull of the "Mariner" strain 
bred from Francis McMahon's dairy herd when 
Ihat noted Shorthorn breeder owned a valuable 
herd of dairy cattle. He then got a Wilford 
bred bull. The late William Wilford often 
explained to the writer of these lines his theory 
of breeding dairy cattle, which, briefly, meant 
his ideas of blending the Shorthorn with the 
Aryshire. He used Shorthorn and Ayrshire 
bulls in his herd alternately every three years, 
and was always careful to select a Shorthorn 
bull with a prominent backbone, a type of 
animal that has not been plentiful since the 
introduction of the beef breed in the South 
Coast districts. 

As soon as James R. Knapp got an oppor- 
tunity of buying a farm in the Shoalhaven 
district he did so. His home, Swanlea, is 
situated at the junction of Broughton's Creek 
with the Shoalhaven River, almost under the 
morning shadow of Coolangatta hill. Here he 
carried on dairying and farming combined. 
He had learned cheese-making, and made 
money out of his cheese, rearing calves on the 
whey, which has been found to suit the purpose 
very well when other ingredients are used 
with it. 

At Swanlea James R. Knapp soon moved 
forward, and has 230 acres of very choice land. 
The floods annoy him occasionally, especially 
so when they get out of control. Floods are, 
however, not without blessings, as at Swanlea 
Adhere large deposits of rich silt is spread over 
the flats. In this way, if a crop is swept away, 
the next year's crops pay for it. 

The Swanlea stud of dairy cattle have been 
improved very much by the introduction of 
TUawarra bred bulls and heifers. Those who 
meet the Swanlea animals in competition at our 
leading shows find that it is not an easy matter 
to get the judge's eyes away from them. A 
few of them may be viewed in this volume 
where they are illustrated. No. 1, "Jock of 
Swanlea," colour, red, brand K.J., sire "Joffre 
of Greyleigh, " g sire, "Daisy's Heir of Hill- 
view," from "Tulip of Hillview, " dam, 
"Cinderella II. of Greyleigh," g sire, "Rufus 
of Greyleigh," g dam, "Cinderella of Grey- 
leigh. ' ' 



"Gwen of Swanlea," colour, red, with little 
white, No. 1146, I.D.C.H.B.; sire, "Fairy Boy 
of Fairfield," g sire, "Fairfield," gg sire, 
"Togo," dam, "Empress." "Jessie IV. of 
"Swanlea," colour, roan, No. 1148, I.D.C.H.B., 
sire, "Togo of Greyleigh," dam, "Jessie III. of 
Greyleigh." "Blossom II. of Swanlea," 
colour, red. No. 1139, I.D.C.H.B., sire "Fairy 
Boy of Fairfield," dam, "Blossom of Swanlea," 
g dam, "Spot." "Flossie of Swanlea," 
colour, red, sire "Patey of Swanlea," g sire, 
"Togo of Greyleigh," dam, "Blossom II.", g 
dam "Blossom," gg dam, "Spot." "Velvet IV. 
of Swanlea,," colour, red. No. 1148, I.D.C.H.B., 
sire "Patey of Swanlea," etc., dam, "Velvet 
III. of Swanlea," g dam, "Velvet II.", gg dam, 
"Velvet." It will thus be seen that the Swan- 
lea stud is an Illawarra breed which has 
flourished in every new dairying centre in Aus- 
tralia. To-day animals from the Swanlea stud 
may be seen doing well for their owners as far 
north as the Atherton Tableland in Queensland. 
Call them whatever name you may they are 
still Illawarra. They are like a square block 
of wood, roll it as you may it will turn up 
square. Turn over the pages of this volume 
and study the types of dairy cattle in it, 
and you cannot fail, dear reader, to pick out 
an Illawarra. Yes, and as soon as James R. 
Knapp got his ej^e set on the lUawarras he 
determined to make them his ideal cattle, and 
he is doing so. 

James R. Knapp 's I. M.S. cow, "Flossie of 
Swanlea", has just completed her 273 days' 
test. Result: 8,982 lbs. of milk, testing 4.6, 
equal to 410.31 lbs. of butterfat. This cow was 
only two years and nine months old when she 
began this meritorious test. 

Henry McGrath, The Green Hills, Shoal- 
haven, was born on a farm adjacent to his 
present home in 1850. His father, James Mc- 
Grath, was born in Co. Tyrone, Ireland, and 
came to New South Wales in the early thirties, 
and went into the employ of Lieutenant Law- 
son of Veteran Hall, Prospect. In his youth 
he- was a schoolmate of Mrs. Henry Osborne 
of Marshall Mount, Illawarra. In or about the 
year 1838, Henry Osborne sent him to Barren- 
garry, Kangaroo Ground, then a cattle run. 
About 1842 he went to Woolomia, on the shores 
of Jervis Bay, where his son, James McGrath 
of Cambewarra, was born in 1846. He then 
took a farm at Green Hills where the subject 
of this sketch, Henry, was born. He died, the 
result of an accident in 1879, aged 81 years. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



105 



Henry McGrath grew up on the land, always 
among horses and cattle. He never had any 
particular fancy in dairy cattle, nor had he 
much respect for pedigreed animals. His theory 
of breeding can be explained away in a simple 
manner. He, working on the experience of many 
old-time dairy cattle breeders, to wit — That the 
bull gave the progeny their outward appear- 
ance, colour, etc., while the cow conveyed to 
them their nervous, milk-producing qualities. 
A case in point, when Dr. Hay imported his 
Shorthorn bull, "Knightly," he was mated 
with quite a number of high-quality cows bred 
in Illawarra. Their male progeny showed the 
Shorthorn type, and roan colour. These young 
bull in turn were mated with other Illawarra 
cows of superior dairy quality. Henry Mc- 
Grath got a beautiful roan bull calf called 
"Knightly HI." who was about the third 
remove from "Knightly" (imp.). This bull 
mated with heifers purchased from C. W. 
Craig, and other Illawarra dairy cattle breeders 
gave him his first great lift upward in dairy 
cattle breeding at "The Green Hills." Of 
course he had been cattle breeding and dealing 
in cattle for years before that in Cambewarra. 

To get at the Green Hills property we must 
go back a long way in the history of old 
Illawarra, when William Graham was 
managing things for those cruel taskmasters. 
Major Druitt, Captain Rossi and Lieutenant 
William Sheaffe in turn. Just how William 
Graham came to be called by some of the old 
settlers "Terrible Billy" need not be men- 
tioned here. In the course of time he got to 
Shoalhaven where his two eldest sons, James 
and William, obtained a grant each of 60 acres, 
owing to having been born in New South 
Wales prior to a certain date. They settled at 
Mayfield. James' grant was dated July 6th, 
1841, quit rent £5 6s. 8d. ; William's graijt was 
dated December 12th, 1841, quit rent, 9s. per 
annum. 

So far as can be ascertained William 
Graham, senr., did not receive a grant of 
land in Illawarra, although he was early 
on the scene. So far as the old maps 
guide us there is no such place as 
"Green Hills," so it must have been so 
named by local residents. This particular 
property comprised a grant of 640 acres to J. 
Layton, generally known as Parson Layton. 
Portion 5 on the southern bank of the Shoal- 
haven River; opposite Pig Island. Native 
name, Burraga. Layton did not fulfil the 



necessary conditions, and William and James 
Graham occupied it as tenants in common. It 
was then granted to them on January 30th, 
1843. As time moved on the Grahams 
increased in numbers until at one time the clan 
was represented by about six generations. 
William Graham, junr., died in 1849, and 
trouble arose among the several families. The 
law courts were leased for a term to settle 
these disputes. The majority soon felt that 
law at best was a losing game. Then a sub- 
division of the 640 acres was agreed upon. 
In this sub-division appears the names of James 
Graham, John Graham, James Monaghan, 
David Hyam, Maria Hyam, Christina Williams, 
and others. Then James Monaghan found 
himself in possession of one of the finest dairy- 
ing properties in New South Wales containing 
183 acres 1 rood and 28 perches, on which he 
erected a fine house, and things went on 
swimmingly with himi. He bought out the 
interests of others who were interested in the 
Green Hills property, and thereby increased 
his holding to 359 acres. He then either rode 
or walked over a dairyman's gold mine for a 
number of years. But the "Green Hills" was 
his ruin. He made money on this farm and 
craved for more ; went into a gold mining spec 
at Yalwal, and became involved and lost the 
best gold mine on the Shoalhaven River. 

All who knew James Monaghan were sorry 
for his ill luck. He was a useful, honourable 
public man. At the same time no one be- 
grudged Henry MteGrath his slice of good luck 
because he made his money by close attention 
to the business he understood. Henry 
McGrath kept on the old beaten track. 
He understood the land, horses, and cattle. 
He made much money on horseback as 
a dealer in stock. On page 275 we have him 
at the age of 72 years seated on his favourite 
horse, "The Cob," just starting off to inspect 
a line of dairy heifers. And again we have 
him holding a mare whose pedigree goes back 
to a black mare owned by his father, sired by 
a blood horse imported by Henry Osborne of 
Marshall Mount, Illawarra. There were such 
sires as "Merry Pebbles," "Deerfoot," and 
"Grandmaster" in her back breeding. She is 
a chestnut and her sire is "Game Boy." 

Henry McGrath has a family of three sons 
and seven daughters, and carries on in a large 
way both agricultural and dairying pursuits. 
His hobby is, however, to get out in the open 
among the stock: A keen judge of cattle 



106 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABRA 



values. Small profits and quick returns on 
large mobs bring him in substantial returns. 

Denis O'Keefe, Kiltankin, Jasper's Brush, 
South Coast. — Many will be anxious to learn 
the origin of the name to be seen on the Illa- 
warra railway line, "Jasper's Brush." In the 
early days of the Berry regime men were 
stationed at several centres to watch the move- 
ments of men and things. They received 
rations and rode about the open country in 
order to see that no cattle nor timber were 
removed without the overseer's orders. One 
of these men whose name was "Jasper Brush," 
was located at this part of the Berry Estate. 
Hence the name, as he was only known as 
' ' Jasper. ' ' 

Denis O'Keefe was fortunate in getting hold 
of some good land in the vicinity which he 
named "Kiltankin," after his native place in 
the Co. Tipperary, Ireland, where he was born 
on July 22nd, 1868. It will be seen, then, that 
Denih is not a pioneer, nor the son of a pioneer 
of lUawarra, but he did what a wise man would 
do if he got the chance, viz., he married the 
daughter of one of lUawarra's pioneer dairy- 
men, namely. Miss Timbs, whose father was 
Samuel W. Timbs. The Timbs family are men- 
tioned elsewhere in this volume. Samuel was 
a brother of Gabriel Timbs. 

On July 12th, 1884, Denis O'Keefe landed 
in bydney and came down to lUawarra 
determined on making a home. He started 
dairying at Kangaroo Valley on November 1st, 
1892, by purchasing a few cows and a red and 
white bull called "Hero," bred by E. J. Condon 
of Kangaroo Valley. He won several prizes 
with this bull which gave him a taste for show 
ring fame. He then decided on following up 
the Shorthorn type of dairy cattle, and pur- 
chased from his father-in-law "Monarch," a 
bull of much merit. The progeny of this bull 
had made a name for their sire in Johnston 
Bros.' herd on the Richmond River, North 
Coast. "Monarch" did much good for the 
Kiltankin herd after Denis O'Keefe purchased 
at Jasper's Brush from the Berry Estate 
people. "Monarch" was also a successful bull 
for his owner at South Coast shows, including 
the champion prize at the National Show, 
Berry, in 1914. 

The next sire put into the Kiltankin stud 
,vas "DeniaL" i-egistered in the IV. volume of 



the M.S. herd book of Australia. This bull was 
bred by James Gilroy. He was evidently 
inferior in regard to dairy quality to 
"M'onarch," under more favourable circum- 
stances, and "Gayfield, " bred by James W. 
Musgrave, of "Riverside," Yallah, was placed 
at the head of the stud. This bull is also 
registered in Vol. IV. of the M.S.H.B., No. 878. 
This bull has been exhibited for a number of 
years with varied success and failure according 
to the opinion of one man (the judge for the 
time being). He was placed second, and got 
reserve champion award at Nowra and Berry 
in 1921 and 1922. Won first for bull and 
progeny at Nowra in 1922; second in same 
class at Berry in 1923. On his sire's side he 
goes back to Spinks Bros.' Musket strain. He 
has, however, much of the Knightly blood in 
his mixture in "Daphne" (2721, H.B.). 

The present stud bull at Kiltankin is 
"Renown," whose sire is "Standard of Oak- 
dale," his dam being "Raehael of Oakdale," as 
registered in Vol. VI. M.S.H.B. Both "Gay- 
field" and "Renown" are illustrated in this 
volume. Critics may, therefore, form their 
separate opinions of their respective merits for 
dairy purposes. 

Denis O'Keefe has been breeding and 
exhibiting dairy cattle at South Coast shows 
for 27 years, and for several years past at 
the Royal Show, Sydney. His success as a 
dairy cattle exhibitor is by no means so im- 
portant as his advancement in the ownership 
of good dairying and agricultural land in 
Illawarra. His Kiltankin property at Jasper 's 
Brush contains within its boundaries soil that 
will produce, with a small amount of labour 
in comparison to other farms, an abundance of 
food for man and beast, and is the result of 
the combined energies of himself and his good 
wife during a short time. 

Greorge Alexander, The Fairfield Stud 
Farm, Kiama, Illawarra. — ^George J. Alexander 
may be at once described as a progressive man 
of the younger school of Illawarra dairymen. 
He began operations in 1910 as head of the 
firm of Alexander Bros, at Fairfield, Kiama, 
and has since taken charge of the whole of 
the Kiama interests as well as being a share- 
holder in Alexander Bros.' holding at Numba, 
Shoalhaven. At the Fairfield home he has bred 



107 



GEORGE ALEXANDER, 
The Fairfield Stud Farm, Kiama, Illawarra. 




BUTTERFLY H OF FAIRFIELD. 



CHARMER OF FAiRFIEI.Ii 





FLOHRIE OF FAIRFIELH 



REAI T'l II (IK l\\llil'IFM> 
(No. I I.-,, l.li.C.ILl;.) 





MAVFLOWKR OF FAIIlFIELIl. 
(No, SS. I.li.C.ll.B.) 



OFOilESS (I!- FAlRFIELIl. 
(Nu. lU, I.Il.C.H.R.) 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARKA 



109 



several very fine animals, including "Fairy of 
Fairfield," a record breaker in her day. She 
was disqualified by what may be termed a 
committee of opposition breeders because milk 
was part of her daily ration. This may have 
been right. At the same time it is generally 
believed that chemical compounds can be used 
to take the place of milk — the compound 
having this advantage ; it can be used secretly. 
It has been stated in the past that it is not 
practical to materially change the per cent, of 
butterfat in milk by feeding, but the milk 
flow can be increased to an enormous degree 
by giving cows the right amount and kind of 
food. Breeding experiments have, however, 
shown that butterfat production can be bred 
into a cow. Thus it may be seen by those 
who desire to see that "Fairy" should not 
have been disqualified. 

To possess an ambition to breed high-class 
dairy cattle and at the same time to attain 
a marked degree commercially requires a great 
amount of physical and mental energy, as they 
often run on what may be termed devergent 
lines. In perfecting the plan of a herd re- 
quires constant attention at home, while com- 
mercial enterprises take men away from 
home. George Alexander has entered upon 
this dual career, and has so far been successful 
in both undertakings. 

Every man may have at times the ideal, in 
his mind, what he should be. This ideal may 
be high and complete, or it may be moderate 
and unsatisfactory. Jr'erhaps no one is so 
satisfied with himself that he never wishes to 
be wiser or better. Such men are not likely to 
benefit their neighbours. 

To understand dairy farming in its many 
ramifications a man must be observant and 
quick to size up and sum up the commercial 
side of every branch of the industry. That is 
George Alexander's aim in life. 

It is a sterling character that makes a man 
architect of his own circumstances. Men of 
this stamp succeed by keeping abreast of the 
times. The subject of these remarks kept to 
the fore by securing good bulls and selecting 
good cows to mate with them. Fairfield, No. 
'■i, A.R. I.D.O.H.B., laid the foundation desired. 
Fairfield whose sire was Togo, thus giving at 
once a blend of "Admiral" and "Warrior" 
blood. Then there was "Illawarra Prince," a 
massive red bull that combined the "Gordon- 
brook," N.C., and the "Ilillview" blood, to- 
gether with "Red Prince" with "Beaeonsfield'' 



blood in every vein. The next bull at "Fair- 
field" was "Fussy Ill's Pride," the sire of 
George Gray's stud bull "Foeh." 

Passing on to the present sire in the Fair- 
field Stud "Charmer of Fairfield," bred by 
owner, it may be noticed that his position is 
in common with all stud animals, that is, 
certain strains of blood come to the fore. 
"Charmer's" official pedigree is given as 
follows. Sire, Fairfield, No. 2, I.D.C.H.B., and 
his dam, Phyllis, goes direct back to "Mar- 
quis II." No. 6, I.D.C.H.B. This bull holds 
an unbeaten show record for 1922 and 1923 at 
leading coast shows as well as at the E.A.S., 
Sydney. 

Fairfield of Fairfield, sire of Charmer, is 
also sire of Fairy of Fairfield, who gained the 
following prizes, viz. : — Second and reserve 
champion, R.A.S., Sydney, 1917; first, dry cow, 
and reserve champion at Kiama, 1919; first in 
pen of dry cows at Kiama, 1919 ; second, Nowra 
1919 ; first and champion at Berry, 1919 ; first 
and champion at Nowra, 1919 ; second and 
reserve champion at Kiama, 1920; and first 
and champion at Nowra, 1920. Tested for the 
Kiama Show, 1920, she produced the follow- 
ing, viz. : — April 24th, 1919, 80.51bs. milk, equal 
to 4.143 lbs. butter, averaging 29.001 lbs. per 
week ; June 21, 1919, 72 lbs. milk, equal to 
3.608 lbs. butter, averaging 22.341 lbs. per 
week ; September 1st, 1919, 54.2 lbs. milk, equal 
to 2.364 lbs. butter, averaging 21,476 lbs. per 
week; in addition she was first in six months' 
test, three stops as per figures given; first in 
niilk test with 80.5 lbs. in 24 hours, and second 
in butter test with 29.001 lbs. in seven days; 
for best dairy cow in the show, 1920, she gained 
second on points for utility and production, 
with 96 points. 

Under the United Pure Bred Dairy Cattle 
Association Herd Test she produced 17,130 
lbs. milk for eight months, equal to 70.4 lbs. per 
day, daily average test, 3.4, equal to 712 lbs. 
butter. She also produced in 365 days 21,972 
lbs. milk, equal to 947.201 lbs. butter, and she is 
half sister to Duchess of Fairfield, who pro- 
duced 18,277 lbs. milk, equal to 793.121 lbs. 
butter. 

Fairfield of Fairfield is also sire of Fair- 
field IV., who has an unbeaten record, and 
gained first prize at Berry, 1921 ; Commissioner 
of Fairfield, who has an unbeaten record and 
was purchased at Kiama Show sales for 151 
guineas; Duchess of Fairfield, a successful 
show cow, and who produced 68 lbs. milk 



110 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABEA 



daily for six months; and Princess of Fair- 
field, who was sold for 80 ^ineas. 

The cow illustrations in this volume from 
the Fairfield Stud and their performances are 
of the highest merit. The herd comprises 170 
head of dairy cows, and 70 head of young 
cattle; 130 cows being milked on the average 
daily. The Fairfield farm contains 340 acres. 

At the late Eoyal Show, Sydney, Fairfield 
had 21 cattle exhibits for which 19 ribbons were 
secured worth £81 3s, which, after all, did not 
pay much over expenses. There is evidently 
too much show about the K..A.S. 

Arthur Pickles' Stud of I.M.S. Cattle, Black- 
lands, Wondai, Queensland. — To get an idea of 
the far-reaching influence of the old pioneers 
of lUawarra one must Ayander far away from 
the grave plots that hold the ashes of those 
sturdy men, heroes in the true sense of the 
term, for they risked life and limb to build 
homes in the bush — a bit of thick bush land — 
then a few cows and a horse gave them their 
first homes. 

How many are there to be found to-day who 
do really respect those old heroes? Methinks 
they are few in number. Now the subject of 
this sketch was reared in Queensland on a dairy 
farm, and can bring to mind the cattle used 
by his father. As he says, "They were called 
dairy cattle. " That was thirty years ago. The 
writer can remember that between thirty and 
forty years ago dealers were engaged in the 
business of taking cattle from the dairying 
centres of Illawarra to Queensland. Cattle in 
those days could be purchased for small sums. 
They were often brought back over the border 
to the Kichmond and Tweed Rivers by other 
dealers. 

ilr. Pickles informs me that it was a common 
practice on stations to cut off two teats from 
a cow's udder in order to relieve the strain, 
and still allow the udder to contain enough 
milk for the calf. That never happened in 
Illawarra, as milking twice, and in some 
instances thrice a day, was generally adopted 
in Illawarra in the very early thirties, and the 
calves "poddied" and sent out to the stations 
at Irom 9 to 12 months old. Butter was every- 
thing to the early dairyman; and it was a 
common thing for a dairyman to ride ten or 
twenty miles to get a bull calf of a well- 
known strain, and those who had no horse 
carried the calf in a bag on his back. Yes, 
they were everlastingly after butter. Hence 
the beef. Shorthorns, introduced in 1870, and 



the following ten years upset many good men. 
It was the first Illawarra cattle brought into 
Queensland over thirty years ago that took 
the eye of the subject of this sketch. He loved 
them in his early youth, and when he grew up 
he decided to own some of them. In 1902 the 
Blacklands Stud was started by means of a bull 
and heifer, from John Hardcastle's Jimbig- 
garee Herd — "Jamberoo II." and "Diamond 
II." He secured a blue-ribbon with each 
animal at the Rosewood Show which made him 
a very proud man indeed. "Jamberoo II." 
was by the noted bull, "Jamberoo," No. 1, 
I.D.C.H.B. His dam was "Whitelegs," a very 
fine cow. "Jamberoo II." is No. 22 in the same 
herd book. His next purchase was a bxdl 
bred by Graham Bros, of Illawarra. Sire, 
"Admiral," dam, "May.'* "May" was sold 
to Tyson Donnelly of Darling Downs, Queens- 
land, for 80 guineas. She was a spotted cow of 
great merit, and a prize winner in New South 
Wales and Queensland. The next bull was by 
"Federal of Mayfield," dam, "Milkmaid," 
bred by Graham Bros. One could not speak 
too highly of "Milkmaid of Mayfield." She 
was by "Admiral." Her record was 71 V2 lbs. 
of milk in 24 hours, equal to 25% lbs. of 
butter. She is the dam of the Reserve Cham- 
pion I.M.S. bull at the Royal Show, Sydney, 
1923. On the progeny of those bidls a great 
bidl was placed, "Sir Hugh," No. 26, bred by 
Hugh Dudgeon and Son of Hillview, Jam- 
beroo. "Admiral" was sold foolishly, and the 
sire of "Sir Hugh." "Guss of Hillview" was 
also sold far too soon. How many great bulls 
have been east out foolishly in Illawarra? 
Scores of them. "Sir Hugh" is recognised to- 
day as the leading bull for production and show 
purposes in Queensland, over fifty of his daugh. 
ters having qualified for the herd book test. His 
place is being filled gradually by "Florrie's 
Victory," out of the noted cow, "Florrie"; 
and " Fussy 's Monarch," bred by H. Dudgeon 
and Son, out of "Fussy III.", a very superior 
cow indeed. A youngster from the Hillview 
stud, by "Hero," ex "Princess," is comins on 
later. "Florrie's of Blacklands" record is 74 
lbs. of milk per day, eoual to 24 lbs. of butter 
per week, 19.374 lbs. of milk, equal to 900 lbs. 
of butter in 365 days. (Official). A glance 
elsewhere at Graham Bros, and Dudgeon and 
Son's dairy cattle illustration is sufficient to 
show the quality of the Blacklands stud, of 
which there are 26 cows averaging 51 lbs. of 
milk daily, and' an average of 16.83 lbs. of 
butter per week. "Royal IV." is the winner 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



111 



of the butter test at the Brisbane National 
Show. Just turned four years, making 5.96 
lbs. butter in 48 hours, which is an excellent 
performance. 

The lesson to be learned by breeders 
throughout New South Wales and Queensland 
from the success of the Blacklands' system 
of dairy cattle breeding is plain. Arthur 
Pickles had been taught early in life the 
differences between common station-bred cattle 
and the Illawarras for dairying purposes; 
when, therefore, he began to exercise his own 
judgment, he looked for the lUawarra type of 
dairy animal, and afterwards bred that type. 
He did not cast about looking for what did not 
exist, to wit, a dual purpose animal. In his 
effort to get hold of the best strains of dairy 
cattle in Illawarra the builder of the Black- 
lands herd, Arthur Pickles, made several visits 
to the old dair^'ing centre, and has secured the 
"Gentle Prince." "Guss of Hillview," the 
"Fussv." and the "Eoyal Prince of Hillview" 
blood. "Hero of Blacklands," No. 52, H.B., 
is out of "Buttercup II. of Alne Bank," and 
was bred by Henry Chittick and Sons whose 
cattle are duly recognised in this volume. 

Alexander Campbell Lairond was born at 
Oakbank, Shoalhaven, in 1865, on a farm 
belonging to his father. He has, therefore, 
been associated with farming and dairying all 
his life. In the year 1890 he commenced farm- 
ing and dairying on his own account. He 
turned his attention to cheese making, and 
was successful owing to close and careful 
attention to the business. He did not for 
some few years devote his attention to cattle 
breeding ; used all sorts of breeds and their 
crosses until 1903, in which year he speculated 
in a few grade Friesians. He was so im- 
pressed with their dairy qualities that he at 
once "decided to adopt the Friesian breed, and 
has worked on those lines ever since. He pur- 
chased the best available animals from Bodalla, 
Coolangatta and Numba to which places 
Friesians had been imported direct from 
Holland. Mr. A. C. Lamond surprised his 
friends by purchasing high-priced land on the 
Shoalhaven River. He evidently had con- 
fidence in his dairy cattle as he continued 
buying high-priced land until to-day he owns 
1150 acres of the rich Numba fiats and two 
other holdings between Numba and Jervis Bay 
containing 900 acres and 700 acres respectively 
of grazing land. The Friesians are his sole 
study, and a glance at the illustrations on 



page 115 in this volume will at once convince 
breeders that there are quite a large amount 
of dairy quality in the animals that have been 
and are now used by Mr. Lamond in building 
up his herd. 

From whence came these animals which are 
admired by so many dairymen in New South 
Wales. 

Silesia. — This fertile country prior to the 
late war belonged in part to Prussia, Austria, 
and Poland. Since the late war Poland has 
claimed the better part of i1. It has been for 
centuries rich in dairy cattle, apart from its 
great coal measures. From an historical point 
of .view we need only state that it would be 
to the ancient annals of Silesia we should turn 
if we wished to get at the Friesian breed of 
cattle. It may be questioned as to whether we 
should give to one variety of cattle the name 
of the whole group, comprising as it does, 
Dutch, Friesian, Oldenburg, and Holstein. The 
trouble, however, lies with the constant feuds 
between these neighbouring peoples. The win- 
ning side alwaj's carrying away the stock of 
those who were forced to submit to the yoke 
of the strongest power. If history is correct, 
the Silesian cattle were a few hundred years 
ago yellow and white spotted. The mixture 
with other races gave this superb breed of 
cattle a variety of colours without taking 
from them their size or dairy quality. Hence 
we find black and white, and red and white 
spotted, many blvie roans, and sooty-grey ani- 
mals. In order to overcome difficulties of the 
nature just described about 1875, two cattle 
associations were established in the fertile 
lands of Holland. In the beginning no dis- 
tinction was made in colours, all were regarded 
as pure. Later on the Friesian Association 
advanced the classification of colour, and 
adopted the black and white as the distinct 
colour. Professor Isaachsen, a noted Norwegian 
authority, saj'S: "Passing from Scandinavia to 
the lower countries, a well-known and 
characteristic breed is the one commonly bear- 
ing the name of Dutch cattle, although termed 
in America Holsteins-Priesians, the latter title 
referring to the Dutch province of Friesland. 
It is represented in the German province of 
Holstein. In general appearance and colouring 
these cattle seem to present a considerable 
resemblance to the old black and white 
Ayrshire breed, with which they also agree in 
being mainly reared for dairy purposes." 
Following Professor Isaachsen one might easily 



112 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



conclude that these cattle prevailed throughout 
Denmark and Jutland. "Where," he states, 
"Black and white cattle owing to their 
albinistic nature are found with the white 
markings arranging themselves along the lines 
of the limbs, extending to the front pair as 
high up as the shoulder blades, and in the 
hind-quarters to the pelvis, and in many 
instances the red colour displaces the black. 
These animals are termed the red and white 
Baltic cattle. In size all these cattle run very 
large, and scientists point out that the change 
in colour from black to red is a kind of 
retrograde evolution as demonstrated in the 
'' Malay bantin, " in which the cows and calves 
are red, while the old bulls are black, whieli 
goes to show that black is a specialised type 
of colouring in cattle, whereas red is the 
primitive or original colour. The jumping 
from black to white is albinism. 

Be all this as it may be. A. C. Lamond has 
made a success of dairying and Friesian cattle 
breeding. On his home farm, Numba, he has a 
number of remarkable fine animals and several 
high testers which include : — ' ' Woodcrest 
Johanna Tepee" (imp.). No. 451, born, 
1V1/'12.— Milk 256.285, butter 104.5 in 365 
days; and "Johanna Mercedes of Lyndholme," 
No. 453, tested at 3 years old :— Milk 18909.75 
lbs., butter 751.934 in 273 days. 

The Berkeley Estate. — The Berkeley Estate, 
as may be seen elsewhere in this book, was 
originally a grant to Robert Jenkins. After 
his death his widow, IMrs. Jeminia Jenkins, 
added to it by purchasing other smaller grants 
from soldiers and their sons. In this way the 
estate spread westward and grew in size until 
it contained about 5000 acres. It lay just 
west of the Five Islands Estate, and was 
bounded on the north by Allan's Creek, and on 
the south by Lake Illawarra. The old South 
Coast road passed through it at Unanderra, 
the western portion becoming what might be 
termed North Dapto. A small township 
sprang up at "Charcoal," now Unanderra, 
watered by a stream of fresh water. Dapto 
proper lay about three miles further south. 
With regard to the meaning of the word Dapto, 
one might search in vain to solve the problem. 
An aboriginal king, "Old Bundle," gave it as 
liis opinion that it wasn't derived from the 
aboriginal language, possibly tTien from Di 
Pieto or D'Petro, a foreigner, who settled 
there in very early times and carried on shoe- 



making and tanning, and dealt largely in fur 
skins with the blacks. 

Immediately around this enlarged Berkeley 
Estate, moving round from Allan's Creek 
towards the range west, and then south, lay 
the properties in early times of several military 
men including Captain Waldron, Colonel Molle, 
Lieutenant Sheaffe, Captain Plunkett, Colonel 
Britten, Captain Hopkins, Colonel Leahy, 
Major Druitt, Lieutenant Weston, Captain 
Cole, R.N. We have it on the best of authority 
that these men considered themselves a 
superior class, and carried on farming and 
dairying operations by means of cheap convict 
labour, and, employed as a rule, an ex-conviet 
as an overseer, who did not practice those 
fellow feelings that go to make man wondrous 
kind. If, then, tradition reminds us that 
convicts were shot in those localities when 
suspected of stealing food it only recalls to 
mind a lecture delivcrod in Sydney during 
December, 1864, on the history of New South 
Wales by the late Sir Henry Parkes, then Mr. 
Henry Parkes, M.L.A., when he stated, 
"Thomas Barrett, Henry Lovell and Thomas 
Hall were hanged in Sydney for stealing beef, 
and John Freeman was hanged for stealing 
flour. These unfortunate men," said Mr. 
Parkes, "were starving when they stole the 
food and should not have been hanged." Who 
knew more than Sir Henry Parkes the state 
of things in England when his countrymen 
were being transported in chains to Botany 
Bay ? Who knew more than he about the state 
of things that existed in New South Wales in 
the early days? He, himself, had to toil along- 
side of men who had served under cruel over- 
seers, and Sir Henry came to Australia a free 
man. What Sir Henry Parkes saw and heard 
in Sydney on his arrival could be seen and 
heard in Illawarra. No wonder then that 
every effort was put forth to destroy our 
records. But somehow tradition keeps alive 
dreaded memories. Whereby the sins of 
fathers are recorded against their children. 
There is but little left to us of ancient Illawarra 
in the form of buildings. In the forties of last 
century quite a number of new homes were 
erected. The old homes erected by means of 
convict labour have either disappeared or were 
remodelled in such a manner as to appear quite 
different to the original design. This it at once 
patent to those acquainted with the increase of 
families. A modern investigator moving 
through Illawarra with his camera would cer- 
tainly be able to snap many old buildings, but 



THE HISTORY OP ILLAWARRA 



113 



would find it most difficult to locate the site 
on which the ori^nal buildings stood. Some 
few who lived a solitary life did not attempt 
to alter things. That was not, however, the 
spirit of the age. Scores of old homes were 
swept by fire, and a few by floods. Change. 
There is nothing more certaiu than change. 

Of the old military caste which once ruled 
in lUawarra very little remains. It was 
peculiar to the Hindoos, hence military officers 
who had served in India did not look upon 
the officers of the old New South Wales Corps 
with much respect. lUawarra was not the 
place for such distinctions. Consequently, the 
pride of man was short-lived. The next blow 
that felled the pride of these haughty ones 
was the granting of land to " ticket-of -leave 
men." Thej^ left one by one, leaving nought 
behind but a fig or a pine tree to mark the 
spot from whence their convict slaves went 
forth to toil in sunshine and in rain. 

Among those old-time military men Captain 
Hopkins appears to have settled down to farm- 
ing and dairying on fairly solid lines. His 
home, "Benares," was of an up-to-date 
character. 

"Benares" did not escape its share in the 
form of tragedies. A fine young girl was 
murdered there by a man named Pritchard in 
a fit of dire revenge. Another sad happening 
was the death from thirst of a father and son, 
relations of the Hopkins' family, who had 
developed a craze for cattle-droving in the 
interior of New South Wales — 

Far, far beyond, prolific region spread, 
Where whispering winds have made their balmy bed, 
Disturb'd but by a Leichhardt's daring thread! 
***** 

"O'er his dominion the emu wanders wild, 
And deems himself fond Nature' fav'rite child; 
Bears his high head and o'er each wavy chain, 
Shoots his bright gaze, the monarch of the plain. 
Yon barren desert's broad and drear expanse. 
Checked the bold Sturt and dar'd him to advance 
Awed with its sterile majesty of space, 
And warn'd him backward from the fatal place" 
***** 

In 1867 Captain Hopkins sold out his dairy 
herd at "Benares" and leased his farm. It 
was at this sale that the Bartletts bought 
Captain Hopkins' imported Durham bull which 
they put among the cows purchased from 
Andrew McGill, with a view of improving the 
herd and bringing it up to a higher standard 
of purity. They improved the colour but not 
the dairy quality. 



The Cook Family.-The founder of this family, 
William Manning Cook, was born in Cam- 
bridgeshire, England, in 1834, and arrived with 
his parents in Illawarra at an early age. He, 
therefore, saw much of the early life of Wollon- 
gong, and was present when the first load of 
coal was delivered from the Mount Kiera 
mines. A procession was formed at 10 a.m., 
Monday, August 27th, 1849. (A copy of the 
invitations sent out to the principal residents 
of Wollongong to attend the celebration of that 
important event is in the possession of the 
writer.) There has been many developments 
in coal mining since then. 

William Manning Cook married early in life 
and settled for a time near Mount Kiera. Then 
he removed to Avondale where he carried on 
dairying until Edward Gibson gave up the 
lease of Benares. He secured the lease from 
Captain Hopkins, and then commenced dairy- 
ing and farming on a large scale as his family 
had increased considerably in numbers. 
Benares contained 470 acres, was well watered 
by two running creeks, with a splendid house 
erected thereon. He was a hard-working, 
progressive man, and milked as many as 140 
cows, which goes to show he was a good 
manager. He introduced, fifty years ago, 
horse works for churning butter which relieved 
his family of much labour. 

It was at Benares that the first butter was 
made which was sent to Sydney to compete in 
the open market in the new colony. It was 
made by John Kennedy, packed in the butt end 
of bangalow leaves which had been specially 
treated for the purpose. The old black- 
inhabitants taught the whites how to make this 
material just as pliable as leather. It was by 
this means that water was carried, and the 
butter reached Sydney in perfect condition. 

William Manning Cook soon made sufficient 
money to buy Benares, wihich estate is in 
possession of his family to-day. He died 
February 6th, 1921, aged 87 years. 

William Henry Cook was born in Illawarra 
in 1857, and worked on his father's farm where 
he had many opportunities of studying farming 
and dairy cattle raising, which, judging by the 
use he made of his opportunities, was taken 
advantage of. He, like his father, married 
early in life, and at once went to live at 
" Glendalough, " where he and his good wife 
raised a very fine family. He went into dairy- 
ing with a gay, full heart, bred and purchased 
the best types of dairy cattle, made money. 



114 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAWAERA 



purchased, when an opportunity offered, ad- 
joining farms until he increased his holding 
stage by stage into many broad acres. 

He was as well as being a good father, 
a good dairyman, and a good dairy cattle 
breeder, an upright public man. He went full 
hearted into co-operative dairying, and was 
one of the first to move in the matter of 
establishing the Co-operative Butter Factory 
at I'lianderra in 1887. A director of the 
Farmers' and Dairymens' Milk Coy., Sydney, 
and a consistent member of the Dapto A. and 
H. Society. He died, the result of an accident, 
March 30th, 1922. 

The estate of the late W. H. Cook, which 
is in four farms, is practically under the 
control of Albert, Stanis and Harry Cook, who 
like their father, were brought up to the 
business of farming, dairy, and cattle raising, 
which, is at all times, a great advantage to the 
-man on the land. It is impossible to calculate 
the amount of knowledge a boy gains on his 
father's farm year in and year out. 

If a young man, like Albert Cook, had to 
learn at a college what he has already learned, 
he woiild find it very difficult, whereas, all he 
has to do on his farm is to study books on 
]\rendelism, heredity, and those diseases that 
are peculiar to the cow under domestication 
to enable him to overcome any difficulties that 
call forth his attention. A good father on a 
good farm is a wonderful guide. 

At "Glendalough" there are 100 cows milked 
daily. All these cows are of choice colours, 
being either red or roan, and registered in the 
I\I.S. or the I.^I.S. herd books. On the estate 
there are 300 head of dairy cattle. The two 
sires in use are "Rnfus of Glendalough" and 
"Admiral of Glendalough." For bull and 
progeny prizes at local shows these two animals 
were awarded several prizes. The Rufus 
group \\on eight times : the Admiral group six 
times. The bulls that sired most of the aged 
cows were "Bloomfield of Glendalough" and 
"Advance of Greyleigh." The cows from 
these two bulls are of good quality. Several 
of them have show tests to their credit as well 
as show ring prizes. 

Durint;' the present year, 1923, "Rufus of 
Glendalough" was awarded first and champion 
prizes at Albion Park ; was first at Wollongong, 
and grand champion of all breeds at Dapto 
against 13 competitors. The Cook Bros.' stud 
of dairy cattle is worthy of the men who spent 
so many j-ears in bringing it up to its present 
stage of perfection. 



Ihe Duncan Family of Unanderra and West 
Dapto. — The originals of this family were very 
old colonists. John, the founder of the lUa- 
warra family, was one of six brothers and 
one sister, and was born outside of Sydney 
harbor in 1837, and was, therefore, an old 
Australian native. He was brought into lUa- 
warra by his parents in 1841, who had taken 
up a clearing lease from William Warren 
Jenkins on his Berkeley Estate. In the course 
of time they began to grow wheat and other 
farm products. The original home is now the 
property of George Lindsay, of Horsley, Dapto. 
John Duncan, together with two other 
brothers, Alexander and Thomas, purchased a 
bullock power threshing plant from an old 
Illawarra identity named Earough. and 
threshed wheat and other cereal crops for the 
farmers as far south as Jamberoo during the 
years that wheat flourished in Illawarra, free 
from rust. After the rust trouble had made 
wheat growing impossible the Duncan brothers 
separated, and John Duncan and his family 
settled down in common with his neighbours 
as a dairy farmer which he continued in up to 
a period when eld age called a stop. He died 
at an advanced age after having spent 66 
honourable years in Illawarra. 

Alfred W. Duncan, of Berkeley, Unanderra, 
was born on the Berkeley Estate in 1860, and 
has been dairying on his own account for some 
considerable time, and has always taken a keen 
interest in dairy cattle raising. He always 
looked out to use none but dairy quality bulls. 
The bull illustrated in this vohime is "Play 
Boy of Berkeley," and was bred by Hugh 
Dudgeon and Son, of Hillview, Jamberoo. 
The champion test cow, "Prize of Berkeley," 
was bred by Alfred Duncan. She is an 
excellent type of dairy cow from a practical 
dairy farmer's point of view, inasmuch, as she 
requires no pampering to force up her dairy 
yields of milk and butter. She is in this 
respect the poor man's cow. 

Alfred Duncan is In a large way as regards 
dairy farming as he runs two dairy farms, one 
on the old Berkeley Estate, and the other on 
the old Five Islands Estate. In this way he 
milks on the average 90 cows. 

A glance at the cattle illustrations in this 
volume will suffice to prove two things : — ^First, 
that Alfred Duncan has well-bred dairy cattle, 
and, second, that his cattle were photographed 
under very trying conditions that prevailed in 
Illawarra during the latter part of 1922 and 
the early part of 1923, when the camera man 



115 



ALEXANDER CAMPBELL LAMOND'S FRIESIAN STUD. 

Numba, Shoalhaven. 





OLDA XII OF COOI.AM.iATTA. 



WOOLlCliE-^T .T(;)IIA.\.\A TEI'EE (llllli.) {_\0. 151). 





LI'NTA I Oh' BRl'N'DEK. 



OLUA XIV OF COiJLAXOATTA. 




JOIIAINNA MERCEDES OF LYNDHOLM (No. ^SS). 



FANiNY KING OF ROCK. 



The animals illustrated on this page are the foundation stock of the now 
celebrated Friesian Stud at Numba. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



117 



came on the scene. To a judge, the (luality 
is plainly visible. It is then merely a matter 
of feeding to bring them up to a higher 
standard of production. It has been shown 
by. repeated cow tests in America that scores 
of cows that were producing from 500 to 600 
gallons of milk per year, viz., Each milking 
period were by judicious feeding made to pro- 
duce from 1000 to 1200 gallons of milk during 
each milking period, which is generally recog- 
nised as 9 months. 

In reviewing Alfred Duncan's cattle illus- 
trations, then it must be borne in mind that the 
photographs were taken when some of the 
animals were well run in milk. All the Unan- 
derra cattle were photographed under similar 
difficulties. That, however, does not influence 
the mind of a man acquainted with dairying 
under all sorts of conditions. 

George Duncan of Brisbane Grove, West 
Dapto, was born on the Berkeley Estate, and 
has been associated with dairy farming all his 
life, and for several years has been dairying 
on his own account. The animals exhibited in 
this volume were all bred by him, and they 
are a credit to him as they show excellent dairy 
quality. No. 1, The roan Shorthorn bull, 
"Noble Lad of Brisbane Grove," calved 
December 25th, 1914, at Brisbane Grove, sire, 
"Young Bloomfield of Sunnyvale," dam, 
"Beauty II." "Young Bloomfield" was by 
"Bloomfield of Sunnyvale, dam, "Lovely of 
Sunnyvale." "Beauty IL" was by "Noble," 
dam, "Beauty of Mount Nebo." No. 2, 
"Becky of Brisbane Grove," calved March 2nd. 
1914, a roan Shorthorn cow. sire, "Young 
Bloomfield of Sunnyvale," dam, "Cherrj' of 
Brisbane Grove," whose sire was "Tim" and 
her dam was "Gertie." "Becky" was shown 
at Dapto A. and H. Society Show five timeSj 
winning four first prizes and one second prize ; 
and four champion prizes in Shorthorn dairy 
cow class. No. 3, Red and white Illawarra 
cow, "Blossom of Brisbane Grove," calved 
April 12th, 1914. Sire, "Young Bloomfield of 
Brisbane Grove," dam, "Trixie of Brisbane 
Grove," sire, "Tim," dam, "Beauty IL" 
"Blossom" was placed first as heifer two 
years and under three years ; twice first as cow 
in milk, and twice champion, and was twice 
successful in pen of three cows in_milk. No. 
4, "Star of Brisbane Grove." An Illawarra 
dairy cow, colour red, calved July 29th, 1914. 
Sire, "Young Bloomfield of Sunnyvale," dam, 
"Brownie II. of Brisbane Grove," whose sire 



was "Prince Ivanhoe," dam "Brownie I." It 
M'ill be seen that George Duncan is the breeder 
of all four animals in the Brisbane Grove page 
of cattle illustrations, and by reviewing the 
career of the Duncan family since the head 
of the family settled in Illawarra, it will be 
patent to my readers that as a family they 
have each and all been good citizens who have 
by their honest industry made Illawarra richer 
by their presence at a time when labour was 
required to make ends meet. 

Henry Chitticks and Sons. — ^Henry Chitlicks 
arrived in Illawarra in 1880 at the age of 18 
years. He spent a few years among the dairy- 
n:en seeking experience and earning a little 
money Avith a view of starting on his own 
account. In 1886, Henry made his first start 
at "Woodbrook," Jamberoo. "Woodbrook" 
belonged to an old Conservative pioneer named 
James Wallace. After the death of James 
Wallace his daughters remained in the old 
home and leased the farm to whomsoever they 
considered likely to pay them the highest 
rental on the day the rent was due, if not 
quarterly in advance. In this way the subject 
of this sketch found favour in their eyes. 

A wise man hath said: "Perseverance, dear 
my lord, keeps honour bright. To have none 
is to hang quite out of fashion, like a 
rusty nail in monumental rockery." By 
perseverance Henry plodded on and on until 
he found himself on a better farm on "Flat 
Rock Creek" (Clinton's old farm), near 
Kiama. in 1892. He remained there until 1898 
and then moved down to John Colley's farm 
and leased the adjoining farm owned by Moses 
King. 

Henry Chitticks moved into a position that 
enabled him to purchase in 1904 iloses King's 
55 acres, John Colley's farm, the Glenburn 
farm, 145 acres, situated on north bank of 
Minnamurra River, Jamberoo; M'elntyre's 
farm at the Foxground, 151 acres, and, then in 
1905. Alne Bank, Gerringong. Alne Bank was 
the old home of the Hindmarsh family. Any- 
one interested can see in this volume under 
"cattle sales" that several large heads of cattle 
were disposed of by the tenants who had 
occupied "Alne Bank." Henry Chitticks' 
latest purchase was a farm on the late James 
Robb's Riversdale property. On this farm a 
man named Scott experimented with s'lgar 
cane in the early sixties. The cane when cut 
was taken to Riversdale and put through 
a primitive crusher which only crushed one 



118 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



stalk at a time. When improvements were 
being executed the sugar crop failed and Scott 
moved northwards. 

Henry Chitticks married in 1885 and had 
three sons and two daughters for whom he has 
worked ever since. His wife died in 1905. 
I'he Chitticks' h.erds were practically founded 
by purchased cows and heifers. He purchased 
a cow called ''Lovely," in calf to an Antill bull, 
"Dunlop." That "Lovely" bull was the best 
bull he ever owned. He then purchased a 
bull from Hugh Dudgeon of Hillview, Jam- 
beroo, by Red Prince ; he then fancied a calf 
called "Royal Prince" whose dam was a plum 
one of Dudgeon's choicest cows by "Gentle 
Prince." He then turned his attention to 
George Grey's bull, "Togo," and secured a bull 
by that great sire out of "Primrose," a very 
superior cow. Henry Chitticks and Sons have 
been exhibiting dairy cattle at local shows, and 
at the Royal Show in Sydney since 1910 with 
satisfactory results. The number of first and 
champion prizes won by the firm ran into huge 
figures. Of course they followed up the shows 
year by year from Wollongong to Xowra. One 
cow, "Buttercup II." produced in 1914. in 
class, cow giving greatest quantity of com- 
mercial butter per week : 17.514 lbs. ; in 1915, 
17.480 lbs. ; in 1916, 18.418 lbs. ; in 1917. 17.480 
lbs.; in 1918, 18.404 lbs.; in 1919, 14.175 lbs. 
She was t-^sted under careful supervision. Had 
this cow's dam been raised on rich flats instead 
of on poor hilly country, and had she in turn 
been raised on country rich in bone forming con- 
stituents, she would have been a large-framed 
animal; instead of that, was delicate looking in 
1914, and she continued on the medium size 
right up to the year 1919. All things being equal, 
size and constitutional vigour is everything in 
cow-testing as such animals can consume large 
([uantities of rich foods. "Buttercup II." is 
illustrated on page 259 in this volume, to- 
gether with other types of Chitticks and Sons' 
stnd dairy cattle. Their appearance go to 
show that a dairyman can breed handsome, 
profitable cattle. Others of their neighbours 
who were on the land in lUawarra away back 
in the seventies have neither farms or presenta- 
ble cattle to show to a visitor. 

James W. Gorrell, Sunnyvale, Unanderra.— 

James Gorrell, senr., was born in Armagh, Co. 
Tyrone, Ireland, and migrated in common 
with hundreds of his countrymen to New South 
AVales in the early fifties. He was not long 
in setting on the land, and settled on the Avon- 



dale Estate, West Dapto. Avondale was a 
grant to Alfred Blyard, of whom we know but 
little beyond the fact that all the Elyards of 
that period were associated either with 
the convict barracks, or the law courts in 
Sydney, where they occupied good, easy jobs. 
None of the Elyards were agriculturalists or 
commercial men. They sat tight like barnacles 
and leased their grants to military gentleman 
who Avorked them by means of convict labour. 
In the raid-thirties Henry Osborne of 
Marshall Mount, purchased Avondale from 
Elyard and leased it out to the small settlers. ' 
After his death it went to his eldest son, Henry 
Hill Osborne, who carried on farming and 
dairying for a few years. 

It was on his father's farm at Avondale that 
James W. Gorrell was born in the year 1862. 
His father, being both an agriculturalist and 
a dairyman, the subject of this sketch, had the 
opportunity of getting closely into touch with 
those industries. He evidently took advantage 
of his opportunities as we find him in 1883 
striking out on his own account. He was an 
enet-getic man who took to work as being part 
of his nature, and about the year 1890, he was 
settled 071 his own farm, part of the Berkeley 
Estate. Unanderra, containing 84 acres, with 
a very excellent wife. 

To show what the small settlers have done 
for Ulawarra as compared with the large land- 
owners, let my readers think this over. The 
Jenkins family, prior to this sub-division, 
owned 3500 acres, some of it the finest land 
in Ulawarra, yet they failed to make ends meet. 
It was cut up into about 20 farms, and all those 
who s-^ttled on it became independent of 
financial worries. 

It is safe to say that few men have been 
more successful at dairy farming than James 
W. Gorrell. To his 84 acres he added 121 acres, 
and since then purchased 84 acres on the Can- 
terbury Estate. Part of John Wyllie's 
Dunlopvale grant which fell into the 
possession of Dr. J. D. Lang, D.D., here we 
have the name, Canterbury. 

James W. Gorrell is not a man to cultivate 
fancies in dairy cattle breeding. He always 
believed in practical results, and the Ulawarra 
breed suited his purpose. Consequently we 
find him with a herd of good, working cattle. 
He cultivates 30 acres of land, feeds his soil, 
and fills two large silos every year far winter 
supply besides growing green fodder for direct 
feeding. Each silo contains 110 tons of silage. 



TUB HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



119 



He milks from 50 to 80 cows throughout the 
year. The results from his stock are a suffi- 
cient guarantee that dairying is a paying 
concern on Sunnyvale. Fl-om 20 to 30 heifers 
are reared on the farm each year to replace 
the old cows as they pass out to be fattened off 
for the butcher. He may rear a bull for his 
own use. but as a rule he buys from his neigh- 
bours. The bull at present on the farm is 
"Douglas," bred by Hugh Dudgeon and Son. 

Mr. and Mrs. Gorrell have a very excellent 
home wherein they have raised a family of 
seven sons and three daughters. The sons 
have relieved their father of much of the farm 
work. He has, in consequence, been able to 
devote much of his time to the public. He has 
been for years an active public man, and Mayor 
of Central Hlawarra Council for a number of 
years. 

The Johnston Bros, of Albion Park.— The 
builder of this Hlawarra home was born in the 
County Fermanagh, Ireland, in 1838. His 
name being John Johnston, and the last of his 
brothers to seek a fortune in New South "Wales. 
Consequently he did not arrive in Hlawarra 
until 1865. He. however, like many of his 
countryman, was prepared to face difficulties, 
and got on the land first at "Crawley Forest," 
Kiama : then removed to Jamberoo ; from Jam- 
beroo he removed to Omega Retreat, where 
he found himself solidly on his feet. 

It has been said with a considerable amount 
of truth. "They who acquire a position with 
much difficulty, retain it the longest ; as those 
who have earned property or money are 
usually more careful of it than those who have 
inherited those luxuries." It was certainly 
the ease with John Johnston who worked very 
hard, made money, and took care of it while 
he lived. 

A great number of the North of Ireland 
men who came to found homes in Hlawarra 
were well acquainted with buying and selling 
cattle for years in connection with the 
"monthly fairs" that were held throughout 
their respective counties. "When, then, they 
arrived in Hlawarra, they hadn't much to 
learn in that direction. John Johnston was 
one of those shrewd men who noticed where 
the best sires were to be found. He attended 
auction sales and always bought his fancy in 
dairy cows which gave him the best material 
to work on. He made a great forward move 
in dairy cattle breeding when he secured an 
excellent bull by "Earl of Beaconsfield. " 
From this bull and the best of his cows he bred 



money-making stock. It was from this bull 
and a cow named "Florrie of Coral Cottage" 
that he raised a bull named " Florrie 's Pride," 
an excellent type of Hlawarra, and was a 
prize-winner at local shows. From " Florrie 's 
Pride" and a large-bodied roan cow named 
"Lovely," he bred "Lovely's Prince," a roan 
of much quality. From "Lovely's Prince" 
and a very handsome roan cow which he pur- 
chased at Messrs. James Bros.' sale, Gerrin- 
gong, he bred another roan bull named 
"Omega." From this bull and a cow of his 
own breeding he bred "Omega II.". He had, 
by this time, brought around him a family that 
were ready to take on a farm and a dairy herd 
on a larger scale. 

The next move was his last. He leased and 
afterwards bought a large holding at Albion 
Park known as Marksville, a part of the noted 
John Terry Hughes' estate. It contains about 
300 acres. Some of this land is of a very rich 
nature ; the other portion is dry forest land. 
Taking its convenience to a market and its 
proximity to the village of Albion Park, it may 
be termed a very excellent holding constantly 
increasing in value. 

The Johnston Bros, have taken advantage of 
their opportunities, and are interesting them- 
selves in the breeding of good dairy cattle. 
They have an intelligent grip of the value of 
good cattle, and are not likely to be led off the 
lines laid down bj^ their late father, namely, 
always seek out the best dairy strain and hold 
on to it until some better strain can be secured. 
This is patent in their conversation, as they 
still look back with pride to the great worth of 
the "Earl of Beaconsfield" blood. 

To the man who can think for himself the 
examp,le of a man like John Johnston is 
worthy of attention. He placed more value 
on quality than on pedigree, and following on 
those lines made money withoitt much capital 
to start on. Such efforts are the true object 
lessons. 

Messrs. Johnston Bros, purchased a bull 
named "Richmond of Kalube" from M. E. 
Hindmarsh of Robertson. It is from this bull's 
strain that they are now breeding. A photo 
of the bull bred by Johnston Bros, is illustrated 
on page 249, named "Dairymaid's Prince." His 
dam. "Dairymaid," is illustrated on the same 
page. By a survey of the outlines of "Dairy- 
maid's Prince" it would appear plain that his 
line breeding going back tn " Florrie 's Pride" 
with occasional out crosses has not imnaired 
his constitution, altered his back sires' type. 



no 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



nor impaired Ms dairy quality. He is, there- 
fore, an object lesson for young breeders to 
study. 

D. Spoor and Sons, lUawarra M.S. Stud, 
Mundubbera, Queensland. — The writer is 
forced to clip from the "Gayndah Gazette" 
the following account of the rapid advance in 
dairy cattle breeding of the above-named 
dairj'men: — "Situated within a short distance 
of Mundubbera is the 'Aurora' dairy farm, 
owned by D. Spoor and Sons, the home of 
some of the highest class lUawarra j\I.S. cattle 
to be found in the State. In 1918 Spoor and 
Sons set out to establish a dairy herd on high- 
class lines. The herd was gradually founded 
with the best females obtainable from the herds 
of such noted breeders as A. Pickles, P. Bid- 
dies, E. ]\[oses, and a bidl thrice champion of 
Queensland named 'Young Kichmond' was 
purchased from "W. G. Curran; two cows from 
D. Doran by aiiction. A heifer in calf was 
also obtained at Doran 's sale by 'King's 
Counseller. ' " The writer says: "Although 
this heifer looked very promising, it Avas little 
thought she would develop into such a great 
producer. She is now known as 'Handsome of 
Hillerest. ' Her completed nine months' test 
has stamped her one of the best, and has a 
weekly record for the Gayandah Show of 173/4 
lbs. of butter. Spoor and Sons' cattle have 
been successful at several shows, carrying off 
seven championships, fifty firsts and fourteen 
second prizes; also a silver cup at Biggenden 
Show. The bulls used in the 'Aurora' stud 
are 'Hugh's Prince' and 'Plorrie's Boy II.' 
They are line bred to each other, both having 
for g sire 'Federal of jMayfield,' out of 'ililk- 
maid of Llayfield.' bred by Graham Bros., Dun- 
more, Illawarra, who are well known as dairy 
cattle breeders. 

"The following is a list of some records put 
up by Spoor and Sons: — 'Gold of Blacklands,' 
A.R., 3.3.3 lbs. of biitter in 9 months as a two- 
year-old; ll>io lbs. of butter in seven days at 
28 months. 'My Love of Home Park,' A.R., 
396 lbs. of butter in 9 months as a four-year- 
old: 14 lbs of butter in seven days. 'Iland- 
some of Hillerest.' A.R., 506 lbs. of butter in 
9 months as a four-year-old; 173^ lbs. of butter 
in seven days. 'Handsome II. of Hillerest,' 
A.R., 389 lbs. of butter in 9 months as a two- 
vear-old. 'Joyce of Blacklands' produced 121 
lbs. of milk equal to 5.96 lbs. butter in 48 
hours on Brisbane Show ground. 'Dora of 
Blaeklands,' 'Kiama of Blacklands,' and 



several other cows have passed into the 
I.M.S.H.B. of Queensland. 

It is to be hoped for that Messrs. Spoor and 
Sons will continue to move on swimmingly 
when they decide to frame their own ideals 
by breeding their own fancy in cattle in- 
dependent of outside infiuences. Men with 
large areas of land, a variety of soil, many 
cattle, and money at their command, can do 
much. Small landholders must walk circum- 
spectly. 

Dunster Bros.' M.S. Dairy Herd, "The Hill," 
Shellharbour, Illawarra. The Dunster family 
came from Kent, England, and settled at 
Dapto, Illawarra. The late Humphrey Dunster 
was then two years old. The family removed 
to Shellharbour in 1856, and settled on the top 
of Stoney Range where they carried on farm- 
ing and dairying for a number of years. 

Joseph Dunster, junr., was born in Kent in 
1826, and as a j'oung man went into the store- 
keeping business at TuUimbar, near the head 
of the Maequarie Rivulet, where he married 
Miss Jane Elizabeth Stratford. They had for 
neighbours the Wilsons, Crawfords, Kirtons, 
Coleiaans, JlcGills, and John Beatson. The old 
butter track from the Kangaroo Ground (now 
Kangaroo Valley) passed through there to 
Wollongong, near Tongarra. 

The Tongarra climate did not suit Joseph 
Dunster, .junr., so he determined to seek out 
higher land. Enoch Fowler at that time lived 
on "The Hill" farm, and Dunster waited until 
Fowler was ready to remove to Sydney, 
and in the meantime carried on a butchering 
business . 

Joseph Dunster, junr., carried on butchering 
for a time at the junction of the Albion Park 
and Kiama roads, near Shellharbour. Dairy 
farming, however, claimed his attention, and 
he moved up to "The Hill" farm in 1860. 

When the Joseph Dunster family settled on 
"The Hill" property they had for neighbours 
the Allan and James families, who, in time, 
became connected by marriage. 

Joseph Dunster remained on "The Hill" 
farm until the time of his death in 1877. 

Right here we may pause and refer 
to the origin of the Scotch Jock cattle of 
Illawarra. The disputes about the original 
Scotch Jock bull have been numeroiTs. Alex 
Eraser, now well up in the years beyond the 
three score and ten, states that as a boy he 
took cows to the I\IcGill bull, and that he was 



121 



"THE HILL, " Shellharbour, Illawarra. 

The home of Messrs. Dunster Bros., where a high-class herd of 
M.S. Cattle is being established. 




MILKl.N'G SHORTHORN HERD, ESTAEtLISHKJJ IN IXCU, HV .lOSEI'H L)I!NSTER, 
and ^iiicpssriiHy rariii'd on by his son, W. C. Iiun-itcr, and miw Hie pio|)erty of C. R. and K. R. Iiunster. 



THOMAS DALY, Woodbine Stud Farm, Bolong, Shoalhaven. 







S'iA*sV4J«S««'i-« »«>'<MkSKa>' 




THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



123 



a big', massive, red and white spotted bull, 
with large upturned horns. 

These large framed spotted, red and white 
Ayrshire-like cattle were owned and bred on 
three Illawarra estates — Johnston 's, Terry 
Hughes' and Osbornes. Consequently, the Me- 
Gills, Colemans, Kirtons, Trittons, Dunsters, 
and James' families had them. 

At Joseph Dunster's death in 1877 the widow 
and family carried on the farming and dairy- 
ing operation on "The Hill" for a period of 
seven years, when Mrs. Dunster died. At the 
winding up of the estate the brothers, W. C. 
and R. Dunster, took over the farm (a lease- 
hold) and the stock. Later on they divided 
the stock between them, taking pick about. 
They divided the farm and carried on 
separately. When the Bassett Darley Estate 
was sold. W. C. Dunster purchased "The Hill," 
together with his brother Robert's holding. 
That was in 1899. 

William C. Dunster died in 1919, and his 
widow died in the following year. The estate 
had then to be wound up in March, 1921. The 
farm, together with 40 head of the stud herd, 
were purchased by C. R. and K: R. Dunster in 
the name of Dunster Bros. 

The Shorthorn type of Illawarra always took 
the fancy of the Dunster family. This type 
of animal is now and has been for the past 
twenty years been termed milking Shorthorns. 
In a conversation with the late W. C. Dunster 
a few years before his death, he stated that 
the best bull the family ever owned was pur- 
chased by his father early in 1872 from Evan 
R. Evans. This was a roan bull of great 
length, full of dairy quality; then he (W. C. 
Dunster) got another good bull from Williams 
of Robertson. This Williams' biill sired his 
fine cow "Ada." "Josephine,' a noted prize 
winner and the dam of several fine animals was 
piirchased at James Bros. ' sale, Alne Bank, 
Gerringong. There is a fancy descendant of 
"Josephine" in Diinster Bros.' herd at the 
present time which much is expected from. 

Among the bulls owned by W. G. Dunster 
was "L'Aglon; he was fancied by show judges, 
and his progeny turned out well. The writer 
has a photograph of this bull which, apart from 
his red colour, displays many of the outstand- 
ing characteristics of the Devon breed. After 
this bull came a Coolangatta Estate-bred bull 
called "Alex Knightly." How his progeny 
turned out cannot be ascertained. Of course, 
on "The Hill" farm, there were several bulls, 
including one of the "ilusket's" named by one 



who knew no better. "Mikado," when he was 
put into "The Hill" herd he must have been 
very old as he had been previously in at least 
three herds. All the same he was a half- 
brother of "Miisket II." of Darbalara fame. 

The illustration of "The Hill" farm in this 
volume does not do justice to its worth as a 
dairying proposition. It is an excellent hold- 
ing for the purpose for which it is used, namely, 
dairying and dairy cattle raising. The soil is 
of a very rich volcanic nature. Young cattle 
grow into good form on it. 

Messrs. Dunster Bros, have, therefore, plenty 
of opportunities of showing to the New South 
Wales dairymen what they are capable of 
during the next few years. 

Messrs Boxsell Bros., Myrtle Bank, Meroo 
iMeadow. — The Boxsell family have been long 
and favourably known as dairy farmers and 
dairy cattle breeders — ^first at Omega, Kiama, 
and afterwards at Berry in the Illawarra dis- 
trict, covering easily a period of seventy years. 
Over forty years ago the writer of these notes 
saw John Boxsell 's herd of dairy cows in the 
Berry district. They were of the Longhorned 
Durham type . A number of them showed their 
old Longhorn origin, having fairly long hooped 
horns and a dorsal streak on the back. They 
were certainly dairy cows of great merit. Any- 
one passing down Harris street. Ultimo, Syd- 
ney, might notice the model of the Golden 
Cow over the Farmers and Dairymen's milk 
depot. That model was taken from the photo 
of the late John Colley's great cow "Easy of 
Jamberoo." She gave over 181bs. of liutter 
per week, grass-fed, under the old pan-sitting 
system. No one need doubt this as the writer 
sui)plied the photo of "Easy" to the model 
maker. Now it is also true that all, or nearly 
all, John Boxsell's cows were of that type. 
Once the Lowe-bred bull — a Mudgee-bred 
Shorthorn — went into the Boxsell herd, that 
old Longhorned-Durham type gradually dis- 
appeared. 

Boxsell Bros.' Myrtle Bank Stud of dairy 
cattle at Meroo Meadow was established ii^ 
1893. The foundation bull was bred by Hugh 
Dudgeon, of Hillview, Jamberoo, and was by 
his noted bull "Charmer", illustrated in this 
volume. 

"Charmer" was out of the test cow "Charm- 
er," and by the Faulk's bred bull, "Sojer 
Boy II . " The influences of the Charmer blood 
is patent in the I. M.S. cattle to be seen at 
^fyrtle Bank to-day. 



124 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABEA 



Following on the Charmer bull was a bull 
bred by Jennings, of Cumberton Grange, near 
Jervis Bay. This bull was soon displaced by a 
bull called "Nelson", bred by James Sharpe, 
of Gerringong, of the "Barney" strain, named 
after the breeder, Barney McGueken, of 
Kiama. Few better bulls than the old Barney 
bull was ever raised in lUawarra. His dam 
was a beautiful blood-red cow, breeding un- 
known. She was all the same, a good cow, 
and produced a good son, and Boxsell Bros, 
benefited much by using that blood on the 
Charmer strain. 

Then came "Bed Prince II.", bred by A. 
Binks, of Berrj'; a large, red, loose sire. The 
progeny of this bull won many prizes at local 
shows, against much competition, besides giv- 
ing many sires to other dairymen. The maj- 
ority of the cows now in the herd are by "Red 
Prince II". ; the young stock are by "Earl II. 
of Sedgef ord, ' ' a bull of nearly the same blood. 

The bull at the head of the Myrtle Bank 
stud to-day is "Charmer's Warbond of Myrtle 
Bank", whose sire is George Alexander's bull, 
"Charmer of Fairfield". Few bulls have 
taken the dairymen's eyes so keenly as this 
bull, and show-ring critics dub him, "The 
coming bull". He is illustrated in this vol- 
ume ; he is only three years old, and is grow- 
ing into form rapidly since this photo was 
taken. He has not been beaten in the show- 
ring — only by his sire in the aged classes — 
while in his own classes he has won twenty- 
three first and champion prizes. Better still, 
his calves are giving great promise . Of course 
he is well bred, as he goes back to "Togo", 
and through "Marquis II." to old "Charmer". 

The cow illustrated in this volume, "Pigeon 
of Myrtle Bank," bred by the owners; 
sire, "Nelson"; dam, "Beauty", is a dairy cow 
of merit, with a record of 701bs. of milk in 24 
hours. She was neither pampered nor forced, 
like those world wonder cows. Just a good 
profitable dairy record animal. Three of her 
sons, by "Bed Prince 11.", are at the head 
of profitable herds at the present time. 

Boxwell Bros., all through, have looked 
ahead and iised their eyes before buying a 
sire. They have .just purchased a bull calf 
from George Grey, of Greyleigh; sire, "Foeh"; 
dam , "Coronation". They are moving 
onward . 

A. C. Payne, of Spring Vale, Chatsworth, 
Gympie, Queensland, was born at Gerringong, 
Illawarra, and spent most of his early life in 



the coast districts. In 1905 he commenced 
dairy-farming on his own account. He had 
some good cattle of the Hindmarsh strain, 
and purchased a bull from Thomas Nelson, of 
Kangaroo Valley, his first start being on the 
North Coast of New South Wales. In 1915 
he took up land on the Mary River, near 
Gympie, Queensland, to which place he re- 
moved his young cattle. He then got bulls 
from W. H. Dudgeon, of Glenthorne, of the 
Hugh Dudgeon strain, and a few heifers bred 
by Joseph E. Noble, Jamberoo . At the present 
time (1923) his herd consists of 100 head of 
dairy cattle, with a bull, "Raleigh's Reflection 
of Glenthorne", as the chief stud animal. His 
farm, Spring Vale, contains 200 acres of rich 
scrub land, well grassed, with abundance of 
water, and is situated within six miles of the 
township of Gympie, on which there is erected 
every dairying convenience on the best scale. 
The cattle are doing remarkably well, and are 
all registered in the Queensland I. M.S. Herd 
Book. 

The test cows illustrated in this volume are 
as follow : — 

Heather II. of Hillcrest.— This heifer at 2 
years 8 months produced under Ofiieial Test 
54 lbs. milk, yielding 2.145 lbs. ;c b f, or 
15.015 lbs. in 7 days, and has been successful 
at all leading Shows, including National. An 
official 273 day test gave a yield of 12,9031/4 lbs. 
of milk, and 469.31 butter fat; equal to 552.13 
commercial butter in the period. She was 2 
years and 9 months old at the beginning of 
her test, and now holds the Queensland record 
for I.M.S. cow under 3 years of age. Heather 
II. of Hillcrest was bred by Jos. E. Noble, of 
Jamberoo, Illawarra, and is by "Jellicoe," ex 
"Kate of Hillcrest." "Jellicoe" is by Fussy 's 
Lad of milview," ex "Mermaid of Glen- 
thorne." 

Darling III. of Springvale — Official test at 
2 years and 6 months, 37^ lbs milk, yielding 
1.5 lbs C.B. fat . Bred at Springvale Stud by 
A. C. Payne. Sire, Cherry Boy II. Dam, 
Darling II. 

It is plain from the foregoing facts that A. 
C. Payne is a man who is aiming at high aver- 
ages, not only in milk and butter records, but 
in the quality of his young cattle. If a dairy- 
man succeeds in putting together a herd of 
cows that give good average returns according 
to the monthly cheques from the factory, he 
is at once considered a successful dairyman. 
I\Iore, however, is required of him if he is 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



125 



goino' to be a recognised breeder, lie must 
look to it that he is not raising too many culls. 
A good cattle breeder has but few culls each 
year. Bxiyers may then feel secure when they 
visit a farm of this nature that the stock are 
the goods. This is doubtless A. C. Payne's 
object, as his advertisement states that inspec- 
tion is courted. The value of inspection to a 



keen .judge of dairy-cattle lies in the ultimate 
understanding between buyer and seller, for 
with young dairy cattle no one can be positive 
of results. The buyer, then, pays the price, 
and takes his pick, with all the risks. All 
the same, no ambitious breeder likes to hear 
of failures. He is invariably anxious to learn 
that his stock has turned out well. 



TWO OF THE HERD OF A. C. PAYNE, 
Springvale, Chatsworth, via Gympie, Queensland. 




iiAnLixr: in of si'i',iM'i\\LK. 



1IE.\THER II or llll.l.rUKST. 
(Reg-lstoipil I. M.S. II. II.. u'irl.i 




126 



PIONEERS. 



The Original Johnstons. — George Johnston 
at the age of 17 years was gazetted 
to the 24th Regiment of Foot, and saw 
a lot of fighting. In 1763 he was elected 
member for Westminster and in 1764 he 
was appointed a colonel in the army, and 
A.D.C. to King George III. During the 
American war the duke commanded the camp 
at Boston under Sir John Gage. It was while 
serving in America that his Grace the Earl 
Percy, was brought into contact with Captain 
George Johnston of the 4th King's Own Regi- 
ment of Foot, who was appointed his A.D.C. 
Captain Johnston was mortally wounded at the 
battle of Bunker's Hill where his son, Ensign 
George Johnston greatly distinguished him- 
self by recovering the colours of his regiment 
and carrying them away from the enemy into 
action again. On the advice of his Grace Earl 
Percy Ensign Johnston was at once appointed 
lieutenant, and afterwards volunteered for ser- 
vice under Captain Phillip. He was appointed 
by Phillip A.D.C. in 1788. His Grace Earl 
Percy never forgot Captain Johnston, and sent 
him in 1801 a pure-bred Merino ram and a 
thoroughbred stallion named Northumberland. 
In 1803 he sent him in the ship Calcutta a ram 
and four ewes of the finest Teeswater breed. 

We are told that early in the eighteenth 
century the title of Earl of Northumberland 
became extinct by the death of the last male 
heir of the Percy family. The proud Duke of 
Somerset, as he is recorded in history, married 
the daughter, then representing the Northum- 
berland title and estates. The Duke of Somer- 
set 's Percy wife died early, and he again mar- 
ried a lady of lesser rank in the peerage. The 
duke being one day closely engaged in his room 
looking over some papers, his wife quietly 
stepped in and put her hand on his shoulder. 
He turned round and said: "Madam, your 
familiarity is altogether inopportune. Recol- 
lect my first was a Percy." This woman was 
a daughter of Sir Hugh Smithson, and, having 
children, Sir Hugh was raised to the peerage in 
1766 with the title of Duke of Northumber- 
land. He was the great Shorthorn cattle 
breeder, and the peers diibbed him the York- 
shire grazier. Hugh, 2nd Duke of Northum- 
berland, was born in 1742. 



It has been said that the Earls and Dukes of 
Northumberland came from an ancient family. 
Their family name was Percy, and the Barony 
of Percy was founded in the year 1299. The 
family, through its successive barons, earls, and 
dukes were rich, powerful and influential. 
Located near the Scottish border, and sub- 
jected to wild raids of the northern clansmen, 
they were brave by instinct, warlike by neces- 
sity, enterprising by education, and rich by in- 
heritance. Their estates were vast, and to 
their earlier grants from the Crown, they added 
largely both by purchase and marriage. They 
had the means to apply the agricultural im- 
provements through the generations of which 
they had passed, and it would appear that the 
heads of the family were most sagacious in 
worldly affairs. Among those improvements 
none was more apparent than the excellence of 
their grazing lands, the quality of their horses, 
cattle and sheep. 

As lieutenant Johnston sailed from Eng- 
land for Australia with Captain Phillip 
in 1787. On the death of Captain Shea, 
of the New South Wales corps he was 
promoted to the captaincy. He fought 
at Castle Hill, New South Wales, in 
1804, and as a mark of bravery Governor 
King gave him a present of 2000 acres of land 
near Parramatta, known as the King's Grant. 

Captain George Johnston rose in rank to that 
of lieutenant-colonel of the 102nd, or the old 
N.S.Wales Corps as it is generally termed. 
The arrival of G-overnor Bligh caused the mili- 
tary authorities of New South Wales con- 
siderable anxiety, and eventually Captain John 
MacArthur of the old New South Wales' Corps 
rose the rebellion of which mention is made 
elsewhere. Lieutenant-Colonel George John- 
ston's friend Earl Percy exercised great in- 
fluence in his behalf, and although he returned 
to New South Wales robbed of his rank in the 
army, he was allowed to return immediately, 
and found on his arrival all his property and 
stock in his possession, whereas Captain John 
]\IaeArthur was detained in England for eight 
years. After his return to New South Wales 
he lived in retirement at his home, Annandale, 
near Sydney, where he died 5th January, 1823. 
His son, Mr. George Johnston, junr., held the 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



127 



position of chief inspector of the Government 
herds in New South Wales from the year 1815. 
In this capacity he had visited the lliawarra 
or Five Islands district. He was inspecting the 
Government herd at Brownlow Hill, and was 
thrown from his horse against a tree and died 
at Annandale a few days later, February 28th, 
1820, aged 32 years. His brother, Mr. David 
Johnston, was immediately appointed as chief 
inspector of the Government herds of New 
South Wales, and held the position for many 
years, keeping in touch during the whole of the 
time with Johnston 's Meadow Estate, lliawarra. 
Lieutenant Eobert Johnston, R.N., was born in 
the old George Street Barracks, Sydney, in 

1790. In the year 1797 he was sent by his 
father to. a strict naval school in England and 
returned to New South Wales in 1816, and 
placed in charge of the "Schnapper," a Go- 
vernment boat which was placed at the dis- 
posal of the military authorities for conveying 
soldiers, convicts, provisions, and material to 
and from the gaols to the several penal settle- 
ments. In this capacity Lieutenant Robert 
Johnston, R.N.^ often visited Red Point, now 
Port Kembla. In 1819 he took Messrs. Alexan- 
der Berry, Hamilton Hume, and James Meehan 
in the cutter Schnapper from the Five Islands 
on a tour of inspection as far as Mount Drome- 
derry. In 1822 Lieutenant Robert Johnston. 
R.N., in the cutter Schnapper, took Messrs. 
Alexander Berry, Hamilton Hume, and John 
Oxley from the Five Islands to the Shoalhaven. 
On this occasion Messrs. Berry and Oxley re- 
turned to Sydney in the Schnapper, but Mr. 
Hume went through the Shoalhaven Valley to 
Braidwood. In 1823 Lieutenant Robert John- 
ston, R.N., after the death of his father, entered 
into possession of the home at Annandale, near 
Sydney, where he lived almost a retired life. 
He died there full of years in September, 1882, 
aged 92. Isaac Nicholls, who arrived in Syd- 
ney in the ship Admiral Barrington in October, 

1791, was a brother-in-law of Major Johnston, 
of the old New South Wales Corps. Nicholls 
worked his way out of servile toil and became 
superintendent of convicts. Then he was 
brought more prominently under official notice. 
He became the first postmaster, married Miss 
Rosetta Julien in February, 1805, received a 
grant of land at Calderwood, lliawarra, and 
died November, 1819. aged 49 years. An old 
tradition held good in the early days that a 
Cantain Nicholls piloted a schooner in and out 
of the lliawarra Lake for cedar cut on Major 
Johnston's estate in 1810. If such be true, it 



would be simple to explain how the early settle- 
ment of lliawarra was accomplished. New 
South Wales was terribly policed during the 
early part of Governor Macquarie's reign. He 
and Johnston, however, were friends, and cedar 
was new in those days and a valuable asset. 

Mr. David Johnston lived at George's Hall, 
near Liverpool, New South Wales. He had in 
addition to the imported creamy stallion, 
"Northumberland," which Mr. E. H. Weston 
said was the progenitor of the celebrated hur- 
dle horse, "Creamy Jack" and other valuable 
stallions. Re "Creamy Jack" was bred 
by Mr. John Johnston on the banks of Jerrara 
Creek, and was certainly of mysterious origin. 
Johnston was my neighbour and an honest man, 
but who owned the sire of "Creamy Jack" it 
was difficult to say. Mr. David Johnston owned 
a horse named "Providence," a bay stallion 
standing over 16 hands, imported by a Mr. 
Wilson, by the white sire "Alma," dam "Paul- 
iness." Alma's sire was "Old Grog," and 
"Pauliness' " sire was Mr. D. Halady's "Ven- 
ture." He also owned "Protector," an im- 
ported stallion, and won 1st prize at the agri- 
cultural shows at Parramatta in 1861 and 1865. 
He was also owned by Tom Ivory and George 
Tindel. Mr. Johnston also imported the cele- 
brated blood horse "^ther, " sire of Mr. James 
McGill's "Hopping Joe." The imported Short- 
horn bull "Melmoth" came to Johnston's 
Meadows, lliawarra, where valuable cattle were 
bred and sold by auction at saleyards by local 
auctioneers. In 26th January, 1876, ten years 
after the death of Mr. David Johnston, John- 
ston's Meadows Estate was sold. The break 
came in 1866, and the Johnston's Meadows 
property was ready for division. Mr. George 
K. Waldron, auctioneer, sold at his yards, 
Kiama, 50 head of pure-bred cattle, brood 
mares, colts and fillies. Later still we have a 
record dated 20th January, 1876, when D. L. 
Dymock, auctioneer, sold from the verandah of 
Georee Adams, Steampacket Hotel, Kiama, on 
behalf of D. T. G. R. and A. A. Johnston a 
number of lots of land, part of Johnston's Mea- 
dows Estate, Albion Park. Note — ^Frederick 
R. Cole was a son of Captain Cole, an old 
Wollongong identity, who had a farm on Bun- 
darra Creek. 

Samuel Terry came out to New South Wales 
in common with many of our early pioneers 
as the guest of the Imperial Government about 
the year 1795. After a term he went into 
business, and although he could neither read 
nor write he succeeded exceedingly, and evi- 



128 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



dently managed to keep his best side turned 
towards every Government official. He was 
wealthy on the arrival of Governor Bligh, yet 
he dodged every enquiry and defeated silently 
the designs of all who attempted to get the 
better of him. He kept in close touch with 
Major Johnston. He became the owner of an 
extensive property on the banks of the Nepean 
River, and had a secure place for a few of his 
choicest cattle in Illawarra when the Bligh 
regime was put into force. Mount Terry, in 
Illawarra stands to-day, as it may do for all 
time stand, as a monument to his memory. He 
died in 1838 worth £500,000, equal then, to 
probably four times that amount to-day. He 
made small use of his Illawarra Estate beyond 
running stock on it in charge of a stock-keeper. 

It would be an impossible task to 
describe the system followed by Mr. 
Samuel Terry on Terry's Meadows since the 
days from the arrival of Admiral William Bligh 
as Governor of New South Wales. Many old 
records have been lost, and the stories of the old 
settlers were usually conflicting; they praised 
and condemned for mere trifles. He had 
originally been a dealer and storekeeper in 
a small way at Parramatta, when he married 
Mrs. Marsh, a widow. He developed into a 
brewer and wholesale wine and spirit merchant. 
Cattle were in those days, next to rum, used as 
as means of bartering for other goods, and no 
doubt in this way Mr. Terry found himself in 
possession of many cattle. After Governor 
Lachlan Macquarie had settled down calmlj' 
in the Sydney corner of this territory he per- 
mitted certain of the better conducted, accord- 
ing to his idea of conduct, to move outside the 
county of Cumberland and settle in various 
centres of the county of Camden, mostly on 
sufferance. Colonel George Johnston was the 
only one who got a free grant in Illawarra. 
That is, if we can call his grant free when 
all the timber thereon was reserved for naval 
purposes. 

Samuel Terry carried on his Illawarra Estate 
in accordance with the customs and usages 
of the men of his time, by means of a manager 
and an overseer. The manager lived in Syd- 
ney, and an overseer, a stockman, and a few 
blackfellows looked after the stock which con- 
sisted of a few horses and many cattle in Illa- 
warra. The overseer's duty was to keep an 
account of the increase and decrease of the 
stock, send the fats to market, and brand all 
the "clean skins" he could muster. As the 
estate was kept to a great extent for breeding 



purposes, the young males would be dressed and 
sent to stations on the southern tableland. 

On September 19th, 1825, Samuel Terry's 
nephew, John Terry Hughes, married Samuel 
Terry's step-daughter, Miss Esther Marsh, and 
the pair took the world easy and lived in 
fine style until the year 1838, when Samuel 
Terry died aged 62 years After 1838 the Illa- 
warra Estate was called Albion Park, and in- 
stead of Terry's Meadows, the name Terry 
Hughes' Estate was substituted by the new 
arrivals who by this time became' numerous in 
Illawarra. His brand was ITH, and he had 
about a score of cattle stations in New South 
Wales. 

After John Terry Hughes entered into pos- 
session of the estate there were many overseers 
and stockmen employed. We have learned of 
the deeds of daring of the brothers Stevenson, 
Billy Hipkins, Johnny Ritchie, Billy Broughton, 
Ned Swan, and we have read of Haslem, Stroud 
and Duncan Beatson, as being experts in their 
respective lines among stock. 

He had a property at Bringelly (Camden) 
called Shancamore, where he kept both stud 
horses and cattle. The management of the 
Terry Hughes' Estate became supporters of the 
early Illawarra shows, principally in agricul- 
tural produce. It was principally from the 
management of the Terry Hughes Estate that 
Messrs Duncan Beatson and Andrew McGill 
obtained the foundation of their dairy herds. 

John Terry Hughes died October, 1851, aged 
49 years. At the time of John Terry Hughes' 
death there were several Scotch families set- 
tled on the Albion Park Estate, including 
Messrs. Andrew McGill, Alexander Frasei*, 
Ebenezer Russell, and Mrs. Archie Beatson. 
After the death of John Terry Hughes' 
son, Samuel Terry Hughes, who died in 
1865 at the age of 36 years, other portions 
of the estate were cut up and sold, 
when the families just named were the 
purchasers of much of the estate. The 
first sub-division : — The fol] owing paragraph 
appeared in the "Herald" of June 21st, 1860: 
"Great Land Sale. The whole of the celebrated 
Terry's Meadows Estate comprising about 
3000 acres, in the famed Illawarra district, sub- 
divided into 48 farms from 20 to 150 acres each 
on the Dapto and Shellharbour roads, 15 miles 
from Wollongong, and 12 miles from Kiama, 
was disposed of on Monday, the 18th inst., by 
Messrs. Richardson and Wrench, of Sydney, at 
the Queen's Hotel, Wollongong, at prices rang- 
ing from £3/2/6 to £43 per acre. The total 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABRA 



129 



sale realised £30,519/4/6, averaging a little 
over £10 per acre. 

The first sub-division of the Albion Park 
Estate was entrusted to a clever surveyor 
named Wilton Henry Wells, who was drowned 
in a flood in Ritchie's Creek, Jamberoo, June 
1861, aged 43 years. He was the author of 
"The New South Wales Gazetteer." 

John Terry Hughes' only son (Samuel Terry 
Hughes, born 1829), died in 1865, and one of 
his daughters who married Captain Malcolm 
Melville MacDonald retained interests in por- 
tions of the Albion Park Estate which were not 
disposed of at the above mentioned sale. The 
lands thus resumed were sold in lots at differ- 
ent auction sales and privately until recent 
times, and have been purchased by local resi- 
dents at satisfactory prices. 

John Terry Hughes had a partner in the 
person of John Hoskings, a relation by mar- 
riage. The business offices were in Sydney, 
and it was known as Hughes and Hoskings, 
merchants, Sj'dney. This firm had large 
estates and town and city allotments in New 
South Wales, and carried on an extensive trade. 
They held a grant of land containing 850 acres 
which abutted on to the town of Kiama. After 
cutting out the cedar and much of the choicest 
hardwoods, they sold out to Henry Osborne. 

From 1831 to 1840 Mr. John Terry Hughes 
made purchases of cattle anywhere a bargain 
was to be seen, and he also sold large mobs 
of cattle. Consequently on his Albion Park 
Estate in 1840 he had numbers of Messrs. 
Wentworth and MacArthur's Long-horned cat- 
tle. Mr. Richard Jones' cattle from Pleurs, 
South Creek. He found employment for many 
settlers in Hlawarra who afterwards owned 
portions of his Albion Park Estate. In 1838 
he purchased a pure Durham bull at the Segen- 
hoe Estate sale in Sydney ; and in 1840 he pur- 
chased two red and white Yorkshire Short- 
horns in Sydney at £420. One was 17 and the 
other 18 months old. But whether any of those 
three bulls came to Hlawarra no one seemed 
to know. 

Mr. Henry Osborne had for years set longing 
eyes over the Albion Park Estate, and once 
offered £10,000 for the homestead and 1500 
acres attached thereto — a big price in those 
days. There had, however, been a considerable 
amount of ill-feeling existing at that time be- 
tween them over the mysterious disappearance 
of a celebrated white bxill bred by Mr. Osborne. 
Old Billy Wright used to say: "I know what 
became of 'Osborne's white bull!" Perhaps he 



did; if so, old Billy knew how to keep the 
secret. 

In 1860 the wheat growing industry which 
had been of great importance to the small set- 
lers in Hlawarra began to show signs of 
failure. Rust had begun to destroy the crop — 
and wheat-growing had to be abandoned. 
Dairying was not a paying concern, prices had 
been dropping year by year owing to an irregu- 
lar market. Although the Hlawarra A. & H. 
Societies had been doing good work to im- 
prove the method of cultivation, and had en- 
deavoured to improve our breeds of horses, 
cattle, pigs, etc., no effort was put forward 
to find oversea markets for the farmers' 
produce. 

Dr. James Mileham came out to New South 
Wales in the ship "Ganges" on June 2nd, 
1797, and was appointed assistant colonial sur- 
geon. Ruled over the convicts at Parramatta. 
Newcastle, and Sydney until 1808. Went as a 
presiding magistrate to Pitt Town, June 8th, 
1811, and went to Wilberforce from 1815 to 
1820, and then became police magistrate at 
Windsor. He received a grant of 700 acres 
at Shellharbour on south side of Lake Hla- 
warra, where a stockade was erected, and sol- 
diers sent down from Sydney to protect the 
interests of the cattlemen and cedar getters. 
Barrack Swamp is near the site of the old 
stockade. Dr. Mileham's grant is dated 24th 
July, 1817. He sold out to Surgeon De Arey 
Wentworth, and died September 28th, 1824, 
aged 60 years. 

Mr. Moses Brennan, of Vinegar Hill, 1798 
veteran, who owned a grant of land in Jam- 
beroo, was, prior to 1821, farming on his own 
farm about two miles beyond Appin. In 1821 
he was appointed a constable for that district 
and pound-keeper. He is buried at Campbell- 
town. 

Mr. John CuUen was a friend and associate 
of Moses Brennan. He owned a grant of land 
adjoining that of Moses Brennan in Jamberoo, 
on which the old Woodstock mills and brewery 
were erected on behalf of Captain Hart by 
Captain John G. Collins of the 13th Dragoon 
Guards in 1835. John Cullen was a cattle 
breeder at Appin, and the JC brand was well 
known to the early settlers. He became one 
of Sydney's publicans, and was a racing man. 
His horse "Favourite" was matched against 
Thomas Hammond's 3-year-old colt. Cullen 
won the wager, £50 aside. 

Dr. John Dunmore Lang writing in 1856, 
says: "My late father had a grant of land from 



130 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAKRA 



the Crown, 2000 acres at Bong Bong and Sutton 
Forest, for which I received £1500. I am not 
aware of the value of such land at the present 
time. At all events it would be four times that 
amount at least. I possessed 1200 acres on 
the Illawarra Lake. It was a splendid 
property, and is now worth from £20 to £30 
per acre. It brought me only £2 per acre." 
What of poor John Wyllie who was forced 
to take £1 per acre for it? 

The Wentworths. — According to reliable 
authorities the name was of Saxon origin, and 
was known as Winteworde in York, England. 
The list of twists is a long one, until the family 
name of De Arcy Wentworth emerged from 
Athlone, County Roscommon, Ireland, and 
passed from there to Ardreagh and Truin, Coun- 
ty Meath, as steward to the 4th Earl of Roscom- 
mon, and captain of the Meath Militia, a 
commission dated 1st October, 1690. This De 
Arcy Wentworth died in 1710, leaving a sou 
George, who married into the family of Long- 
fields, of Meath. His son Robert married a 
j\riss Walsh, and they had a son named De 
Arcy, who also married in Ireland, and had a 
son named William. 

De Arcy Wentworth was, according to our re- 
cords, in the years 1765, an ensign in an Irish 
Yeomanry Regiment, the 1st Ulster Provincials, 
a regiment founded to defend the unjust claims 
of those who had usurped the lands of the 
Old Irish families. Wentworth was the son of De 
Arcy Wentworth, of Portadown, and was mar- 
ried, and the father of one child, a son. Find- 
ing that his regiment was about to be re- 
duced he decided to forego the army and study 
medicine, and with that intention he left his 
wife and son in Ireland and enrolled himself 
at the institution since known as the Royal 
College of Surgeons. Being successful in his 
studies he was promised a vacancy in the East 
India Company's service. His young spirit 
could not wait, and as he was short of funds 
he decided to force the pace which led to a 
conflict with the laws of England. Lord Fitz- 
william came to his assistance, and at once 
became hi.i patron. Application was made for 
leave for the young surgeon to go to Botany 
Bay. The Secretary of State then charged 
with the care of the colony, furnished the neces- 
sary permit, and added a letter of introduction 
to Governor Phillip. Accordingly Surgeon 
De Arcy Wentworth sailed for Port Jackson in 
the "Neptune," one of the transports in the 
second fleet in January, 1790. After a short 
stay with his associates in New South Wales, 



he was sent as assistant medical officer to Nor- 
folk Island. Surgeon De Arcy Wentworth was 
the fourth and youngest son of De Arcy Went- 
worth, of Portadown, County Armagh, Ireland. 
In 1791 he became superintendent of convicts at 
Norfolk Island. Appointed assistant surgeon 
in New South Wales on December 1st, 1796, a 
justice of peace for New South Wales on May 
15th, 1810. Surgeon to the settlement by Royal 
Warrant, May 31st, 1811 ; superintendent of 
police at Sydney, May 8th, 1815; resigned 
March 31st, 1820; treasurer to the police fund, 
June 3rd, 1820, superintendent of police and 
treasurer of Colonial Revenue in 1821, and re- 
tired from public in 1825. 

We are not concerned with Surgeon De Arcy 
Wentworth 's transactions while at Norfolk Is. 
He returned to Sydney, and worked himself 
into several good jobs, anyone of which would 
have satisfied a less ambitious man. He, Sur- 
geon De Arcy Wentworth, evidently ingratiated 
himself into the good graces of the Governors 
and acting governors of his period. Tenders 
were called in May, 1811, for the building of 
a public hospital, which for certain reasons 
has since been termed the "Rum Hospital." He 
was chief surgeon and police magistrate. He 
obtained many grants of land. On a 140 acre 
grant at Homebush he erected his private resi- 
dence. He became wealthy, and retired into 
private life in 1825. By Catherine Parry who 
died at Parramatta in 1810, and had three sons 
and one daughter, of whom William Charles 
was the eldest. De Arcy joined the army and 
went to Tasmania, where he rose in rank ; John 
entered the navy and was drowned at sea in 
1820; the girl, Martha, died young. 

With regard to his dealing in Illawarra very 
little is of much local interest as he was merely 
represented by an overseer and a stockman. 
He had cattle and horses depastured on his 
holdings, much of which was open forest coun- 
try. On May 21st, 1819, he had a notice in 
the Sydney "Gazette" calling on "all owners 
of cattle Or stock that were depasturing on his 
Five Islands Estate, Illawarra, to remove them 
at once as he was preparing to send his own 
stock there." On July 19th, 1819, a general 
order was issued relating to "persons, bond and 
free, cutting cedar in Illawarra." De Arcy 
Wentworth did nnt enter into the cedar trade. 
The cattle or stock referred to would most 
likely be James Badgery's cattle. 

By a will made 5th July, 1827, we find that 
De Arcy Wentworth 's Illawarra Estate con- 
tained 13,060 acres which works out in accor- 



131 



ARTHUR PICKLES' STUD OF I. M.S. CATTLE, 
Blacklands, Wondai, Queensland. 




Fl.ORniE OF RLACKI.AMiS 

(>.Ti. I !',_ I.M.?.I[,B., Ij-lil.l 



JEA.N .-111 OF HI.ACKl.AMiS. 





PRINCESS III OF RLACKI.AXnS (Adv. Res. I.H.R.). 



ROYAL itil OF BLACKLANDS 



D. SPOORS & SONS, Illawarra M.S. Stud, Mundubbera Queensland. 





FLORIUE -'IldV BOV OF BLACk'LAMi 



OOLn OF BLACKLAiVri?. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



133 



dance with the plan of the estate as follows : — • 
His daughters, Martha, Sophia, Catherine, and 
his son Robert were to enjoy the whole of the 
lUawarra Estate, 13,060 acres altogether. R. 
C. Wentworth, called Robert; Martha Reddall, 
who died in 1847 ; Sophia Wentworth who mar- 
ried Robert Towns in 1833; Mary Ann Went- 
worth who married Stephen Addison in 1840, 
and remarried Charles HoUings 10th June, 1854. 
Edward Druitt and James Hart had each £4000. 
As a result of this will Hugh De Arcy Addison, 
son of Stephen Addison, received lots 6, 7, and 
8 in village of Shellharbour, and 12 acres, 12 
perches adjoining Barrack Swamp. Thomas 
Alexander Reddall 's interests came in in 1851, 
together with Robert Towns and Sophia Towns, 
his wife, and Robert De Arcy Wentworth 
Towns, their eldest son as beneficaries in the 
will of De Arcy Wentworth; as also Robert 
Towns and Stephen Addison and Mary Ann 
Addison (formerly Mary Ann Wentworth) ; 
also Benjamin Darley and Catherine Darley 
(formerly Catherine Wentworth), and 
Catherine Darley, their eldest daughter; also 
Robert Towns and Alexander Donaldson Kellie, 
and Randolph John Want, a ninth and tenth 
part each. There were interests elsewhere to 
William Charles Wentworth and De Arcy 
Wentworth, his whole brother, William Charles, 
George, Martha, Sophia, Robert John, Mary 
Ann, and Catherine Wentworth. 

He owned at the time of his death the follow- 
ing properties in lUawarra : — 1650 acres, Peter- 
borough, granted by Governor Macquarie, 9th 
January, 1821. The Governor's signature was 
witnessed by H. C. Antil, of Picton. 2000 
acres, a grant from the Government of New 
South Wales to De Arcy Wentworth on or 
before the year 1825 ; 1500 acres, a grant from 
the Government of New South Wales to De 
Arcy Wentworth, on or before the year 1825; 
2000 acres. Barrack Point, transferred from 
Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Davey to De Arcy 
Wentworth; 1000 acres, a grant from the Gov- 
ernment of New South Wales to De Arcy Went- 
worth; 1200 acres of land, transferred from 
John Horsley to De Arej' Wentworth on or 
before 1825 ; 700 acres land, transferred from 
Dr. James Mileham to De Arcy Wentworth, on 
or before 1825; 1000 acres land, transferred 
from Surveyor Ralph to De Arcy Wentworth on 
or before 1825; 2000 acres land, transferred 
from De Arcy Wentworth to De Arcy Went- 
worth, Oak Plats property. 

Further explanation might be out of place 
here. We shall give a little attention to Wil- 



liam Charles Wentworth. When he arrived 
back from England ; New South Wales was con- 
fined to a small area not more than forty miles 
wide along the coast from Port , Hacking to 
Port Stevens. During the drought of 1813 
William Charles Wentworth, then only 20 years 
of age, in company with Blaxland and Lawson 
organised a party to find a track over the 
Blue Moimtains. They were also accompanied 
by John Tye, Thomas Gorman, William Dye, 
Samuel Freeman, Samuel Eyres, Thomas Hobby, 
Richard Lewis, James Kelly, William Mucklow 
and Thomas Green. William Charles Went- 
worth was called to the bar in 1822. When 
Sir Ralph Darling took over the afl^airs of the 
colony in 1825, considerable friction had been 
worked iip by the free settlers against the 
emancipists. Wentworth championed the cause 
of the emancipists with such force of character 
that the Governor was forced to yield. Yet, 
Governor Darling had friends. Perhaps it was 
because he (Darling) ruled the convicts with 
a rod of steel? 

Surgeon De Arcy Wentworth did nbt at 
any time own the Five Islands Estate, lUawarra. 
It was a grant dated 24th January, 1817, under 
the hand of Lachlan Macquarie, Governor, for 
2200 acres of land originally granted to David 
Allan ; 1827, November 1st, David Allan sold to 
Richard Jones; 1828, Jones sold to William 
Charles Wentworth. 

There was a reservation in the grant of 200 
acres with the right to erect fortifications at 
any time by the Crown. 

Andrew Byrne was born in the County Wick- 
low, Ireland, in 1774. He was one of the patriots 
of '98 which caused his removal to Botany 
Bay. He arrived in the ' ' Minerva ' ' on January 
11th, 1800, at the age of 26 years. He was 
evidently an intelligent man, of good behaviour 
as he soon became a trusted colonist. He re- 
ceived a grant of land, 100 acres, at Appin, 
and established a half-way house there with 
secure paddocks attached thereto. It was 
patronised by travellers and drovers passing to 
and from Sydney, Bong Bong, and lUawarra. 
He also had grants of land at Port Hacking, 
and 500 acres at Kiama. He established a dairy 
in Sydney, and had his milking yard on the 
spot where David Jones and Coy's warehouse 
stands in George Street. His office was at 82 
Pitt Street. Prior- to 1825 he sold his half- 
way house property, 100 acres, at Appin, to 
D'arcy Wentworth. And prior to 1828, he. 
sold hi.s Kiama Estate, Barroul, consisting of 
500 acres to Rev. Thomas Kendall. He went 



134 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



into the hotel trade at the Haymarket, Sydney, 
and had interests in stock depastured on the 
Dapto side of Lake lUawarra in 1835. Those 
who knew him well said that he could tell 
many startling stories of the old regime and 
racy tales of those days when bullock teams 
were provided with board and lodgings at Hay- 
market, George Street, Sydney, whilst their 
conductors were unloading and loading goods. 
These teams came from Bong Bong and Goul- 
burn through that terrible turnpike of the early 
teamsters — the Bargo Brush. Of Andrew 
Byrne's transactions in Illawarra very little 
is known. He, nevertheless, must have had 
considerable business transactions with the 
early Illawarra settlers as he owned land and 
stock apart from his Barroul property which 
he sold to Rev. Thomas Kendall in 1827. In 
1825 Byrne was interested in Ousdale, Illa- 
warra, and in 700 acres in UlladuUa, and had 
cattle grazing at Minnamurra. He was evi- 
dently expert in cattle raising as it was from 
Andrew Byrne that Edmond Woodhouse ob- 
tained the foundation stock of the celebrated 
Shorthorn and other studs of Mount Gilead, 
Campbelltown. He knew much of the history 
of New South Wales by personal experience 
and died at Haymarket, George Street, Sydney, 
on April 22nd, 1863, aged 89 years. 

Mr. James Badgery was born in the County 
Devon, England, in 1764, and arrived in New 
South Wales in or about 1800. He settled on 
a farm at South Creek, where he died on Decem- 
ber 1st, 1827. He had three sons — ^Henry, born 
at South Creek, William, born at South Creek, 
died August 1st, 1841, and James, born at South 
Creek, died 1844. He was a cattle breeder, 
and had some valuable dairy cattle that were 
bought after by the early pioneers. He never, 
so far as we know, visited Illawarra. He had 
the use of all the clear land from the south- 
ern shores of Lake Illawarra to the Minna- 
murra Eivulet, now known as Shellharbour. 
He sent his cattle down to Illawarra in charge 
of a trusted stockman, named Bob Higgins, and 
he remained in possession until 1819, when 
Higgins had the cattle and horses removed 
to Bong Bong. From Bong Bong James 
Badgery 's stock moved southward. M^r. James 
Badgery and one of his sons, Andrew Badgery, 
were racing men when races were held on 
what was known as Grose's Farm, south of 
the present University Grounds, Sydney. He 
owned Molly Morgan and Molly Maguire. 
When he was having his stock removed from 
Illawarra to Bong Bong, they were Isiken up 



via Dapto through Jack Waite's or White's 
Gap. In a swamp between the "Gap" and 
Bong Bong, the race mare, MoUy Morgan, was 
bogged and had to be shot. Hence the place 
has been called Molly Morgan's swamp to this 
day. 

"The late Henry Badgery, when about 21 
years of age, and in the year 1825, was advised 
to apply to the Governor for a special grant 
of land as his father had a very good breed 
of horses and cattle, and he, being born here, 
would improve his property, and not sell it 
and return to England as some other grantees 
had done. The governor quite agreed, and told 
him he could go anywhere into the interior 
and take 1920 acres (3 square miles). He had 
some knowledge of the South Coast, as his 
father in 1817 used to send their spare stock 
to near Shellharbour, on the south side of the 
entrance to Lake Illawarra, and upon what is 
now called Weston's or Terry's Meadows. They 
used to pass to Wollongong and swim the cattle 
across the neck of the lake, because if they 
took them round by Dapto they would make 
back on the same track. Upon one occasion 
as this was being done a calf got carried out 
to sea by the current, so far that it was some- 
times hidden by the waves, and was considered 
to be certainly lost, but much to the surprise of 
all on the following day the calf was with 
the cattle by its mother's side." 

The Kendall Family. — The coming of the 
Rev. Thomas Kendall to Illawarra takes us 
back to convict days. His father was said to 
be interested in the American slave trade prior 
to the war of independence. Be that as it may, 
the late Robert Oscar Kendall of Barroul, 
Kiama, Illawarra, wrote on 23rd October, 1914, 
to say: "My grandfather, the Rev. Thomas 
Kendall, was born in England, but I can't find 
out what part of England ; none of us seem to 
know. Father was born in the same place 
June 14th, 1806, and died on the 2nd November. 
1883, aged 77 years. This is all I can ascertain 
about him. My father was with grandfather 
at New Zealand for a while before he married 
mother. ' ' 

Mr. H. T. Purehas, M.A., has written a book 
dealing with the Rev. Thomas Kendall's mis- 
sionary efforts among the Maoris in New Zea- 
land, and states therein much that is not, let 
us hope, peculiar to men of the missionary turn 
of mind. 

The whole story of the early attempt of 
civilising the Maoris by those missionaries is, 
indeed, a sad one. Then, there were the captains 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



135 



of ships trading between New Zealand and 
Sydney, who were deceitful, and often trust- 
worthy honourable chiefs were betrayed. This 
takes us back to the days of Governors King 
and Bligh when there was much disorder, and 
disastrous licence was being taken by masters 
of ships trading between Port Jackson, Eng- 
land and New Zealand, where seal skins were 
to be obtained in large quantities. Trade was 
brisk. The Rev Parson Marsden purchased 200 
acres oE land from the Maoris for twelve axes, 
and set about Christianising the Maori chiefs 
and their people. 

Captain Dalrymple was a well-known trader 
between Sydney, New Zealand, Illawarra, and 
Van Diemen's Land. Hence we have Port 
Dalrymple, now Launceston, Tasmania. He 
had a grant of land there, "Mount Leslie." 

Bj'^ referring to Rev. Thomas Kendall's diary 
we find that he traded largely, and visited 
many settlements. He eventually settled at 68 
Pitt-street, Sydney, in 1825. His family con- 
sisted of six sons, Thomas Surflect, Laurence, 
John, Joseph, Basil and Edward! his daughters 
were Mrs. Florence and Mrs. Bowden. 

In Rev. Thomas Kendall's diary we read 
that on 25th December, 1827, he buried a ser- 
vant of Mr. Ritchie's at a place — . Right there 
he stopped short, without mentioning- the name 
of the place. On enquiring from members of 
the Kendall family whj' the name was omitted, 
I was inforiTied that Thomas Surflect Kendall 
said: "The original name of Kiama was a 
most ob.jeetionable one, hence the real name 
was omitted. " 

The story of this burial comes down to us 
from the old hands, as follows : — John Ritchie 
was located at Jamberoo prior to 1825. On 
this occasion he had sent his man, "Big Will", 
in to meet the boat with a team of bullocks 
and dray, with a load for Sydney, and to 
bring a load back to the homestead. About 
the same time he sent another servant, "Red 
Jack", on to Gerringong with a mob of cattle 
to be delivered to Berry and Wollstoneeraf t 's 
man at the Crooked River. Big Will got rid of 
his load, and then loaded up for the return 
.journey. He moved out to a spot west oi 
where the Catholic Church stands, turned the 
bullocks out on the point, and prepared to 
camp for the night. He was joined later on 
by Red Jack. There was rum on the dray, 
and a pannikin was handed to Red Ja"k to 



help himself. He did so freely. Next morn- 
ing, when Big Bill woke up, he found his com- 
panion dead. He gave information to the 
Stockade, which was in turn sent on to Red 
Point, Port Kembla, from which place a mili- 
tary officer came to hold an enquiry. On 
this officer's arrival, he found all hands drunk, 
so he locked them up until they became sober 
enough to give evidence. 

The Rev. Thomas Kendall in the meantime, 
had the last mortal remains of Red Jack buried, 
together with the original name of Kiama, on 
the south side of Bong Bong street and the 
east side of Manning street. On the site of 
that grave was erected the first Church of 
England, which was afterwards used as a 
school-house by an old-time teacher named 
Willy. 

Extracts from Rev. Thomas Kendall's diary: 

Illawarra. — February 3rd, 1827, baptized at the house of 
John Fitzgerald Butler, Esq., Commandant — James, the 
son of Herbert and Atty Green, born 27th December, 
1826. 

Illawarra. — February 24th, baptized at the house of Messrs. 
Berry & Wollstonecraft, Margaret, the daughter of 
Thomas and Jane May. 

Illawarra. — March 2nd, 1828, baptized Maria, the daughter 
of Charles Throsby and Sarah Smith, born 11th January, 
1828. Baptized at their house, WoUongong. 

Saint Vincent. — May 2nd, 1830, baptized at Narra Walla, 
Mary Jane, the daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth 
Florence, bom 7th April, 1830. 

Camden. — May 30th, 1831, baptized Jane Caroline, the 
daughter of Thomas Surflect Kendall and Caroline Blake 
Kendall, born April, 11th 1831. 

BURIALS. 

Illawarra. — December 25th, 1827, buried a Government 
servant of Mr. Ritchie, about 20 years old, on Church 
reserve, named — (see page 49). 

Illawarra. — February 5th, 1831, buried George Bates of 
Illawarra, aged 55 years. 

MARRIAGES SOLEMNIZED. 

October 31st, 1825, John Martin married to Sarah Amy 

Jarrett. 
June 5th, 1826, Charles William Wooster, married to Mary 

Ann Wilkinson. 
September 2nd, 1826, Moses Glover, married to Emma Hills. 
January 29th, 1827, Thomas Leighton, surgeon, married to 

Angola Martha Fredericks. 

REV. THOMAS KENDALL'S COMMERCIAL TRANSAC- 
TIONS AS PER DIARY. 

No. 29/220. —Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney, February 
18th, 1829. 
Be Application for jiermission to rent land dated, 21et 
August, 1828 

Signed Alex. McLeay. 



136 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAKKA 



Rev, Thomas Kendall, 

c/o Mr Barker, Sydney. 
No. 1002. — Co'lonial Secretary's Office, Sydney, 6th Novem- 
ber, 1827. 
An order to select 1,280 acres according to regulation of 
5th September, 1826. 

Signtd Alex. McLeay 
Rev. Thomas Kendall, 

68 Pitt Street, Sydney. 
Surveyor-General's Office, Sydney, 11th February, 1831. 
Grant of Land to Mr. Thomas Kendall of 320 acres. 

Signed R. Mitchell. 

No. 30/607.— Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney, 17th April, 
1830. 

Be Grant of 100 acres as a marriage portion from the Crown 
to Miss Caroline B. Rutter, now Mrs. Kendall, c/o Thomas 
Kendall, Sydney. 

According to Government Order, Sydney, 19th August 
1829. Signed J. C. Harrington. 

Certificate of Sale of Cattle, 8th March, 1826, at Stonequarry. 

Signed W. C. Antill, J.P. 

No. 930.— Colonial Secretary's Office, 18th October, 1827. 

lie AppUcation dated 5th October, 1827, calling on the 
Rev. Thomas Kendall to be in readiness with the necessary 
proofs of the actual capital available in his possession, and 
informing him that the Authorities would not allow his sons 
to select land. 

Signed Alex. McLeay. 
Mr. Thomas Kendall, 68 Pitt St., Sydney. 



COMMERCIAL MATTER IN WHICH THCMAS SURFLECT 
KENDALL WAS INTERESTED. 

Grant of land to Thomas Surfleet Kendall at Darling Forest, 
situated north bank of Narra Walla Creek. Date, 
24th October, 1840. Signed Henry Hallbran. 

County of St. Vincent, 320 acres, promised by His Excellency 
Sir Ralph Darling, in 1831. 
Date, 1840. Signed Geo. Gipps. 

Internal Revenue Office, Sydney, 8th April, 1833.— No. A 
33/414. 
In reference to A No. 31/622, 29th May, 1831, requesting 
him to take up 500 acres of land, situated in County of Camden, 
purchased by Rev. Thomas Kendall from Andrew Byrne of 
Sydney. Pay fees and quit rent and take out deeds. 

Re the above. — Fees due at Surveyor-General's Office from 
20th May, 1828 to 31st December, 1832— £3 Ifis. 
Signed Wm. Macphbrson, 

Collector of Internal Revenue. 

A. No. 32/891.— Internal Revenue Office, Sydney, 28th June, 
1832. 
To Rev. Thomas Kendall — Deed of Grant promised by 
Major-General Lachlan Macquarie, 31st March, 1821, situated 
in County of Cumberland, in compliance with Government 
notice, 14th September, No. 13, in Londonderry. Fees due, 
15/- and 5/- quit rent from January, 1827, to 31st December, 
1831. Signed Wm. Macpiibr-son, 

Collector of Internal Revenue. 
Rev. Thomas Kendall, 

Narra Walla, Illawarra. 
Sydney. — The Estate of the late Rev. Thoma.s Kendall. 

Signed C. & F. Wilson. 

NoTB. — Rev. Thomas Kendall always considered the 
UUadulla district part of Illawarra. 

Prior to 1833 Rev. Thomas Kendall was en- 
gaged in cedar getting at UUadulla, whilst his 
son-in-law, Mr. Florence, a surveyor, and a 
party were busy allocating grants of land there. 



The whole of the survey party with Mr. Ken- 
dall left UUadulla, Five Islands, in a cutter 
named "Brisbane" during the year 1833 for 
Sydney. The cutter foundered off Jervis Bay, 
and all hands were lost. Nothing belonging 
to the party came ashore with the exception of 
Mr. Kendall's trunk and shoes. Not one of the 
party came ashore to tell the tale. 

Of the sons of Rev. Thomas Kendall we know 
little beyond Thomas Surfleet who settled on 
the Barroul Estate, Kiama, and Basil Kendall 
who settled in UUadulla. Thomas Surfleet 
Kendall remained on the Barroul Estate until 
his death when his sons and daughters married 
and went out from the old home, he divided the 
land among them, leaving Robert Oscar Ken- 
dall in possession of the homestead. Barroul 
is now the property of Mr. Kieran Ryan, solici- 
tor, Kiama, who bought it from R. 0. Kendall. 

Referring to the great disaster that caused 
the loss of the cutter "Brisbane" with all 
hands on board, we are reminded that no men- 
tion is made of the master who was in charge 
of her at the time. In 1832, Basil Kendall was 
registered as being the master and owner of the 
"Brisbane." He was not in command during 
that fateful trip. He lived, and in consequence 
he gave to Illawarra in due time Henry Clar- 
ence Kendall, Australia's sweetest singer, who 
clothed the simple elements of his life in a 
dress full of great and fundamental char- 
acteristics. His nature was so refined that he 
mastered intricate tasks — and crystallised his 
ideas into forms and into such sweet tones that 
possess a charm and grace which are to be 
found in no other Australian poet. Basil Ken- 
dall married the daughter of an Irish police- 
man named McAnnally, and went to reside at 
UUadulla where Henry was born. The Kendall 
family did not appreciate the poet's mother, 
yet, methinks, that if ever a scientist is found 
who will apply the science of genetics to trace 
the origin of Henry Clarence Kendall's poetic 
genius, he will quickly centre his mind on the 
the origin of that sweet force in Kendall's 
mother. Alas, poor Kendall, with all his faults 
we, as Illawarrites, love him still. UUadulla, 
where the poet was born was considered a 
nart of the Five Islands or Illawarra district 
by the Rev. Thomas Kendall and his eldest son. 
Thomas Surfleet Kendall, of Kiama. 

Henry Clarence Kendall wrote his sweetest 
verse while he was assisting William Allen in 
John Allen 's store in Jamberoo, about the year 
1860. In those early poems he has woven the 
memories of his young manhood, like rays of 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



137 



light, into the tenderest and sweetest verses. 

A writer with claims to a literary training, 
says: — "Plenry Kendall is a poet who owes 
everything, except his poetry, to Australia." 
Poor Kendall, in later years, made mistakes. 
"To err is human, to forgive divine." He con- 
fessed his faults with a candour all his own 
in the following lines: — 

' ' So take these kindly, even though there be 
Some notes that unto other lyres belong. 
Stray echoes from the elder sons of song. 
And think how, from its neighbouring native 

sea, 
The pensive shell doth borrow melody." 

Henry Clarence Kendall lived in lUawarra 
at a time when the old aboriginals were numer- 
ous enough to enable him to gather from them 
material for an epic that would have traced for 
other generations that vein of purest gold that 
we are told runs through our In do-Malayan 
mythology. His training ought to have given 
him that insight which was necessary to free 
it from its gross materialism and repulsive 
fanaticism and clothe it in language that would 
live as long as the English race will remain on 
earth. 

No one can claim to be a true interpreter 
of Kendall's early poems who did not see the 
natural features of Illawarra as Kendall saw 
them prior to 1860. Those who saw the 
primeval biish could alone succeed in transfus- 
ing the oppressive stillness and brooding 
melancholy of the few bush scenes that were 
being preserved here and there in the vicinity 
of Kiama. He saw the night fires of the old 
clearing lease days, and set himself expressly 
to shadow it forth into song. 

The Throsby Family. — They were a Leicester 
family of considerable standing in England. 
The first member of the family to arrive iu 
Xew South Wales was Dr. Charles Throsby 
who was appointed superintendent of convicts 
at Newcastle. In 1807 he had two dairy cows 
.shipped from Sydney to Newcastle for his 
private use at the settlement. This Charles 
Throsby died suddenly in 1809. Then we learn 
that the executors in the estate of the late 
Charles Throsby had advertised on October 
15th, 1809, to obtain a suitable person to take 
charge of the late Charles Throsby 's dairy farm 
at Parramatta. 

Another Dr. Charles Throsby arrived in New 
South Wales, said to have been barrister at 
law who never practised in New South Wales. 
He was born in Leicester, England, in 1774. 



He is the man who made history. He took 
charge of the Throsby Estate in New South 
Wales, and settled at Glenfield, near Liverpool. 
He acted as agent for settlers who had to return 
to England, including Sir John Jamison, who, 
before he went to England to receive a knight- 
hood, was the Squire of Kegent Ville on the 
Nepean River. After the return of Sir John 
Jamison to New South Wales, October 1st, 1814, 
Dr. Charles T.hrosby was declared a "Free Set- 
tler" from 3rd February, 1816. It meant that 
he could go inland at any time in search of fresh 
fields and pastures new. It must be borne in 
mind that the settlement was then, in every 
sense of the term a gaol from which no one 
bond or free dare move without a pass. He 
is said to have been the first to bring cattle 
down the range into Illawarra. He was possi- 
bly the first to bring cattle down openly, that 
is, with the authority of the Government. He 
had three trustworthy servants named respec- 
tively, Joseph Wild, John Waite, and George 
Rowley who were acquainted with the black- 
fellows' tracks from Sydney to the tableland 
and the surrounding country. It was these 
men who brought the Throsby cattle from 
Glenfield to Illawarra in about 1813. 

On October, 1819, Dr. Charles Throsby was 
granted 1000 acres of land for finding a fresh 
track across the cow pastures to the Bong 
Bong. His servants, Wild and Waite, got 100 
acres each, whilst the other servant Rowley, 
got 200 acres. Mr. Charles Throsby, after 
doing much for the commercial life of this 
country, died in 1828, the result of a fall from 
his horse. He was a man of many parts: 
established the Throsby Park Estate at Bong 
Bong, and bred the finest beef cattle in the 
colony. 

General Orders, 31st May, 1819. 

"His Excellency the Governor, having re- 
ceived and perused the journal of a tour lately 
made by Charles Throsby, Esq., by way of the 
cow pastures to Bathurst, in the new discovered 
country, west of the Blue Mountains, takes this 
early opportunity publicly to announce the 
happy result of an enterprise which promises 
to conduce in a very eminent degree to the 
future interests and prosperity of the colony. 

The necessity which Mr. Throsby appears to 
have been under of accelerating his progress 
through the country he was exploring, did not 
allow him to dwell minutely in his jour&al on 
the various productions and properties of the 
soil he traversed. His Excellency, therefore, 



138 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



adverts with pleasure to his general report of 
the capabilities, qualities and features of the 
country intervening between the cow pastures 
and Bong Bong; which he represents to be, with 
a few exceptions, rich, fertile and luxuriant, 
abounding with fine runs of water, and all the 
happy variety of soil, hill and valley, to render 
it not only delightful to the view, but highly 
suitable to all the purposes of pasture and 
agriculture. 

"The importance of these discoveries is en- 
hanced by the consideration that a continuous 
range of valuable country, extending from the 
cow pastures to the remote plains of Bathurst, 
is now fully ascertained, connecting those coun- 
tries with the present settlements on this side 
the Xepean. 

"His Excellency the Governor, highly ap- 
preciating Ifr. Throsby's services on this occas- 
ion, offers him this public tribute of acknow- 
ledgment for the zeal and perseverance by 
which he was actuated throughout this arduous 
undertaking, and desires his acceptance of one 
thousand acres of land in any part of the coun- 
try discovered by himself, that he may choose 
to select. 

"The Governor also in acl^nowledgment of 
Mr. G. Rowley's services on this occasion, will 
assign him two hundred acres of land in the 
same country; and to Joseph Wild and John 
Waite, servants to ^Ir. Throsby, who accom- 
panied him on the expedition, and whose 
fidelity and exertions are particularly noticed 
and commended by ilr. Throsby, His 
Excellency will assign one hundred acres of 
land cRch. 

"The services rendered by the two native 
o-nides, Cookoogong and Daal, and to whom 
much of the success of the undertaking may be 
ascribed, being very meritorious. His Ex- 
cellency will order a remuneration to be made 
to them in clothes and bedding ; and will furthe- 
appoint Cookoogong chief of the Burra Burra 
tribe, to which he belongs, and over which 
he appears to have very considerable influence, 
together with the usual badge of distinction. 
And on Daal, His Excellency will confer the 
badge of merit as a reward due to these natives, 
for their respective exertions and services. By 
His Excellency's command, J. T. Campbell, 
Secretary." 

Mr. Robert Jenkins was born in the Count;v 
Gloucfstershire, England, in 1777, where he re- 
ceived a very liberal commercial education. He 
arrived in New South Wales in 1808, and re- 



visited England twice before finally settling in 
Australia. He entered upon the business of an 
auctioneer in Sydney and at Parramatta, 
and was one of the first to join in the 
the sending of cattle to the lUawarra district 
in 1813, where he later on obtained a grant of 
land in conjunction with Mr. David Allan, of 
the Commissary Department of Sydney. Mr. 
Jenkins' grant was 1000 acres, and Mr. Allan's 
grant was 2200 acres, gazetted in January, 1817. 
A gang of cedar getters was sent down from 
Sydney. In 1821, Mrs. Eobert Jenkins had a 
dairy farm at Berkeley ; an enterprising man of 
business. 

Robert Jenkins was married on 22nd March, 
1813, to Mrs. Jemima Forest, relict of the late 
Captain Forest, E.N., of Richmond Hill, N.S.W. 
Captain Forest had been an officer of distinc- 
tion in the naval service of the East India 
Company, and acquired much wealth. It was 
he who purchased the estates of Captain John 
Hunter, ex-Governor of New South Wales, on 
April 5th, 1805. These properties had been 
held in the Governor's nephew's name, to wit: 
Captain William Kent, who transferred them to 
Captain Forest on date named. Captain Austin 
Forest arrived in Sydney in charge of Mr. 
Robert Campbell's ship, Sydney, 900 tons, from 
Calcutta, and shortly afterwards married Miss 
Jemima Match em Pitt. Captain Forest was 
killed by a fall from his horse on December 
12th, 1811. The widow afterwards married 
Robert Jenkins, who became the owner of 
Eagle Farm, Campbelltown, and the Berkeley 
Estate, Illawarra, and several station proper- 
ties inland. As will be seen Robert Jenkins 
lost his life by a fall from his horse whilst 
riding in to his place of business in Sydney. 
His horse shied at a mob of blacks at Surry 
Hills and threw him. Then we had his son, 
Mr. Robert Pitt Jenkins, w^ho married Captain 
Patrick Plunkett's daughter (Miss Alice 
Frances Plunkett). They were lost in the ship 
"Royal Charter" on the Irish coast. Captain 
Plunkett belonged to the 80th Regiment, and 
M'Ms for a term in charge of the stockade in 
AVollongong, and was the visiting magistrate 
of Kiama and Coolangatta. He owned the 
"Keelogues" Estate, near Wollongong. 
Keelogues is the Irish name for a narrow stripe 
nf land. Captain Patrick Plunkett arrived in 
the ship Lloyds, in 1837, and was a cousin of 
Hon. John Hubert Plunkett, of Sydney. 

After the death of Mr. Robert Jenkins, his 
widow, Mrs. Jemima Jenkins, carried on the 



D. O'KEEFE'S REGISTERED M.S. CATTLE, 
Kiltankin, Jasper's Brush. 



139 





nAYKlELD OF KILTANKL\. 
(Xii. :;7S. Vi,[. \v. M.s.ll.li. 



DULCIE OF k'n.TANklN. 
(Vol. \ll. .M.S.II.F,.i 




RE.\0\V.N OF KILTANKIN. 
l\'(il. \'l. .M.S. 11. H.I 



HACIIAEL OF KILTANKKN. 
(No. 1045C, Vol. V.l 





DINAH OF KILTAMKIN. 
(No. 2795, Vol. IV, M.S.H.B.) 



BETTY OF KILTANKIN. 
{No. -.'USl, Vol. IV, .M.S.H.B. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



141 



lUawarra Estate which she had increased con- 
siderably in area, and we learn of William 
Shelley and John Robinson being in charge, 
until the marriage of Mr. William Warren 
Jenkins to his cousin, Miss Matilda Pitt Wil- 
shire, July, 1838. She was the fourth daughter 
of Commissariat Officer Wilshire of the First 
Fleet. It was Mr. James Wilshire who pur- 
chased the first stud ' cattle for Mr. W. W. 
Jenkins, Illawarra Estate, just prior to his 
death in 1840. 

Mr. William Warren Jenkins lived in fine 
style in Illawarra. He was an Australian, 
having been born in O'Connell Street, Sydney, 
on 11th July, 1816. He died in 1884, aged 69 
years. Mr. William Warren Jenkins was a 
member of the 1st Illawarra District Council, 
September 3rd, 1843. It being as follows: — 
Warden, Dr. John Osborne, and Messrs. Gerard, 
Dapto, John Berry, Shoalhaven, Henry Osborne, 
Marshall Mount, Chas. Throsby Smith, Wollon- 
gong, and James Mackay Gray, Gerringong. 
In 1854 Mr. Jenkins became warden. Robert 
Thomas Jenkins became heir to the Berkeley 
Estate. Like his father he supported racing, 
and bred cattle, principally beef Shorthorns. 
During a drought he lost thousands of 
pounds worth of Shorthorn cattle. He 
kept racehorses, owned Skylark, Irene, 
Minx, Fernando, Churn, and Unanderra. He 
also owned the stud horse "Velentia." He 
died in 1913, aged 73 years. 

Robert f'homas Jenkins lived to see the 
Berkeley Estate grow and prosper, and finally 
decay until the name of Jenkins ceased to 
represent an acre of land in Illawarra. 

The Westons. — Captain Edward Nicholas 
Weston, of His Majesty 's East India Company, 
and who afterwards became a Judge in India, 
came to Sydney on furlough, and before his re- 
turn to India, married Miss Blanche Johnston, 
youngest daughter of Colonel George Johnston, 
of Annandale, New South Wales. Miss Blanche 
Johnston was two years old at the time of the 
Bligh Rebellion in 1808. Captain Weston, to- 
gether with his wife and family, returned to 
India in 1832, merely to return and settle on 
2,000 acres known as the King's Grant, near 
Parramatta. He renamed the place "Horsley," 
and at once set the pace as a country gentle- 
man. He kept a pack of hounds, and hunted 
in good English stylft No wonder that our 
old Illawarra friend, Mr. Edward H. Weston, 
got the gift of horsemanship, which he sustained 
through life. 



Captain Edward Weston died many years 
age, but his widow lived to a ripe old age. She 
died in 1914, aged 98 years, leaving to her de- 
scendants her father's estates, Her sons, Ma- 
jor Edward H. Weston, supervised Johnston's 
Illawarra Estate for many years, and died at 
Military Road, Mosman, in 1913, aged 81 years. 
The following letters were received by me from 
the Major of my old Cavalry corps, which he 
established at Albion Park, Illawarra, in the 
eighties of last century, under the direction of 
Major Malcolm Melville MacDonald. Such 
things merely return to memory to pass again 
like shadows. 

As a breeder of dairy cattle in Illawarra, 
he was a failure. Had a fine property, but let 
things drift. Always a horseman, he died one, 
as his communications will show. A man of 
the world, but his world was his own. A good 
neighbour and a true friend, as these letters 
go to show : — 

Copy. "Dear Sir, — I must apologise for not 
replying to your letter sooner, but the only 
person who knew anything about the impor- 
tation of pedigreed cattle is Mr. Percy John- 
ston, and he has been laid up, and not able to 
attend to anything. However, I received a re- 
ply to my letter to him, in which he tells me 
Major Johnston never imported any pedigreed 
cattle at all. The Duke of Northumberland 
sent him out a few Leicester sheep and a stal- 
lion (a creamy), hence the creamies in Illa- 
warra district in after years. Mr. David John- 
ston, youngest son of Major Johnston, import- 
ed a very fine Shorthorn bull, who was the 
progenitor of the magnificent cows bred by 
Messrs. Johnston Bros. This was many years 
after the arrival of the sheep and the creamy 
stallion. I shall be glad to give you any infor- 
mation I can. I remain, yours faithfully, E. H. 
Weston, 14th Oct., 1912." 

Mr. E. H. Weston, of "The Meadows," Albion 
Park, stated in 1896: "Having paid a good 
deal of attention to cattle breeding during the 
last thirty years, and brought into the district 
during that time several high class bulls, viz., 
the Devon bull 'Victor,' the Durham bull 'Non- 
such,' bred by George Lee, and the pure Short- 
horn bull by 'Imperial Purple,' I have noticed 
within the last few years that the breed of 
cattle in Illawarra is deteriorating in consti- 
tution. All writers on cattle-breeding concur 
that there is nothing like a cross of the Devon 
blood to remedy this defect. I have therefore 
purchased one of the best Devon bulls in the 



142 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



Colony, viz., 'Prince William,' from Mr. Frank 
Reynolds, of Toeal, Paterson River, N.S. Wales, 
etc." 

Lieutenant William Fredrick Weston was 
born at West Horsley, County Surrey, England, 
and was a brother of Captain Edward Weston 
of Parramatta. He had a grant of land. West 
Horsley, Dapto, Illawarra, where he died on 
25th April, 1826, aged 33 years. His widow 
married a man named Williamson. Richard 
Brooks, son of Captain Richard Brooks, and 
who owned an estate on Maneroo Plains, was 
connected by marriage with the Westons. He 
died at West Horsley, Dapto, on 10th July, ISoii, 
aged 43 years. The West Horsley property 
passed into the hands of Mr. Andrew Thomp- 
-son, who proved himself an up-to-date settler 
in every respect. It is now owned by Mr. 
George Lindsay. The Westons were all military 
men. One was Chief Gaoler at Lower George 
Street, Sydney, and at Parramatta. 

Mr. Alexander Berry was born in Fifeshire, 
Scotland, 3rd November, 1781, and was edu- 
cated at Cupar School, St. Andrews, and Edin- 
Ijurgh Universities where he studied for the 
medical profession. He went to India in the 
service of the East India Coy. After some 
few years in the East India Service he entered 
upon mercantile pursuits. He chartered a ship 
and visited places where he could obtain suit- 
able merchandise for New South Wales. Even- 
tually he called at False Bay, Cape of Good 
Hope, and took on board a small shipment of 
wine and sundries. 

Alexander Berry left False Bay, Cape, of 
Good Hope, 4th September, 1807, for Port 
Dalrymple, now Launceston. Van Diemen's 
Land, now Tasmania, was then in charge of 
William Paterson of the New South Wales 
Corps. Captain Hunter having lost the ship 
Sirius at Norfolk Island, was afterwards 
discovered by Captain Dillon who had 
also discovered the wreck of the ship La 
Perouse at Samoa lost no time in causing the 
penal settlement at Norfolk Island to be trans- 
ferred to the River Derwent. All this was 
learned by Berry on his arrival at Port Dalrym- 
ple, and as his cargo was more valuable in 
Sydney he steered for Port Jackson. He soon 
found himself in a family circle. Robert Camp- 
tell, of the wharf, was the harbour master. Mr. 
Commissioner Palmer was looking after the 
stores. Captain John MacArthur, Captain 
Kemp and Mr. Simeon Lord were business men 
as was also Captain Piper. Governor Bligh 



understood the rules of the road followed by all 
those gentlemen of rank, and immediately sent 
for Alexander Berry. He was not pleased with 
Berry's line of conduct, or the lines he had 
for sa-k; Maffes^ohnston wished to-b«y a cask 
of wine from Berry. It was not sold, but 
Major Johnston received a cask of wine as a 
present from Alexander- Berry. All this took 
place in Sydney in 1808. 

Alexander Berry and Governor Bligh. 

Governor Bligh wrote in a despatch to 
Viscount Castlereagh, dated April 30th, 1808: 
"On the 12th a ship called 'The City of Edin- 
burgh' arrived from Cape of Good Hope laden 
with about 22,000 gallons of spirits. A leaky 
ship, which rendered it necessary for her to 
discharge her cargo immediately; but as the 
quantity of wines and spirits seemed enormous 
I ordered it into the store until I could con- 
sider what quantity ought to be distributed; 
and this precaution was the more necessary as 
two American ships — the Jenny (Captain 
Dorr), and the Eliza (Captain Corry) were in 
the harbour — whom I had been under the neces- 
sity of restricting from issuing their spirits, but 
had permitted them to dispose of their wine and 
merchandise before the City of Edinburgh ar- 
rived." Spirits were selling in Sydney at 50 
shillings per gallon in 1808. Consequently 
Alexander Berry had large capital when he 
arrived in New South Wales, and although he 
was a great advocate of the temperance cause 
he had an eye to business, and sent a cask 
of wine ashore to Mayor Johnston's mess-room. 
Governor Bligh heard of this, and, had not 
Major Johnston declared solemnly that the wine 
was a present, it is certain that Alexander 
Berry would have been put under arrest. 

The sequel to Berry's present to the military 
authorities can be understood by the following 
statement: — "After the deposition of Governor 
Bligh, Major Johnston, acting-Governor of New 
South Wales, with Captain John MacArthur 
Colonial Secretary, entered into a contract with 
Alexander Berry to convey all the settlers from 
Norfolk Island to the Derwent, Hobart Town, 
Van Diemen's Land. The vessel was hired at 
23 shillings yiev ton per month to be paid for 
in timber. It was verbally agreed or under- 
stood by the contracting parties that the time 
should not exceed ten weeks. Berry, however, 
took twenty-seven weeks to perform the ser- 
vice. He presented Lieutenant - Governor 
Foveaux, who as senior officer superseded Major 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAKRA 



143 



Johnston, with a bill of freight of £3,600, offer- 
ing to take the timber already prepared, 
estimated value £2,830, with cash or goods out 
of the King's store for the balance. Foveaux 
offered Berry £2000 which offer Berry refused. 

In 1819 Berry and Wollstonecraft determined 
to settle in Australia, and for that purpose 
chartered a vessel and took her out to Australia. 
The venture proved successful, and Mr. Berry 
returned to London to enlarge the firm's con- 
nection, and was informed at the Colonial Office 
that Sir Thomas Brisbane had been appointed 
Governor of New South Wales. Berry char- 
tered the ship, "The Eoyal George," 500 tons 
burden, and the Governor and staff came out 
to Ne-v South Wales with him. On arrival 
Berry, without locating the grants, made an 
offer to Sir Thomas Brisbane to keep 100 con- 
victs free of expense provided he gave 10,000 
acres on the banks of the Shoalhaven River. 
This tender was promptly accepted as it was 
costing the Government £16 per annum for the 
upkeep of each convict at that time. In May, 
1822, a suitable vessel was secured and Berry 
and Wollstonecraft commenced operations at 
Shoalhaven. Young Davidson, whose life he 
had saved in New Zealand, was one of the 
ship's crew. He, his mate and two sailors were 
drowned in the bre^ikers in endeavouring to 
inspect the channel that led into the river. A 
native black gin swam ashore. There were 
three native blacks on board. Two were chiefs 
of Jervis Bay and Numbaa, named respectively 
Lager and Wagin ; 200 convicts dug the canal 
in six weeks, ard created an island where none 
existed before. 

Alexander Berry made his first rise in Aus- 
tralia owing to the wreck of H.M. ship "Sirius" 
at Norfolk Island. Lord Wyndham decided 
on a report from ex-Governor Hunter to remove 
the penal settlement from that island hell to a 
place to be called New Norfolk on the Derwent 
River, Van Diemen's Land. Alexander Berry 
refitted his shin, the City of Edinburgh, and 
took a hand in that costly work. No one 
knows for certain what he actually made out of 
that contract. 

Alexander Berry in explanation of the canal 
being cut near the entrance of the Shoalhaven 
River in 1822 said: "At the upper part of the 
Crookhaven River there was an arm which ap- 
proached within one-eighth of a mile of the 
Shoalhaven. I therefore immediately deter- 
mined to make a new entrance to the river from 
Crookhaven, and next day I put spades and 



axes and pickaxes into the hands of 
all the men, and showed them where to 
dig. When I did so I hardly expected 
that I should be able to accomplish 
my object ; but as idleness is the parent of 
mischief it M'as necessary to keep my people 
employed, especially as they were nearly^ all 
convicts. The only free persons there with me 
were a young man, Charles Campbell, a con- 
vict superintendent, and Hamjilton Hume. 
After the canal was cut Mr. John Wyllie took 
Mr. Charles Campbell's place as superinten- 
dent of convicts, Mr. Hall, manager, 1836. In 
1822 Alexander Berry read a paper before the 
Philosophical Society of Australia, which con- 
tained the results of his own explorations of the 
coast line from Port Stephens to Jervis Bay. 
Of Jervis Bay he said : I have found good land 
both forest and alluvial. The access to the bay 
is safe and easy; and although it is not such 
a magnificent harbour as Port Jackson, still 
it affords good shelter and safe anchorage, and 
is superior to many of the best-frequented 
ports in the world. 

Although Alexander Berry had been granted 
during 1821 the regulation limit of convicts 
for his Shoalhaven venture, probably not more 
than twenty or thirty. He desired many more 
to carry out his plans in the valley of the 
Shoalhaven. Brisbane sent them also a few 
soldiers, together with overseers to control 
them. 

Joseph Townsend, writing of his visit to the 
Coolangatta Estate in 1842, says: "Great pains 
have been taken to improve the breed of cattle 
on this estate, and bulls have been imported 
from England at great expense. 'Ella,' a 
Durham, is a splendid creature, and cost £500 ; 
and there are also some beautiful Ayrshire 
bulls; choice animals of this description are 
kept for sale in an extensive clover paddock 
devoted to them alone. And to the place they 
become so much attached that there is a great 
difficulty in removing them even in the company 
of cows. Some of the bullocks reared anil 
fed on this country attain a great size, some 
as much as 15cwt., and the rolls of fat on their 
backs forms hollows something like a saucer. 
One beast yielded 2501bs. of caul and kidney 
fat, and 5cwt. of tallow was obtained by boil- 
ing down two of them. Drafts of cattle are 
being constantly sent from this estate to 
Sydney, and many dairy cows are sold to other 
settlers. A large dairy is kept on foot where 
often 200 cows are milked, but only once a day. 



144 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



After the morning's milk is taken from them, 
the calves are allowed with them until night, 
and the cows yield about two gallons of milk 
per day, which, under another system would be 
doubtless more. The skim milk feeds a little 
army of pigs. Many beautiful mares are to 
be found among the herds of horses, and a 
stallion from the English turf was in the 
stalls. The horses bred on this property attain 
a great size: their points are well developed, 
and many have been sent to India." 

Lieutenant Henderson, in describing the pro- 
cess of boiling down at Coolangatta during 
the "panic" when stock were at zero, con- 
sidered the system "a very happy idea" as it 
not only at once made sheep and cattle worth 
the price of their "hides and tallow," but 
acted beneficially by thinning out the stock. 
He further states the owners of this estate 
reside in an excellent brick house which 
crowns a rising ground, and well built cottages 
have been erected in convenient situations for 
the accommodation of the several superinten- 
dents. The produce of the estate is sent to 
Sydney in vessels built on the river; 2000 
bushels of barley were harvested on the estate, 
bvTt no sale for that quantity could be found 
in Sydney. The dairy was returning at the 
rate of £70 per week for butter alone. 

Hon. Alexander Berry, M.L.C., died at North 
Sydney on 16th June, 1873, aged 93 years. His 
greatest opponent during 1857 and 1860 was 
the Kcv. Dr. Lang, M.D. 

According to a reliable authoritj' Charles 
Throsby Smith, of Wollongong, acting as agent 
for Berry and Wollstonecraft, secured 25.000 
acres of land for the firm in Illawarra. Hence 
the origin of Broughton Head Farm. 

'.'Mr. David Berry died in 1889, and the 
trustees, Mr. John Hay and the Hon. Dr. Nor- 
ton, M.L.C., have, among numerous legacies, 
to provide for two sums of £100,000 each for 
the erection of a hospital for the district of 
Shoalhaven, and for the University of St. 
Andrews; and it is to make payment of the 
bequests that the trustees are selling portions 
of these large and hitherto intact properties." 

The Shoalhaven Estate. 
For the purpose of selling the Berry Estate 
sub-division, the following paragraphs were 
used: "The Shoalhaven and Illawarra districts 
of New South Wales are famed throughout 
Australia for their rich and fertile lands, for 
their special breed of dairy cattle, and for 
their general scenery. Occupying the com- 



paratively narrow strip of coast line between 
the mountain range and the Pacific Ocean. 
These lands receive the moisture wrung out of 
the sea breeze by the hills and thus are ever 
fertile and prolific." 

"The Illawarra country commences near 
Wollongong, 48 miles south of Sydney Heads, 
but it is not until the districts round Kiama, 
Jamberoo, Gerringong, Nowra, and especially 
Shoalhaven, are reached that the unbounded 
fertility of the soil, and its adaptability to 
dairy and cereal farming can be fully 
realised. Shoalhaven, without dispute, is the 
Queen of Illawarra, and it is from here that 
so much of the dairy and farm produce is sup- 
plied to Sydney and other parts of the 
colony." 

"The Shoalhaven Estates comprise some 
60,000 acres of rich agricultural and grazing 
land on both sides of the Shoalhaven and 
Crooked Elvers, and are intersected by Brough- 
ton Creek which is navigable for small steamers 
to near the village of Berry, formerly named 
Broughton Creek." 

First sale, 4 Gerringong farms, comprising 21 
acres 2 roods; 27 acres; 28 acres 3 roods; 97 
acres, 3 roods. To be sold at D. L. Dymock's 
sale rooms, Kiama, Tuesday, 29th March, 1892. 
Terms 25 per cent, cash, 15 per cent, in two 
years, the balance in five years from day of 
sale, bearing interest at 5 per cent, per annum. 
Second sale, the township of Bomaderry, con- 
sisting of 300 acres. Laid by Messrs. McCabe 
and Ewing, surveyors, situated on the banks of 
the Shoalhaven River, at the entrance of Boma- 
derry Creek, opposite the town of Nowra. Sale 
Wednesday, March 30th, 1892, on the ground. 
Same terms as No. 1. No. three sale. The 
Numbaa farm lands which are bounded on the 
east and north by the Shoalhaven River, and on 
the south by the Crookhaven, comprising from 
5000 to 6000 acres, and close to the townships 
of Terrara and Nowra. In farms from 20 to 
200 acres each, laid out by Messrs. Atchison and 
Schleicher, surveyors. The whole of this 
property was under municipal government 
having been incorporated in 1868. The Shoal- 
haven River forms the boundary of the property 
on the north, and runs from west to east into 
the South Pacific Ocean. It rises in the coastal 
range, flowing northerly through deep gullies, 
and turning sharply to the east it enters the 
alluvial plains which are counted amongst the 
richest and most productive in the country. 
This river is 260 miles in length, but is naviga- 



146 



Notable Red Bulls in whose Veins Circulated good Devon Blood 
ia more or less Quantities. 




ADMIIIAL {al the ag^e of 12 years). 







RED I'RIM^E OF IIIl.I, VIEW. 



NOBLE or GILE.\D. 




nEfl ITllNCE OF GREVI.EIGII. 




GUS OF IIILL VIEW. 




.1. II\lir>C.\STLES CH.AMI'ION BILL .I.\ Jl BKHOO. 



n.MRYM.V^- OF GI.ENTHORNE. 



147 



Eight Red Illawarra Type Dairy Cows 
of Merit. 





GEM OF GREENVALE. 



VISION' III OF m.ACKHFATII (Nn. IK.:, Vol. 2). 




DAISY OF nil. I. VIEW. 




,M.\P,CHIOM>S OF COO BY. 





TOT tl OF OAKDAI.E. 




EMI'IIFSS OF Hll.I.VIF.W. 




FI.ORHIE II (No. 308. l.D.C.II.E.). 



I'l IM (IF MWFlFl.n. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



149 



ble only for a few miles, draining a distrct of 
8,300 square miles in area. The Numbaa farms 
were sold in Ae long room, Numbaa, Tuesday, 
March 31st, 1892. Same terms as No. 1 and 2. 
H. G. Morton was land steward. 

The Nowra bridge cost £42,000, and is 411 
yards long. 

Auctioneers, Hardie and Gorman, Sydney, D. 
L. Dymock, Kiama, and Stewart and Morton, 
Berry. ' ' 

Dr. Kenneth Mackenzie was born in Scotland 
on 29th August 1806. He was a medical doctor 
and came out to Sydney in the early thirties. 
In 1837 he purchased Bundonan, on the upper 
Shoalhaven, from R. H. Brown containing 600 
acres, and commencing farming operations 
which he later on combined with cattle raising. 
In the early fifties it was a common thing for 
Illawarra men to visit Dr. Mckenzie's farm 
with a view of purchasing dairy heifers. A 
reference to the records of the old Illawarra 
A. & H. Society will show that Dr. Mackenzie 
was one of its founders. In 1838 he married 
a Mrs. Cliff e by whom he had five children, 
namely, Helen, Mary, Murdock, Hugh, and 
Julia." Mrs. Mckenzie died in 1858. In 1870 
Dr. Mackenzie and his eldest son, Murdock, 
sailed for Scotland in the ship Ann Duthie, 
and the father settled and died at Dundonald, 
Scotland, in the year 1878. Murdock Mac- 
kenzie did not live long after his father's 
death. He passed out in London in 1881. His 
remains were taken for burial to Dundonald. 
A relation of the Mackenzie family, Murdock 
Ross, was manager for the Berry family at 
Meroo, and also for the Osborne family at the 
Kangaroo Ground. 

Mi.ss Mary Mackenzie married James 
Thompson, a grandson of Mrs. Mary Reibey, so 
that much of the upper Shoalhaven properties 
became a joint family concern. Dr. Kenneth 
Mackenzie and Mr. James Thompson were for 
years the local magistrates for the Shoalhaven 
district, acting in con,junction with Mr. James 
Mackaj' Grey, of Kiama, or Captain Plunket, 
of Wollongong, according to the gravity of the 
eases to be tried by them. 

Of the great men of modern times Mr. Hugh 
Mackenzie stood high and strong in stature and 
moral force among the native born of old Illa- 
warra. He was born in Bundonan in 1845, and 
was educated in Sydney. He like his father 
took a keen interest in all matters that had 
for their best ob.iect the well-being of his dis- 
trict. After the death of his brother in 



London, he took a trip to Dundonald, Rosshire, 
Scotland, to settle up his brother's affairs. A 
few years later he took his wife and children 
to see the Scottish home. He did not like 
the climate. About 1887 he purchased the 
Terrara Estate from the Executors of the De 
Mestre family for £40,000. Although his father 
was fond of a race horse he did not inherit a 
love for the sport of kings. He did more good 
by helping in a big way the betterment of the 
man on the land as president of the Shoalhaven 
A. & H. Society. He died in November, 1917, 
aged 72 years. 

In October, 1879, Hugh Mackenzie pur- 
chased 100 acres at Terrara from W. H. Love- 
grove at £40 per acre, and Lbvegrove removed 
to Sydney. 

Mr. Charles Throsby Smith came out a mere 
youth to New South Wales from England to his 
uncle Dr. Charles Throsby, of Glenfield, Liver- 
pool. He claimed to have done much pioneer- 
ing for his uncle. No doubt he assisted in 
many ways but Dr. Throsby 's chief guides were 
three experienced servants, John Waite, Joseph 
Wild, and Rowley. It was those three men who 
brought the first cattle into Illawarra overland 
from Liverpool for Dr. Throsby. It was John 
Waite, or as he was sometimes called, Jack 
White, who had entire charge of Dr. Throsby 's 
cattle in 1813. 

The first notice we have of Mr. Charles 
Throsby Smith's entry in the lands in Illa- 
wai'ra is in 1825 when he is advertising in the 
"Gazette" for a cow lost from his farm, "Bus- 
tle Farm." There was evidently Wollongong 
at that time. The settlement being at "Red 
Point." 

Mr. Charles Throsby Smith, however, did 
this, he married a Miss Broughton at Parra- 
matta as first wife, and obtained a grant of 
300 acres in what is now the town of Wollon- 
gong. He called his farm "Bustle Farm," 
and took the contract from the Government 
to provision the garrison at Red Point, Port 
Kembla. Floods occasionally interfered with 
his operations, and he had often to pass round 
by Spring Hill to avoid the Lagoon. He, after 
a little time, got influence enough at his com- 
mand to have the stockade and garrison re- 
moved from Port Kembla to Wollongong. And 
hence we have Crown Street, Wollongong. 
The gaol and soldiers' quarters were situated 
at Lower Crown Street. 

Sueaking of Early Illawarra — 

Mr. Charles Throsby Smith says: — Dr. 
Chnrles Throsby, of Glenfield, near Liverpool, 



150 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



was my uncle, and when I first started for lUa- 
warra with a mob of cattle, two white men 
and two black men were in charge of the cattle. 
We reached Appin on the first day. Next day 
we took an easterly direction for four days, 
when we reached the top of the Bulli Mountain. 
We rested there overnight. Next day we came 
down the range to where the township of Bulli 
is to-day." Speaking of Wollongong after ho 
had commenced farming at Bustle Hill, Mr. 
Smith said: "All the land between what is 
now Crown Street and the Lagoon was thickly 
covered with a honeysuckle and ti-tree scrub. ' " 

By his Broughton Avife Mr. Smith was con- 
nected hy marriage with Lieutenant Carne, Dr. 
Charles Throsby, and Dr. Clayton. The latter 
gentleman resided for some years in Dapto. 
In the diary of Rev. Thomas Kendall, we find 
that he visited Illawarra and baptised a child 
born 27th December, 1827, belonging to Her- 
bert and Atty Green, at the house of the Com- 
mandant, John Fitzgerald Butler, on 3rd Feb- 
ruary, 1829. Nearly twelve months before he 
had baptised Maria, daughter of Charles 
Throsby Smith and Sarah Smith, at their house ; 
date of birth. 11th January, 1828; date of 
baptism, 2nd ^larch, 1828. This goes to shoAV 
that the date of the arrival of Mr. Smith in 
what is now Wollongong, would be about 1825. 
He evidently knew much more about early Illa- 
warra than he ever told to even his immediate 
friends. He was married four times, and onee 
visited England. He was appointed Govern- 
ment Lands Commissioner. He had an up- 
to-date farming plant in what is now the town 
of Wollongong. It was in his barn that the ' 
Church of England service was held prior to 
1837. He died 25th September, 1876, aged 78 
years. 

Petersham, 
February 28th, 1914. 

I regret to state that my health has been so 
bad during the past twelve months that I am 
unable to comply with your request as to the 
early history of Wollongong. The records of 
which are among the Smith family and out 
of my reach at present. I am in my eightieth 
year. In answer to your query re the name 
of Broughton,- it was named after my late 
uncle who took down a draft of cattle for 
Berry Bros., to Broughton Creek about the 
year 1824, and is reputed to have taken up for 
Berry 25,000 acres at Broughton Creek. 

Unfortunately there are none of my relations, 
Throsbys, living who could give much infor- 
mation re the taking up of the town of Wollon- 



gong, then portion of the Couiity of Camden. 
My elder sisters, the late Mrs. F. R. Cole, who 
died at eighty-four years, Mrs. A. A. Turner, 
now resident of Leichhardt, 86 years. I fear 
her memory has become faulty or information 
could be obtained through her, Mrs. Turner was 
born in 1828. Mrs. Cole previously. Our 
mother was born at Parramatta in 1799. Our 
father came to Wollongong in 1824 or 5. Pray 
excuse my scribbling. After I write for ten 
minutes my hand gives way. Hope you will 
make out what I have written. Wishing you 
success in your undertaking. 

I remain. Yours faithfully, 

Chas. F. Smith. 

Dr. Thomas Montgomery Perrott, a retired 
statf surgeon, of first class, who served during 
the Peninsula Campaign, at Walchren, and first 
Burmese War, in H.M. First 41st Regiment of 
Foot. He received a grant of land, 500 acres, 
on Druwalla Creek, and purchased a farm on 
the Jamberoo road, bordering the Terragong or 
Mango Swamp, where he built a house and had 
a fine orchard. He practised his profession and 
carried on dairying. His brand was a globe 
surmounted by a cross. His servant was John 

G y, who did not admire the cows. "They 

were too tough to milk." One day John was 
doing some tree felling, and a large tree 
smashed up several cows. John immediately 
gave himself up. When asked by Dr. Robert 
Menzies, J.P., what he had done, he said: I 
have broken up the "Globe and Crosses." Dr. 
Perrott wa.s killed by a fall from his horse — 
whilst hurrying to save a man who had cut 
his throat — on 12th June, 1853, aged 62 years. 

A writer possessed of much knowledge re- 
garding the history of England, and the people 
thereof, once wrote: "I speak of the name 
Perrott, not a very common one, and which, it 
occurs to me, is historical also in another sense 
ds it was borne by an officer very distinguished 
in the conquest of Ireland under Queen Eliza- 
beth, viz.. Sir Thomas Perrott, who was said 
to have been a natural son of 'bluff King Hal.' 
I don't knoM' whether there is any other con- 
nection than the identity of name ; but when I 
first came to Jamberoo there used to be a good 
deal heard about a certain Dr. Perrott, then 
recently dead, and formerly an army surgeon, 
a gentleman whose professional skill and 
peculiar manners furnished the subject of a 
good many anecdotes. He left some two or 
three hundred acres which were cleared by 
tenant farmers." 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



151 



None of the old Jamberoo identities accused 
the old doctor of being so ambitious as to con- 
sider himself a more important man during 
the Peninsular war than the Duke of Welling- 
ton. They, however, considered that no man 
hated the "Iron Duke" more in every respect 
than did Dr. Thomas Montgomery Perrott. The 
doctor also hated the French, and possessed a 
large flake of a Frenchman's skin as a species 
of trophy from the war. 

Mrs. Mary Reibey was a very old colonist 
and a friend of Governor Macquarie who as- 
sisted her to prosper in the new colony. He 
(Macquarie) promised her a grant of land in 
1813; she did not, however, take possession of 
her grant at that period. Evidently she 
followed the custom of the time, viz., she took 
up the best available cedar country when it 
was opportune to do so. We learn that Mrs. 
Mary Reibey travelled on horseback from Syd- 
ney to Burrier in order to take possession of 
her Shoalhaven Eiver grant in 1828. She must 
have travelled via Bong Bong, and then down 
a spur of the Meryla Mountain to Burrier. It 
would appear to have been the only trip she 
made south as she constantly kept that journey 
on her mind, and repeatedly mentioned it to 
her children and grandchildren. To her it was 
a great feat. But many Australian mothers 
performed remarkable feats in those days — 
often on foot — no horses to be had. No grass 
in the early bush to feed a horse ; cows and 
bullocks were more useful to the struggling 
settlers who had to make grass grow where 
no grass grew before. 

Mr. James Thompson was born on August 
26th, 1824 in Launeeston, Tasmania, and was 
the eldest son of Lieutenant Thomas Thompson 
of the Royal Marine Light Infantry. He was 
educated in Sydnej' and became clerk to his: 
uncle, Captain Innes, then police magistrate 
at the Hyde Park Barracks, Sydney. He then 
entered the service of the Bank of Australasia 
in Launeeston, Tasmania, and in 1847 returned 
to New South Wales and settled at Burrier, 
which was a grant to Mary Reibey in 1824. The 
Burrier grant had been settled in 1833 with 
Mr. Alexander MacKay as manager. Mrs. Mary 
Reibey was Mr. James Thompson's grand- 
mother, and she gave Burrier and her other 
grant Illaroo, to her two grandsons — Messrs. 
James Thompson and John Atkinson. Mr. 
James Thompson bought out his cousin's in- 
terests and took possession of the whole of the 
umer Shoalhaven properties. Mr. James 
Thompson was a horse fancier, and owned 



Euclid as a stud sire. His cattle were of the 
James Atkinson Oldburg breed, and were 
always in demand. 

He was elected to the first Parliament 
under responsible government in New South 
Wales, and only sat during the first 
session of that Parliament which cost 
him £800. He suffered serious loss owing 
to the Shoalhaven flood of 1860. He had 
Andre de Mestre, of Terrara, and Charles 
Moore (of the Botanic Gardens, Sydney) under 
his hospitable roof, together with other friends, 
and although no rain had fallen on February 
9th up to 9 o'clock p.m. on the 10th at day- 
light the river was a banker and they all had 
to rush for their lives and camped that night 
in a fowl house owned by a neighbour. The 
river rose 15ft in 15 minutes at one period of 
time. In 1870 the flood washed the old house 
away. He married Miss Mackenzie, daughter 
of Dr. Kenneth Mackenzie, of Bundonan, Shoal- 
haven, who owned an estate in Scotland, named 
Dundonald, in Rosshire, about which hangs 
a tale of ye olden days. However, Dr. Mac- 
kenzie and James Thompson were resident 
magistrates for Shoalh-.ven and endeavoured 
to act .justly. 

William Browne, of Athanlin, Yallah, Illa- 
warra, belonged to an old Irish family whose 
estates were in Sligo. Most readers of Irish 
history woiild know of the Marquis of Sligo 
and his associations with law and order in Ire- 
land. William Browne of Yallah, or Merchant 
Browne, gf Sydney, as he was usually termed, 
was born in Galway, Ireland, in 1762, and 
became an officer in the Hon. Bast India Com- 
pany. He resigned his position and came to 
New South Wales from Calcutta with possibly 
£20,000. With such a sum at his command 
Governor Macquarie made him Avelcome, and 
gave him advice. He had only to ask for Go- 
vernment aid to find it showered on him, accord- 
ing, of course, to regulations. It is just possible 
that Mr. John Thomas Campbell, the Governor's 
secretary, wenf on board the ship "Mary" on 
her arrival from Calcutta, in the harbour of 
Sydney in 1816 to point out a few of its beauty 
spots. 

Soon after arriving in Sydney Mr. Browne 
received a grant of 2800 acres of land for the 
erection of a wholesale wine and spirit store. 
A little later he obtained a grant of land on 
the shore of Lake Illawarra, between Dapto and 
the Macquarie Rivulet, of 1000 acres. He was 
married in Calcutta to a daughter of Lieutenant 
Colonel Forbes, and so far as can be ascertained 



152 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



neither he nor any of his own family ever 
settled in Illawarra. He sent an overseer down 
from Sydney who carried on dairying and farm- 
ing in a small way. Horse-breeding may have 
interested him to a certain extent, as he was 
a racehorse owner. So, far, however, as Illa- 
warra was concerned, he did little towards 
developing its resources, and eventually it fell 
into the hands of Mr. Henry Osborne, whose 
son, Mr. George Osborne, of Holly Lodge, Bur- 
wood, owned the southern portion of the 
Browne Estate. 

According to Mr. John Brown, of Dapto 
Dr. Alexander Imlay, of Bega, and a nephew 
of Mr. William Browne, used to pay Yallah 
a visit occasionally, and that the first pole-dray 
ever seen in Illawarra was built to the order 
of Dr. Imlay. Prior to that a single bullock 
worked between two shafts like a horse, with 
a horse collar turned upside down causing an 
odd number of bullocks in a team. 

It is a wonder that Dr. Alexander Imlay was 
not knighted for this innovation as it is on 
record that one wealthy Australian gentleman 
received a knighthood for introducing a new 
method of burning out stumps. 

Mr. John Brown has informed us that the 
high range situated north of the Yallah Estate 
is called "Mount Browne" after the original 
owner. But as our old Illawarra resident had 
no knowledge of the celebrated botanist, Mr. 
Robert Brown who accompaniel Governor 
Collins to Tasmania in 1803, and who was 
in Admiral "William Bligh's expedition to that 
country, being in Illawarra on a botanising 
expedition in 1806, he was evidently confused 
in the name. 

Be that as it may the dwelling house and out- 
buildings that were erected by Mr. William 
Browne for his overseer have long since dis- 
appeared. The manager of the Yallah Estate, 
Mr. Cornelius O'Brien, had frequently to ride 
over the mountain to Appin. He set about to 
discover a new route which has since been 
known as " 'Brien 's Pass. ' ' This route turned 
off what is now the main South Coast road at 
the Pigtree Bridge, and passed then over the 
mountain to Appin ; and, it like the Bulli Pass, 
was used as a bridle track only, and these were 
the only pathways in and out of Illawarra for 
years. In the course of time the Mount Kiera 
Pass was discovered and opened up for traffic 
by bullock drays : and many of the early settlers 
of Illawarra came with their families by this 
route. Among them were Mr. William Spear- 
ing who received a grant of land known 



as the Mount Kiera Estate. He founded a 
homestead at the foot of the mountain. Mount 
Kiera house and orchard were old land-marks. 
It was down the Mount Kiera Pass that Mr. 
George Brown, of Dapto, came from Liverpool 
to settle in the Illawarra district in 1829. Mr. 
Cornelius O'Brien was a qualified surveyor. 

Mr. Cornelius O'Brien was a brother-in-law 
of Mr. William Browne, and Messrs. Charles 
and Ben O'Brien were relations. Their names 
appear in the management of many of our 
Illawarra Estates as far south as Terrara, Shoal- 
haven. They were associated with the first 
race club in Illawarra in 1834, when we learn 
of George Brown's "Blackjack" and William 
Browne's "Kauri Gum." 

The Imlay Bros., of Tarraganda, Bega, were 
closely associated with William Browne, of 
Yallah, Illawarra. They were largely interested 
in blood horse breeding under the patronage 
of Sir Eichard Bourke. 

We then hear of Dr. Imlay, he is 
entertaining Major - General Sir Richard 
Bourke at Tarraganda in the Twofold Bay dis- 
trict. His Excellency after visiting WoUon- 
gong, and giving instructions to have the roads 
and bridges made, and the placing of a police 
magistrate permanently in Illawarra, boarded 
his frigate and went south to Twofold Bay. 
Before returning to Sydney his Excellency 
spent a good time in the extreme south of 
coastal development. After settling for a time 
in the Goulburn district Dr. Alexander Imlay 
returned to Tarraganda where he was joined 
by his brothers Dr. George and Mr. Peter Imlay. 
They quickly launched out in a large way and 
imported some of the finest horses and cattle 
England could produce. The following thor- 
oughbred horses were imported by the Messrs. 
Imlay Bros., of Tarraganda, Bega, then known 
as the Twofold Bay district. For the pedigrees 
of whom we must refer the reader to the Eng- 
lish Stud Book:— 

No. 1, "Young Camel," bay, bred in 1838, 
sire, "Camel," dam, "Miss Kate"; No. II. 
"The Prince of Wales," bay, bred in 1838, sire, 
"Newtown," dam, "Holbrook"; No. Ill, 
"Merry Pebbles," chestnut, bred in 1837, sire, 
"Saracen," dam, "Lady Cauford"; No. IV, 
"Cerberus," black, bred in 1836, sire, "De- 
fence," dam, "Charlotte"; No. V, "Hamble- 
don," brown, bred in 1838, sire, "Ishmael," 
dam. "Babel"; No. VI, "Almanack," bay, bred 
in 1836, sire, "Camel," dam, "Miss Skin." 

This was possibly the most important impor- 
tation of blood horses that was ever recorded 



15J 



GEORGE GREY, The Greyleigh Stud, Kiama. 




TOCO. 



CIMDEliELLA 01" GriliYLEIGH (!\u. 333, I.D.C.H.i 




I'LUJI OF GnrYI.EIOH (No. f. I . ED.C.A.H.B. ) . 



CAnN.ATION (N(i. 178. I.D.C.H.B. 





MODEE II OF OREYEEIGH (No. 29) 



EMPUESS OF GREYEEIGH 
(No. 77. ED.C.H.B.). 



GEORGE GREY, The Greyleigh Stud, Kiama. 



155 




RIFI'5 OF GREYLElOil (N'n. 7 I.D.C.H.i 




DANDY IV (N». TiO, I.D.C.Il.B. ) . 








ji DY in. 



OEM H (Mo. 443, I.D.i.'.II.B. ) . 





DUCHESS IV OF GREYLEIGH. 



MODEL IV OF GBEYLEiGH. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARKA 



157 



to Australia prior to 1840. The result of this 
importation was soon felt, and Mr. David John- 
ston took a leaf out of the Messrs. Imlay's 
book and imported £1600 of stock to New 
South Wales including the finest types of horses 
and cattle procurable in England. The result 
of these importations enabled the small settlers 
to get into their possession good stock which 
they preserved. Young foals and calves were 
easily transferred from one dam to another 
mother, and from one owner to another man. 
Flogging and starving a few unfortunate men 
for small crimes never had the slightest in- 
fluence on those who were transferring stock 
from one part of the lUawarra district to 
another. It was to prevent free trade in 
horses, cattle and sheep the city merchants and 
large landed proprietors formed associations. 

Dr. Thomas Foster. — Leaving John Terry 
Hughes' station, Albion Park, and travelling 
south, the spur of a mountain range is 
crossed which runs towards the sea. The 
northern side of this spur is called Mount 
Terry, and the southern side Mount 
Foster. At any part of this mountain spur 
splendid views of the several localities may be 
obtained. 

Going south to the Minnamurra Rivulet, W. 
C. Wentworth's timber leases lay on the east- 
ern side. To the right lay Dr. Thomas Foster's 
grant of 2560 acres, call Curragh-more. Dr. 
Foster belonged to the Marquis of Waterford's 
regiment in Ireland, and he called the 
property after the Marquis' private resi- 
dence. In New South Wales the doctor 
was attached to the 46th Regiment of 
Foot, and married the eldest daughter of 
Gregory Blaxland in 1817. He never had much 
interest in Illawarra beyond selling the timber 
on his grant to the Woodstock mills. He was 
the father of William Foster a leading politi- 
cian. The doctor died at Brush Farm, Parra- 
matta, in 1882. 

Mr. James Atkinson obtained the appoint- 
ment of Chief Clerk in the Colonial Secretary's 
office in Sydney in 1818. He also received a 
grant of land in the County of Argyle, not far 
from Sutton Forest, which he called ' ' Oldbury ' ' 
after his native village in England. In 1824 he 
resigned his office and returned to England. 
While there he purchased a number of pure- 
bred horses, cattle, and sheep. He chartered 
the shin Cumbei-land (Captain Caruri), loaded 
her with asricultnral stores and live stock, 
and arrived in Port Jackson, Sydney. .24th 
January, 1827. Among the several passengers 



who came with him to settle in N.S. Wales, was 
Miss Throsby, who afterwards married Dr. Pat- 
rick Hill. 

James Atkinson on Cattle Breeding. 

Mr. James Atkinson had no direct interests 
in Illawarra, but his deseendents had later ou. 
and the settlers in Illawarra took a keen in- 
terest in him and his imported stock. The cattle 
which he imported comprised the best dairy 
strain of the Sussex, Devon, Ayrshire, and 
Shorthorn breeds ; and furthermore, as his writ- 
ings show, he had his own opinion about dairy- 
cattle breeding. Unfortunately he passed away 
too soon to be able to put his ideas into prac 
tical effect. His death is recorded in 1834. We 
find in the Records of 1828 that according to 
Mr. James Atkinson, ' ' The horned cattle of the 
Colony were derived from various countries — 
England, Cape of Good Hope, India, and other 
places — and have been bred with little discrimi- 
nation and were a mixed lot. Some few breed- 
ers, however, paid more attention, and soon 
possessed very good herds, though possibly not 
the best adapted to the country. Mr. John 
Maearthur's are of the Lancashire, and the 
Rev. Mr. Marsden's of the Suffolk or polled 
breed. These two, perhaps, are the finest and 
least unmixed in the Colony. Mr. Throsby pos- 
sessed a strong and large variety, and the hea- 
viest oxen yet produced have been from his 
herd." 

"A very large proportion of the horned cattle 
of the Colony are derived from the Bengal 
breed, which are easily recognised by their 
Buffalo appearance. They are remarkable for 
their large hump on the shoulders, thick skin, 
and smooth shining hair. They are small and 
of little or no use for the dairy ; fatten readily 
upon inferior keep; strong and hardy working 
stock ; the quality of the beef is very fine. ' ' 

"It is hardly possible to trace the other 
varieties introduced at different times ; the pure 
English breeds of the large kind are not suit- 
able in the early stages of the Colony's history, 
whilst depending upon the natural grass, un- 
less when they have a large tract of country 
to range over. The smaller breeds, such as the 
Devons, South Wales, and Galloway Scots are 
more suitable, and would produce big beef, 
more milk than the Herefords, Sussex, or large 
Yorkshire breeds." 

"The Yorkshire breed is the best for 
crossing with the Colonial cattle, the 
majority of which may be described as 
large-boned, thick-skinned, coarse-necked. 



158 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAKRA 



heavy fore-quartered, deficient hind-quartered, 
and badly milking stock. The short-horned 
Yorkshires are the reverse to all this. The prices 
of horned cattle are extremely various, and 
have been declining for years ; notwithstanding, 
good dairy cows are still in great demand, I 
have knovi^n lately £100 offered for five cows, 
a choice of forty in a herd, and refused, in 
Sydney." See "British Farmers' Magazine." 
1826. 

According to James Atkinson, of Oldbury, 
Sutton Forest, N.S.W., he was the first of 
his time, to wit, 1828, to advocate the Red Sus- 
sex breed of cattle as a means of crossing with 
other dairy breeds to bring about the ideal dairy 
animal. At that time it was considered that 
"the bull ought to be the most handsome of 
his kind; his eyes sprightly and prominent; 
his ears long and thin, hairy within and with- 
out, his horns long, clean, and bright, and stand- 
ing low at the crown, his mouth small, and 
muzzle fine; nostrils wide and open; the head 
not looking coarse or large, as all fineness about 
the head denotes a great inclination to fatten; 
his neck near to the head fine, both above and 
below, but gradually thickening until it joins 
the breast and shoulders, and not encumbered 
with a coarse, wreathy skin. What is termed 
the neck vein should be very full; the upper 
parts, called the withers, broad and strong, 
and well fleshed where it joins the chine, which 
is a certain criterion of any animal being fat 
in its upper parts. The neck, in length, should 
bear a proper proportion to every other part of 
him, be grown well out of his shoulders, rising 
with a gentleeurve, giving a lofty appearance; 
his forehead broad, and set with close, short, 
curled hair, standing up, with very little dew- 
lap or loose skin in any part. Further, his 
shoulders should be deep, high, and moderate- 
ly broad on top, the forelegs open ; the breast 
large and projecting well before the legs. From 
the top of the head to the tail should be nearly 
straight, the little rise on the upper part of 
the chine excepted; the back of hoof broad, so 
as to carry the greater weight on all his fine 
parts; the ribs standing out round from the 
chine, but not in the extreme, nor should they 
be broader below than on top, but forming a 
proper depth on the sides, and the rib should 
be near the buck, so as not to show a hollow, 
even with an empty belly. The huck-bone 
should be globular at the end, standing a little 
higher than the ribs or the rump, which latter 
should be long and level, with the back and 
ribs, carrying width near the tail; the two 



bones on each side of his tail, by some called 
the 'tut-bones,' should be about two inches 
lower than the tail, and not far asunder. The 
highest part of the tail should be about one 
inch higher than the chine at the rump, and 
the upper end of the tail, giving the rump a 
considerable thickness, but tapering down- 
wards to become very small at the bottom, with 
much lank hair on the under part of it ; the fore- 
thighs strong and muscular, tapering gradually 
to the knees; the legs straight, short-jointed, 
full of sinews, clean, fine-boned. The hind- 
thighs should be well-covered with fiesh, so as 
to form a good round or buttock of beef, but 
not so fleshy on the outside as to be what is 
termed ' Dutch- thighed'; the hair not hard or 
stubborn to the touch, but elastic to the feel 
like buck-leather; the hair uniformly thick, 
short, curled, and of a soft texture. His walk 
should be light and nimble, moving with his 
hind feet wider from each other than his fore- 
feet, showing much light between the legs. The 
carcase, taking a side view, should appear long, 
with small shoulders, to be of great length from 
the back of the shoulders to the tail ; the body 
deep and round, filling well up to the shoulder, 
so as not to show hollow or weak places in any 
part — great shape being required in the ribs of 
all animals, which ought from the first to the 
last, to show a little farther out than another, 
so as to form, which is not improperly termed, 
a barrel-like carcase." 

"The marks of the cow, proper to fatten, so 
far as they relate to the head, hide and general 
figure, are much the same as those already sta- 
ted. In the cow, the flank is a part of much 
consideration, and the more it is thrown out 
in width, the better, being in some measure 
round, but deep, as there is a material differ- 
ence between a deep-ribbed beast and a gutty 
one. Those termed gutty are wider below than 
above, whilst the proper shape in the body of a 
beast is to be wider above than below, so as 
to carry the greater weight upwards in its 
fine parts; consequently the shoulder of a fat- 
tening beast cannot be too small, nor is the 
animal ever too long, if one part bears propor- 
tion to another. The neck, although it should 
be fine and thin at the back of the horns, ought 
soon to become thicker in every part, joining 
the shoulder. There is nothing in which the 
cow for milk and the cow for fattening vary 
more than in this, as the cow for milk cannot 
have too thin a neck. It is presumed that 
whatever be the breed intended to fatten, the 
above applies to all." 



THE UlSTOEY OF.ILLAWARRA 



159 



Captain William Howe was a very old and 
valuable colonist. He got a large grant of land 
from the Crown in the Campbelltown district 
and called his home there Glenlee. He, by 
means of cheap labour, converted his holding in 
a few years into a large dairy farm, and the 
"Glenlee" butter and cheese were always in 
demand at advanced prices He seems to have 
had the idea from the commencement of his 
operations in New South Wales that it was 
the correct thing to breed crosses of at least 
four distinct breeds of dairy cattle for dairy, 
purposes. He either imported or purchased 
pure bred Shorthorns, Devons, Sussexs, Ayr- 
shires and Alderneys. It would be almost im- 
possible now to come to any other conclusion. 
Kearly all the early settlers went to ' ' Glenlee ' ' 
for the nucleus of their dairy herds. This will 
be patent to readers of this book as they follow 
its pages. The Eed Sussex cattle in the early 
days of the colony are described as being 
"harder-haired than the Devon, and of a deeper 
red than even the North Devon, cherry red, 
larger-framed and tip-top milkers." The first 
acquaintance we get with Captain Howe and 
his cattle is a " Gazette ' ' notice as follows : ' ' Mr. 
Bavin, auctioneer, sold at his paddock, known 
as Haymarket, Brickfield Hill, on 28th June, 
1818, Captain Richard Brook's cattle, "William 
Howe, Glenlee, being the chief purchaser." 
These cattle were described as being Durham, 
AjTshire, and Devon crosses. 

Captain William Howe carried on his opera- 
tions with his wife as chief overseer. Very 
little, therefore, of the ways and means of those 
operations got outside the Glenlee homestead. 
We learn, however, that at the great cattle sale 
held at Segenhoe, near Singleton, on January 
20th, 1838, Mr. William Howe, of Glenlee, pur- 
chased the chief Shorthorn stud bull, Jupiter, 
for £85, the highest priced bull at the sale, 
Segenhoe being the estate of the Hon. Potter 
MacQueen. In 1841 (April) Mr. Samuel Lyon.s 
had for sale at his bazaar, Sydney, the cele- 
brated pure Durham bull, Jupiter, bred by Mr. 
Potter MacQueen. of Segenhoe, Singleton. His 
sire was Comet, and his dam Durham Nancy. 
His aae was stated to be 7 years, and if fat 
would weigh 20001bs. Also four bulls by 
JuPiter, out of Glenlee cows that have been 
.iudieiously crossed by imported bulls for the 
last twenty years. This gives us a fair idea 
of the class of cattle that many of our Illawarra 
dairymen began dairying with in 1840. 
The Tate Family. 

George Tate and Elizabeth Kell were married 



on the 1st June, 1815, and recorded in the par- 
ish book of Bowden, by the Revd. Belfour, Rox- 
burghshire, Scotland. Their eldest child, Eliza- 
beth Tate, was born at Shawburne, Roxburgh- 
shire, on 3rd day of March, 1816. John Kell 
Tate, the second child, was born at Eastfield, 
Roxburghshire, on 13th January, 1818. Both 
Elizabeth Tate and John Kell Tate were bap- 
tized by the Revd. W. Belfour, Minister of the 
Gospel, at Bowden. 

George Tate, the third child, was born at sea 
on the way out to Sydney, on September 12th, 
1819. Edward Kell Tate, the fourth child, was 
born at Kirkham, Camden, N.S. Wales, on De- 
cember 5th, 1821. Mary Kell Tate was born 
at Campbelltown, N.S. Wales on 26th July, 
1825. George, Edward Kell, and Mary Kell Tate 
were baptized by Revd. Dr. Lang at the Scots' 
Church, Sydney, 

Mrs. Elizabeth Tate died at " Springhill, " 
Illawarra, next to Berkeley estate, near Wollon- 
gong, N.S. Wales, on the 1st June, 1827, aged 36 
years. George Tate, her husband, was gored by 
a bull and killed at Haymarket, Sydney, 27th 
December, 1835, aged 41 years. Mra. James 
Donnelly (nee Elizabeth Tate), died at Cowell's 
Farm, Kiama, N.S. Wales, on December 30th 
1854, aged 38 years. 

George Tate, on arriving in Sydney, became 
manager for Surveyor John Oxley, at Kirkham, 
in the Camden district, where the fourth mem- 
ber of his family was born. He took an hotel 
at Campbelltown where his fifth child was born. 
On 22nd June, 1824, he received a grant of 500 
acres at Springhill, Wollongong, on which he 
built an hotel. He was, therefore, the first 
recognised publican in Illawarra. He carried 
on cedar getting and cattle breeding, princi- 
pally raising bullocks for hauling timber. After 
the death of his wife, in 1827, he remarried a 
Mrs. McDermott, mother of MacDermott, who 
opened the first hotel in Jamberoo, "The Man 
o' Kent," Woodstock. In 1832 he sold the 
Springhill property to Captain Charles Wald- 
ron of the 39th Regiment of Foot, and took 
over the Wheatsheaf Hotel, opposite the old 
Toll-bar in George-street, Sydney. From the 
Wheatsheaf Hotel he went to the "Forbes" 
Hotel, near the salevards, Haymarket, where 
he was gored by a bull as stated, and died 27th 
December. 1835. Two of his sons, George and 
Edward, learned trades, blacksraithing and 
^^•heelwrighting respectively, with Fowler Bros., 
Campbelltown. John was a storekeeper. All 
three came to Jamberoo in 1841. George and 
Edward at the side of an old track that led past 



IbU 



THE HISrOE-Y OF ILLAWAKKA 



where the Catholic Church now stands, John 
opened a store on the hill adjacent thereto. 
Mrs. James Donnelly who died on Cowell's 
Farm, near Kiama, was the mother of that cele- 
brated jockey and racehorse trainer at Rand- 
wick, George Donnelly. James Donnelly, intend- 
ed buying Cowell's farm. It so happened that 
the property was in the hands of Daniel Cooper 
for disposal. Cooper living in London in 1853 
gave Samuel Charles the chance of his lifetime, 
and he took advantage of it, purchased the pro- 
perty and called it "Eureka." Samuel Charles 
had been sent to England at that time to bring 
out the steamship Kiama. He put Captain 
Grainger in charge, he himself not being a deep 
sea captain. 

In the year 1848 there came to Jamberoo an 
up-to-date Yorkshire farmer named George 
Wood. About ten years later another English 
farmer named George Wood settled on a farm 
on the Robb estate, near Kiama. So they were 
styled as George Wood, Jamberoo, and George 
Wood, Springhjll. The elder Wood .settled on 
Moses Brennan's holding, near John Ritchie's 
farm, where he farmed successfully for a few 
years, and then combined dairying with agri- 
culture. John Tate and Edward Tate married 
daughters of George Wood, of Jamberoo, and 
George Wood, jun., of Jamberoo, married a 
daughter of James Donnelly. John Tate, 
Edward, and George Wood, junr., settled down 
to their respective callings and carried on 
dairying in Jamberoo. It is with George Tate, 
however, that the lUawarra district had the 
greater concern, as he launched out in several 
ways. He became a cattle breeder and a cattle 
dealer on a larger scale than the majority of his 
neighbours, and passed the dealing instinct on 
to his sons. Hence we have records of four 
George Tates in lUawarra. We will then con- 
fine our remarks to the careers of the Georges 
as being prominent cattle breeders and cattle 
dealers, as well as being successful exhibitors at 
the Illawarra A. and H. Society shows ; not 
always in the Shorthorn type classes. In 1856 
Georffe Tate was carrying on dairying in con- 
junction with his trade (in fact all three brothers 
combined dairving and farming with business), 
his farm was leased from Dr. Robert Menzies. 
The site is that now known as Hugh Dudgeon's 
Hillview Farm. George Tate was in every sense 
of the term a busv man. His first stud bull was 
purchased from John Marks at Terragons. on 
the Kiama-Jamberoo road. He got to work at 
Broughton Village, biiyiner all the village lots 
there, and set then to work to fell the timber 



and clear the land, as did all the original 
settlers in Illawarra. As soon as the land was 
ready and a house erected he left Jamberoo and 
took up residence at Broughton Village. A few 
years later he made a plunge. Ben and Alex 
Osborne had Glenmurray-Kangaroo Valley on 
the halves. Their respective brands were B.H.O. 
and A.H.O. George Tate bought all Ben 
Osborne's cattle. He engaged Harry Thomas 
and two blacks, including the clever bushman, 
Owney, to collect the cattle. These experts col- 
lected upwards of 500 head by scouring the 
ranges, most of them unbranded, which he sold 
in lots wherever, he found a market. The choi- 
cest he reserved for his own farm at Broughton 
Village. In 1869 he bought a bull from Evan 
R. Evans, afterwards known as the old E.E. 
bull. He later went in for pedigreed Short- 
horns, "Prodigal" from Lee, of Bathurst; 
'Napoleon" from Barnes and Smith of Rich- 
mond River; "Boxer" from John Boxell, of 
Berry, who had bought his sire from Lowe, of 
Mudgee. None of these Shorthorns pleased him. 
In 1875 he purchased Gabriel Timbs' bull. In 
1876 he had an auction sale, reserved some 
yearling heifers, and the calves by E. R. Evans ' 
bred bull, which he sold at the sale, and also 
reserved from sale the Timbs' bull. He leased 
the farm for a year to George Thompson, and 
put him right into possession at the end of that 
term. At the end of twelve months he sent the 
Timbs bull and the young heifers over the range 
to his son George, at Oakvale. George, junior, 
commenced dairying there, and purchased an 
Ayrshire bull by a very superior Ayrshire bull 
purchased by Henry Hill Osborne, of Avondale, 
New Zealand. George in a few years put to- 
gether a fine herd of cows. His health failed, 
and in 1882 he leased the farm to William 
Kelleher, and sold his cattle at great prices 
for those times, and went dealing for five 
years in conjunction with Jerry and Paddy 
Sullivan. In 1887 he sent the Messrs. Sullivan 
out to buy lip cattle to commence dairying 
again. They moved towards Jamberoo and 
Shellharbour, and on the tableland around Moss 
Vale. The majority of the cattle were pur- 
chased by Jerry Sullivan around Shellharboiir 
at £4 and £5 per head. These animals were 
actually the foundation cattle of the Oakdale 
herd that was dispersed by public auction in 
1919 at enormous prices. 

John Wyllie, of Dunlop Vale, Illawarra, 
little is known beyond his early association with 
Governor Sir Thomas Brisbane, Mr. James Dun- 
lop (an astronomer), Mr. Alexander Berry, 



THE HISTORY OF ILL AW AURA 



161 



M.C., and the Rev. John Dunmore Lang, D.D. 
These associations, it is very evident, did not 
pan out at all satisfactory as far as Mr. John 
Wyllie was concerned. He did not survive the 
ordeal, and left no relations here to fight his 
cause or to preserve his memory. He (Wyllie) 
received a grant of 2000 acres of land on the 
shores and in the vicinity of Lake Illawarra, 
and carried on farming and dairying in the 
usual way; that is, in plain English, by means 
of convict labour, the Government supplying 
the men and assisting to feed and clothe them. 
As the intrepid mariner said, "It was the rule 
of the road." 

The late Alexander Berry claimed the honour 
of bringing to Australia Sir Thomas Brisbane 
and his train of attendants. He also had on 
board his ship Mr. James Dunlop, the astrono- 
mer, and Mr. John Wyllie. What was the rela- 
tionship between the two latter gentlemen is not 
easily defined. Suffice to say here, Mr. Wyllie 
called his place Dunlop Vale, and imported 
what the old hands used to term "the choicest 
types of Ayrshire cattle that graced Illawarra 
before or since." 

The sequel to this history is a very sad one, 
so we will let it rest for the present. Mr. Wyllie 
became acting manager at Coolangatta for Mr. 
Alexander Berry, where he got involved in a 
law suit with a neighbour, with the result that 
he (Wyllie) was cast into, for that period, heavy 
expenses. Alexander Berry took over Wyllie 's 
choice Ayrshire cattle, and Messrs. Carruth 
Bros, and Rev. John Dunmore Lang 
divided Dunlop Vale between them, giving the 
name Canterbury to the lake side, and Kerabla 
Grange to the western portion of the estate. 

Mr. William Thompson, of Belseyvale, Dapto, 
born County Fermanagh, Ireland, same age 
within a few weeks of the late John Russell, 
of Croome, says: "My uncle, Andrew Thomp- 
son, worked for a time with the Messrs. Car- 
ruth Bros, on a portion (1000 acres) of Wyllie 's 
2000 acres on Mullet Creek. He was a ship- 
mate of Robert Harworth, and worked on the 
farm with him. When Wyllie sold his cattle 
to Alexander Berry and went to the Coolan- 
gatta Estate as overseer (when Wyllie was 
in charge there) James Graham took a vessel 
up the Canal, contrary to Berry's wishes. 
Wyllie reported this to Alexander Berry, who 
wrote Wyllie instructing him to bore a hole 
in the bottom of the boat. Wyllie did as in- 
instructed. Then Graham entered an action 
against Wyllie. Alexander Berry came on the 
scene, went to Wyllie 's drawer, took away the 



letter he wrote him, and left Wyllie to fight out 
the case on his own. Wyllie was cast in £200 
expenses. He hadn't the cash, so he went to 
Dr. Langs father (Andrew Lang), and mort- 
gaged his property. Wyllie sold to Carruth 
Bros. They sold 1000 acres to Gerard Gerard, 
and Dr. Lang, on behalf of his father or brother, 
took the other 1000 acres. Carruth Bros, went 
away to New Zealand, as they thought they had 
bought the whole lot, 2000 acres, for £1000. 

Wyllie died of a broken heart in Sydney, 
through worry contracted at Coolangatta. 

Prosper de Mestre was of French extraction, 
and claimed to belong to folk at one time 
associated with a British man-o'war under the 
command of the Duke of Cambridge. He was 
one of Sydney's early merchants, and married 
a widow in Sydney with at least three children 
by previous marriages. Prosper John de 
Mestre, his eldest son, was born in Sydney in 
1821. There were two other boys of the union, 
namely, Andre Cotterell de Mestre, and Etienno 
Livingstone de Mestre, and several daughters, 
all of whom were entitled to grants of land 
varying from 60 to 100 acres, as was the rule 
in those days, having been native born. 

Mr. Cornelius O'Brien, J.P., of BuUi, was the 
Government land agent for Illawarra. With 
his assistance all these grants were centred into 
one block of land at Worrigee, Shoalhaven, 
which was named "Terrara." Prosper de 
Mestre, senr., was much worried about financial 
matters in 1845, in which year he died suddenly, 
and certain members of the family came to 
reside on the Terrara Estate in 1846. Farming 
and dairying was carried out as at other centres 
in Illawarra. It was at Terrara that reaping 
machinery was first used on the coast. 

The following fopy of an agreement entered 
into between Mrs. de Mestre, widow, of Ter- 
rara, and others concerned as trustees or guard- 
ians of the Terrara Estate, and, of the late Pros- 
per de Mestre family on the other part, and 
the trustees of the two acres of land at 
Worrigee belonging to the Wesleyan Church, 
on the other part, will go to show that there 
were at least four marriage interests in the 
said Terrara Estate. 

That Mrs. de Mestre, which evidently refers 
to the widow of Prosper John de Mestre, and 
the said trustees of Terrara, agree to make an 
exchange of 100 feet frontage by 242 feet more 
or less in depth, bounded on the north by 
Wheatley's allotment at Terrara, as shown to 
Mr. Holme (surveyor), and absolutely to con- 
vey same to trustees for the benefit and full 



162 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



possession of the Wesleyan Methodist Church 
on the condition that the said trustees or any 
other authorised persons shall convert to her 
or her heirs or assignees the two acres of land 
situate at Worrigee as aforesaid. 

Further a conveyance of the said Worrigee 
land may reqiiire some time to complete, Mrs. 
de Mestre and the trustees of Terrara will give 
a lease of 21 years which shall be made null and 
void, as if not made, when the conveyance of 
the said land is completed. The lease to take 
effect fourteen days after this date, March 9th, 
1857. "Witness, Samuel Wilkinson, Thomas 
Holme, M. A. de Mestre. 

Abstract of title of Edward and Francis Lord, 
Esqs., trustees of the lot within mentioned, 25th 
February, 1836, grant from the Crown to Pros- 
per de Mestre Esq., of thirteen hundred acres 
at Terrara, Shoalhaven, 13th January, 1844, in- 
denture of release of 1300 acres. George Ed- 
mond Griffiths, Clarke Irving, James Holt, of 
the first part, Prosper de Mestre, of the second 
part, Francis Lord and John Henry Black of 
the third part, and Mary Ann de Mestre of 
the fourth part;. 30th September, 1859, inden- 
ture of release of the said 1300 acres from 
Francis Lord and John Henry Black to the 
said Mary Ann de Mestre. 

Will, bearing date the 3rd day of July, 1861. 
whereby the said 1300 acres were conveyed to 
the said Francis Lord and Edward Lord upon 
certain trusts therein mentioned." 

In this de Mestre Estate old Simeon Lord, 
of Sydney, took a hand. Andy Collone was 
interested in Terrara, when Simeon Lord joined 
in as part owner. Lord's vineyard was south 
of Terrara, and was called "Warra Warra." 
To this place he consigned An-dy Collone. In 
the late Mr. Bernard Brown's dairy there are 
several references to Collone 's bush. Further 
we need not go into the matter. 

The Terrara Estate, as the training ground 
of many noted race horses, is only too well 
known. Terara was a township for years. 
Scores of people employed in caring for and 
training horse stock. Perhaps the de Mestre 's 
were never really their own masters. After the 
death of Prosper John de Mestre, his widow mar- 
ried Thomas Kichards, a well-known solicitor. 
Andre Cottrell de ^lestre died at Greenwell 
Point, Shoalhaven, 15th December, 1917, aged 
95 years; Etienne de Mestre died at Moss Vale 
22nd October, 1916, aged 84 years. 

The loss to racing men and to sections of the 
Shoalhaven district must have been considera- 
ble when Mr. Etie de Mestre 's operations 



ceased. But generally speaking, the influence 
of Mr. Hugh Mackenzie, who was also a broad- 
minded sportsman, operated more widely 
locally for the good of the district. He was 
as president of the Shoalhaven A. & H. Society 
a princely man, and did good everywhere 
silently. 

Dr. William Elyard, R.N. came to New South 
Wales early in our history, and became a super- 
intendent of convicts in various centres. We 
learn of him at the Carter's Barracks, at Brick- 
field Hill, Sydney, and at Red Point, and 
Coolangatta, Illawarra. He, in due time, re- 
ceived a grant of land at what is to-day 
Greenwell Point, Shoalhaven, and 37 acres 28 
perches, portion 7, parish of Bhererre, St. Yin- 
cent. No one but trusted Government officers 
got these stray positions on the sea border as 
land grants. 

Dr. William Elyard, R.N.. was the first 
superintendent of convicts at Five Islands, Illa- 
warra. now Port Kembla. He visited there 
from Sydney with a flogger, a large frameil 
m.an, whose nnme was Waddell. Dr. Elyard 
resided there afterwards from 1822 to 1823. 
He received a grant of 500 acres of land at 
West Dapto, which he called Avondale. His 
two sons, William and Alfred Elyard resi(led 
on the farm, which was managed by John Der- 
rett. Elyard, some years later sold the farm 
to Henry Osborne, of Marshall Mount. Dr. 
William Elyard, R.N.. had another grant of land 
at Crookhaven Heads, which Alexander Berry 
fancied would become important so he brought 
about an exchange with Elyard for his 
(Berry's) Worrigee grant. Berry shortly 
afterwards found that he had made a gigantic 
mistake. Then followed a series of costly law 
court cases which almost ruined Elyard. He, 
however, held on to Worrigee, and his sons, 
Alfred and William finally settled there. Part 
of the estate was called Narellan, and remained 
under that name for years until the postal 
authorities became confused owing to an older 
settlement claiming priority. Then the Shoal- 
haven district Narellan was changed to that of 
Brundee. 

After Mr. Alexander Berry had cut the canal 
at Crookhaven, he evidently intended to form 
a township at the entrance to the Shoalhaven 
River, and induced Dr. Elyard to exchange his 
grant for his (Berry's) grant at what is now 
Brundee. The exchange had to go through the 
Government offices in those days of officialism. 
Evidently, also, the boundaries of Brundee were 
not well defined, and as the days passed into 



164 



Types of the Coleville Stud Milking 

The Property of Executors of the Late 




N'lni.ITT ilF roi.KVHJJ-: 



11 EI';N of COI.EVIl.l.F,. 





SLASllEM OF 00r,F.VII,I,E. 



PF^riE'll OF COEEVII.EE. 





■ilAJOn '\' iiF rOFK\'IFFF. 



I'RINFESS OF COI-EVU.EE. 



Shorthorn Cattle of Australia. 

J. W. Cole, Coleville, Jamberoo, N.S.W. 



1G5 




MA.TOn VI OF rOI.EVIM.E. 




Jl-.WKI.I, (JF C.(JLEVJLLE, 




GOLD OF C0EEVI1.ee. 




ELSIE II OF i:0LEV1LLE {?<n. IS!), \'ol. I). 





GOLD II OF COLEVILLE. 
(No. H72, Vol III, M.S.H.B. of N.S.W.). 



POSEY III (.,'F COLEMLI.E. 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAWARKA 



167 



years, Mr. Berry saw that he had made a huge 
mistake. A house in which a constable lived 
formed an excuse, if such were necessary, for 
a quarrel between two men capable of ruling 
with an iron hand. Berry claimed the house 
and land occupied by the constable. Elyard 
resented his claim. The case was engineered 
by lawyers into the Privy Council in London. 
It matters little who became the constable's 
landlord. Dr. William Elyard, R.N., suffered 
financially." He, however, held on to his Brun- 
dee property. 

In 1834 there were three members of the 
Elyard family in New South Wales. Dr. Wil- 
liam Elyard, R.N., whose address was Brundee, 
Shoalhaven, Alfred Elyard, and William 
Elyard, .junr., Surry Hills, Sydney. Alfred 
Elyard was possibly a brother of William 
Elyard, of Brundee. Alfred had a grant of 
600 acres at Dapto, Illawarra, which he called 
Avondale, after his native heath in Scotland. 
He sold it to Henry Osborne, and went to reside 
at Berrallan, Shoalhaven, where he died 23rd 
December, 1879, aged 80 years. We also have 
Arthur Elyard, of Brundee, Shoalhaven, Samuel 
Elyard, died at Nowra in 1910, aged 94 years. 
William Elyard, .jnnr., died in 1865. He joined 
the Government Service in Sydney, in 1822. 
William Arthur Gilbert Elyard died at Boma- 
derry, 7th July, 1914, aged 73 years. 

John Thomas Lardner was overseer for Dr. 
Elyard at Brundee, and Thomas Chester was 
nis coachman. 

David Smith (Davey, the Lawyer), arrived 
in Kiama in 1822, and went in for cedar getting 
and cedar buying. He was piloted into Kiama 
by Captain Stewart, who was for years trading 
on the coast. He could neither read nor write, 
yet he understood much law, and was a capable 
calculator regarding the value of a cedar log. 
He opened a public house in Kiama — "The 
Traveller's Eest," and owned many bullocks 
which he used to depasture on Cowell's grant. 
His brand was JS, and his_ shipping agents' 
brand was also,. JS. The Railway Commission- 
ers took away the old Smith Estate. It wa? 
opposite what was for many years called 
Smith's Bay. He erected a storied hovise on 
the stream opposite the bay which he leased to 
those who required a private home. He died 
in what was the ■ old public house on 13th 
December, 1883, aged 84 years. Many consid- 
ered he was older. 

Michael Fitzgerald was born in Ireland in 
181?. Died at Stockwood, Dapto, April 13th. 
1908, aged 86 years, which property he had pur- 



chased from Robert Edward Stack on 5th Feb- 
ruary, 1838. He figured in the Agricultural 
Show rings of Wollongong and Kiama during 
the early forties and fifties. He owned two 
noted blood mares. Cantata and Beeswing, and 
bred good cattle, as will be seen by looking 
over the Illawarra A. & H. Society's prize lists. 

William Davis, senr., had an order from the 
Governor to take up two 50 acre blocks of land, 
one each for his sons William and Joseph. He 
selected at Jamberoo, the aboriginal meaning of 
which is said to be a "cluster of stars." After 
William Davis, senr., died, his son Joseph, 
whose block is now part of the village of Janir 
beroo, got mixed up with the "rum merchants." 
His brother came to his assistance. In this 
matter William made a great self-sacrificing 
eft'ort. We need not dwell further upon this 
subject. 

William Davis, Junr., was born in George 
Street, Brickfield Hill, Sydney, in the year 
1815. He arrived at Port Kembla, Illawarra, 
with his brother Joseph and parents in 1822. 
Mrs. Jenkins had a family dairying at the time 
on the Berkley Estate. William Davis, senr., 
took a job of sawing cedar there. Twelve 
months later he moved on to Jamberoo. The 
halts were many as he had to earn money as 
he moved on and on. The old road or track 
after crossing Mount Terry inclined to the west 
through Curraghmore, and went to John 
Ritchie's station. Popular Grove, near the 
range. It then twisted round to the east keep- 
ing to the south of the present Jamberoo- 
Kiama road until it became known as the 
Longbrush road. It crossed or joined the Bong 
Bong road about a mile south of the boat 
harbour, Kiama, and then turned north near 
Andrew Byrnes' 500 acre grant, Barroul. 

Dec. 1st., 1821. — On or before 1st December, 
1821, a promise of 100 acres grant at Jamberoo 
was made by Crown to William Davis, who on 
1st January, 1833, by deed of gift, made over 
and transferred it to his sons, William and 
Joseph Davis, and their heirs and assigns for 
ever. (Description of said 100 acres is attach- 
ed hereto.) 

April 26th, 1839. — Joseph Davis then sold 50 
"cres/of said land (being his half share in said 
100 acres) to Michael Hyam (the part under 
Vase to James Donnelly, Patrick Garretty and 
Hfirry Williams). 

No'v. 9th and 10th, 1840.— Michael Hyam, 
dealer, of Sarah "Vallev, Illawarra, sold to John 
Wright and Alexander King, of Campbell 
Street, Sydney. 



168 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABRA 



July 27th, 1842. — It now appears that in 
order to promote the due settlement of the ter- 
ritory of N.S. Wales (colony), and in fulfilment 
of a promise made on or before 1st day of De- 
cember, 1821, by his Excellency Major-General 
Lachlan Macquarie, and in consideration of the 
quit rent thereafter reserved, her Majesty 
Queen Victoria did, on 27th July, 1842, by deed, 
poll, or grant from the Crown, under the hand 
of his Excellency Sir George Gipps, Captain- 
General and Governor for the time being of the 
colony of N.S. Wales, and under seal of the 
said colony, grant to James Mackay Gray 
100 acres (hereinbefore mentioned) upon trust 
for William Davis, of Jamberoo, and John 
Wright and Alexander King, of Campbell 
Street, Sydney, and to their heirs according to 
their respective rights, etc. 

You will note that a report on this case (that 
is, the title to the 100 acres) was numbered 
1017, 15th December, 1841, and the report of 
the Commissioner was acted upon in the manner 
before been described, William Davis, the 
original grantee, being deceased before 1842. 
Tt is surmised that his family or next-of-kin 
wished to prove William Davis' claim, or those 
interested therein. This should enlighten one 
as to how this land was obtained and divided 
by John Wright an Alexander King. 

Names of some of the tenants of an area, 100 
acres of land (part of which also appears to 
join Thomas Barker's selection, which was in 
occupation of J. Cromer, tenant), adjoining land 
then owned by Thomas Wood on the north, on 
west by Mr. Hyam's land, south and east by 
other land owned by Mr. Hyam, and also on 
the west by Earra Creek, and now occupied by 
John Dully and Denis McCarthy as tenants 
thereof. 

Wright and King owned 100 acres originally 
as tenants in common, and divided as above 
as far as we know no one is quite clear on 
this point as other Sydney land is mentioned 
in the deal. 

Description of Davis Bros. ' Land When Under 
Trust to James M. Grey. 

All that piece or parcel of land in our said 
Territory containing 100 acres more or less, situ- 
ated in the County of Camden and parish un- 
named, at Minnamurra, lUawarra, bounded to- 
wards the North by John CuUen's 300 acres, be- 
ing a line extending best 40 chains on the South 
side from the South-East corner thereof to the 
North-East corner of John Wlieeler's 50 acres 
towards the East by a line extending South 8 



chains from the South-East corner of John Cul- 
len's 300 acres to the South- West corner of Wil- 
liam Ritchie's, and from that corner by a line 
extending best 24 chains, the said lines being 
the boundary of Michael Hyam's 1280 acres on 
the South-East and on the West by a line ex- 
tending Northward 40 chains on the East side 
by of land adjoining John Wheeler's 50 acres 
to the North-East corner thereof, against John 
Cullen's 300 acres, being the land provided to 
William Davis, deceased, on or before the date 
above mentioned, but now granted in accord- 
ance with the report on Case No. 1017, on the 
15th December, 1841, by the Commissioner ap- 
pointed under the Act of the Colonial Legisla- 
ture 5, William 4th, No. 28, unto the said James 
Mackay Grey upon trust for William Davis, of 
Jamberoo, in district of Illawarra, Settler, I 
John Wright and Alexander King, both of 
Campbell-street, Sydney, and to their heirs, ac- 
cording to their respective rights of interest 
with all rights, etc. In trust as hereinbefore re- 
cited and to his heirs and assignees for ever at 
yearly quit rent at 2/- per annum from 1st Jan- 
uary, 1827, unless the same should be rendered 
by the grantee his heirs or assignees within 20 
years from that date. 

Hamilton Hume was born at Toongabbie on 
15th June, 1797. His father was Andrew Hume 
who was a commissariat's offier in that terrible 
convict centre. His mother was Elizabeth Ken- 
nedy. It was Sir Francis Rawdon, the Marquis 
of Hastings, who got Andrew Hume his job 
at Parramatta. Mrs. Andrew Hume, about 
1802, became associated with the Parramatta 
Orphan School, and later became matron. 

Hamilton Hume's association with Illawarra 
is not easily explained. He was by no means 
the first to discover the district lying to the 
east of the Five Islands, viz., "Red Point." 
Illawarra was a place of call for whale boats, 
and it was under the protection of the Governors 
long before he (Hume) accompanied Alexander 
Berry to the Shoalhaven Riv^r. In fact we 
do not hear much about his visits to Illawarra 
until 1823 when he was in charge of a number 
of sawyers who were engaged cutting cedar on 
the slopes north of BuUi. Many might be 
inclined to say that he was the first to enter 
upon the cedar industry in Illawarra were it 
not that the records show that licenses were 
issued to the bond and free to cut cedar in 
Illawarra on 1st July, 1819. Timber getting 
was carried on for at least ten years before 
that date according to the old sawyers. 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



169 



For all we know to the contrary Hume may 
have been like many others, a dummy for 
Alexander Berry, as he never fulfilled tlie 
necessary conditions of occupation. Beyond 
the name "Hume Island" nothing is recorded 
of Hume. 

In 1824 Hamilton Hume joined W. H. Hovel 
in an expedition of exploration. On October 
3rd of that year Hovel met Hume at the 
latter 's college in Appin. Hovel had three 
men, Thomas Boyd, William Bollard, and 
Thomas Smith. Hume had Claude Bossawa, 
Henry Angel, and James Fitgerald. Of those 
men the only one to settle in Illawarra was 
Henry Angel. He got two grants of land, and 
we have to the present day Angel's Creek, near 
WoUongong, and Angel Home, joining Sam 
Terry's grant. Mount Terry. 

Many of our writers claim for Hamilton 
Hume wonderful powers, almost equal power 
with the native bee that is capable of winging 
home from any direction. He was different 
to the "bee" in this — he invariably had a 
guide — an aboriginal — when travelling. 

Captain Richard Brooks took charge of 
the ship "Atlas" and quarrelled with Surgeon 
Jamieson. She was a convict ship, and 70 con- 
victs died; it was said for want of proper ac- 
commodation caused by too much space being 
taken up by the Captain's merchandise. On 
August 21st, 1806, Captain Brooks was in 
charge of the ship ' ' Alexander, ' ' 278 tons, and 
a crew of 24 men and 12 guns. In 1808 we note 
he was in charge of the ship Rose, Robert Camp- 
bell and Company part-owners. He had on board 
a cargo of fermented and spirituous liquors 
without having a port clearance from H.M. 
Customs, Loudon. He had to return and face 
this charge before the Right Honourable Robert 
Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, for the common 
crime of smuggling. The charge was laid by 
John Blaxland, a native of Kent, England, then 
a wealthy farmer and grazier in New South 
Wales. D'Arcy Wentworth was his friend, and 
taking advantage of Captain Richard Brooks' 
return to England was entrusted with the care 
of his son, WilUiam Charles, who was then 17 
years of age, to be educated in England. Cap- 
tain Brooks continued in the trade, and Avas in 
Sydney in March, 1810, in command of the 
"Simon Cock," 184 tons; and again in Sep- 
tember, 1811, in charge of the "Argo." 200 tons. 
Later on he purchased the brig "Spring," and 
made much money trading in cattle and merch- 
andise, finally settling in Sydney in 1814. 



Captain Richard Brooks.— "The Illawarra 
Lake," Woonawarry, is said to be the Aborigi- 
nals' — of Illawarra — name for the black swan. 
Hence we have Woonawarry Bay on the west- 
ern shores of the said lake. It was here that 
Captain Brooks founded his homestead. It 
was a weatherboard house. The timber for it 
was sawn by Thomas Williamson on the 
land once owned by John Robins in the 
;y£ar 1816, adjacent to Abbott's old home. 
I'here was the homestead and a large 
number of out-buildings. Near where a 
native fig-tree was planted some years 
latei-, in about 1853, by Benjamin Marshall, 
Captain Brooks had two grants of land near 
the lake; his own grant of 600 acres and one of 
1500 acres, which he obtained in the name o1' 
his son ^ Richard Henry Brooks. Captain Brooks 
and William Browne had grants adjoining, and 
a stone wall Avas run out into the lake waters 
to mark the boundary there between the two 
estates. Captain Brooks' 600 acre grant was 
on what was called Brooks' Creek. In 1823 
young Richard Henry Brooks, then a youth of 
about 11 or 12 years old, who was in delicate 
heallh, Avas sent down to Koonawarra to live 
under the care of a private tutor named Lloyd. 
The Captain sent a small boat down for the use 
of his son, described as a natty craft, with the 
name "Fewsuch" painted on her in bright let- 
ters. 

A man named William Neal was the manager 
of Captain Brooks' Croonawarry estate, whilst 
his brother, John Neal, was general manager at 
Denham Court, near Campbelltown. James Neal, 
their father, obtained a grant of land on the 
north side of Brooks' Creek, and is said to have 
purchased other land from a man named Har- 
per. In 1822 Edward J. Swan came to Illawarra 
and leased James Neal's farm, and his two sons, 
Edward and Henry, helped him to clear it, and 
thereon grew crops of wheat and maize. Their 
residence was a little further down the creek 
than the present dam. Therefore, the young 
Swans and young Brooks were next-door neigh- 
bours at Koonawarry; and, being about the 
same age, went out often on the lake boating 
together. About the year 1824 a man named 
Tom Barron, a sailor, arrived at the lake, and 
commenced fishing at the mouth of a small 
stream, afterwards called Barron's Creek. He 
was a net fisherman, caught and salted mullet, 
dried them in tlie sun. and sent them to Svdney 
via Red Point and Shellharbour, as oppor- 
tunitv offered. Barron sailed his own. fishing 
craft to and from Sydney and the lake with fish 



170 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABRA 



in lh2o. and on one occasion took a quantity of 
wheat grown by E. J. Swan on Neal's land, 
Barron and Swan being the only two occupants 
of the boat. Thoy sailed through the entrance 
on the north side of Windarry Island. Barron 
carried on fishing till about the year 1828. Then 
the Swan family removed to a farm of 500 acres, 
which was a grant to George Brown, a cousin 
of George Brown, of Dapto. This property 
afterwards was sold by Brown (who was con- 
nected with the Commissiary Department in 
Sydney), to Dr. Alexander Osborne, K.N., who 
called it Dai.?y Bank. 

Prom the M'cstei'n shoves of the lake is to be 
seen the Bong Bong mountains, over which the 
old I'oad passed to the then chief town in the 
County of Camden, the township of Bong Bong. 
This mountain is about 1700 feet high, and is 
formed of three bluffs on the main range, which 
with their rocky cliffs give the whole a very 
prominent appearance when viewed from the 
main South Coast road when passing through 
Dapto. The road to Bong Bong passes between 
the first and second of these clifl's, and the bluff 
as shown to the right, by one acquainted with 
the locality, is one of the best look-out points 
on the Coast range, taking in as it does a very 
extensive view of the north and south with a 
full view of Lake Illawarra and the ocean in 
front. The aboriginal namo of this mountain 
is Wangarill (where the Swifts build.) 

Captain Richard Brooks had a seivant in his 
employ named John Cream. It was he, and 
an aboriginal, afterwards known as "Captain 
Brooks," who had discovered the track for 
cattle and other stock from Lake Illawarra to 
the Kangaroo Ground. It was known for years 
as "Jack Cream's" track. About September. 
1846, the writer's father packed the first butter 
from the Kangaroo Ground, via Marshall Mount 
to Wollongong. Since then the old track was 
known as the ."Butter Track." The old "Butter 
Track" was not an casv task to take on in 1846, 
yet men and women who never saw a bush like 
Illawarra was in those davs. faced it with stout 
hearts. Children were brought on horseback 
over the old Butter Track to be christened in 
Wollongong. What of the times, and what of 
the men and women who lived the life the wild 
bush afforded? They are. generally speaking, 
foro'otten !. 

Mt. William Keevers was one of the famous 
Tnriskillian Dras'oons. and was present at the 
bnttle of Wfiterloo. Fe came to New South 
Wales ard was anrointed drill instructor to 
the fit-st troon of mounter] roHce which were 



placed in charge of Captain Francois Nicholas 
De Rossi, from 1824 to 1834. Captain Rossi 
was connected with the trial of Queen Caroline, 
wife of George IV., and his appointment car- 
ried with it that of superintendent of police, 
and comptroller of customs. William Keevers 
hail a grant of 100 acres of land at West Dapto, 
Illawarra, which he eventually sold and came 
to reside with a numerous family in the vicinity 
of the Woodstock mills and brewery, Jamberoo. 
He died on 11th November, 1871, aged 84 years. 
Two days before his death he was presented 
before Earl Belmore, Governor of New South 
Wales. 

The Mounted Police. — A Government order 
was issued from the Colonial's Secretary's 
Office on March 21st, 1826, as follows: "The 
Governor has been pleased to direct, re the 
mounted police. This force is specially charged 
with the suppression of convict outrages, and 
has been drawn from the infantry regiments 
serving in Sydney." It was first established 
in 1825 by Governor Brisbane, and began with 
two officers and thirteen troopers. In 1839 it 
had increased to 9 officers, 1 sergeant-major, 156 
non-commissioned officers, with 136 horsemen 
and 20 foot-men. The officers were magistrates. 
All the others were subject to military law 
and disclipline although appointed to serve as 
police. They were armed with sabre, carbine 
and horse pistols, and wore the dress of 
Inniskillian Dragoons, light horse uniform. 
The head-quarters division consisted of Com- 
mandant, the adjutant, and 25 men remained 
in Sydney. The others went to important 
centres and the road gangs. 

The Coopers. — Mr. Robert Cooper, junr., 
of Juniper Hall, Sydney, died suddenly, leav- 
ing a widow, two sons, and three daughters. 
The sons were Robert and William Cooper: 
of the daughters, one married William Kendall, 
one married John Jewel Rutter, and the third 
went to England. Mr. Thomas Chapman mar- 
ried Mrs. Cooper, and lived in a storied house 
built by Carnell, for the term in which he was 
building Hartwell House, Kiama. Mr. Thomas 
Chapman had a brother, Mr. William Chapman, 
who had two sons, William and George Chap- 
man. Mr. William Chapman, junr., went to 
T'lladuUa and went in for breeding Shorthorn 
cattle. Mrs. Caird is a daughter of William 
Chapman, senr., and has the old home Hartwell, 
at Kiama. Mr. Thomas Chapman was marrie.I 
three times. No family. Died at Hartwell. 
Kiama. on 7th November, 1874, aged 78 years. 



THE HISTOMY OF ILLAWARRA 



17J 



The Coopers, Robert, senr., and Robert, junr., 
were distillers in Sydney, and the Chapmans, 
Thomas and William, were largely interested 
in the sugar business. Both families were con- 
nected by marriage with the Hindmarsh, Ken- 
dall, Evans and Rutter families. 

John Ritchie was an early settler in Jam- 
beroo. He was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 
1775. What he was before coming to N.S. Wales 
no one seemed to know, nor did any one find 
out from him the date of his arrival in Sydney. 
He must have been an early colonist, and was 
favourably known to the early Governors as he 
claimed the right to three blocks of land in Syd- 
ney, one in King-street, one in Druitt-street, and 
one in Kent-street. He married several times. 
His first wife died, leaving him with two child- 
ren. His grant of land comprising 300 acres 
bears date 30th June, 1825. On 13th April, 
1827, his brother, William Ritchie, obtained a 
grant of 60 acres near the same locality, called 
"Figtree Plat." Moses Brennan had 300 acres 
adjoining dated 29th August, 1834; and John 
Cullen got 300 acres 1st January, 1831. 

John Ritchie occupied all that area under 
lease for years, on which he grazed cattle. His 
son, Johnny Ritchie, became an expert stock- 
man and bushman. He used to deal in horses 
and cattle, using the Yalwal gully, south of the 
Shoalhaven river as a place for grazing his 
stock. John Ritchie lost his first wiFe by death 
prior to 1830. Then he remarried Mrs. Wright, 
who had three sons. The elder one, Thomas, mar- 
ried his stepfather's daughter, Martha Ritchie. 
Mrs. Wright had money when she married John 
Ritchie. Later on William Ritchie died or was 
killed, leaving by will his farm, Figtree Flat, to 
William Wright. A few years later the second 
wife of John Ritchie died, and he married an- 
other widow with two children. Their names 
were Fred and Nellie B. Morgan. Fred Morgan 
kept the Wheatsheaf Hotel opposite the old 
Toll-bar in George-street, Sydney. After the 
death of the third Mrs. Ritchie, John Ritchie re- 
married a young woman, who was the mother 
of George Ritchie and two girls, one of whom 
became Mrs. Jabez Smith. Johnny Ritchie 
eventually took a job of stockman for Henry 
Osborne at Point Station on the Murrumbidgee 
river, and never looked back at Illawarra. His 
half-brother Georgie Ritchie, went to Midkin 
^tfitiori. Moree. Then, we find that John Ritchie 
after having lived to see his station property 
grow out of the wild bush into a prosperous 
settlement and pass out of not only his posses- 
sion, but of his descendants ; and, many of those 



who knew him well said: "He lost his property 
through no fault of his own making." He died 
in 1860, aged 85 years. 

From information received from the old Jam- 
beroo settlers one mig'ht venture the opinion 
that John Ritchie and John G. Collins both be- 
longed to the same regiment, the 13th Dragoon 
Guards. Captain J. G. Collins belonged to that 
regiment and, we learn that in 1832 he was at 
Ritchie's Station, Jamberoo, buying horses for 
India. Captain Collins in the following year 
was commissioned by Captain Thomas Freder- 
ick Hart, of the Light Dragoon 2nd Life Guards 
and 94th Regiment, to come to Ritchie's Sta- 
tion, Jamberoo, and establish there, on a gigan- 
tic scale, a village on a 99 years' lease. This 
Collins did, and called the place Woodstock, 
after a village in England. 

This was one of the most ambitions undertak- 
ings entered upon up to that date in N.S. Wales, 
as it was backed up with capital to the amount 
of £82,000. Money was spent freely, and soon 
absorbed men of all classes and callings. A 
saw-mill, a flour-mill, and a brewery, the Kent 
brewery. Much of the power came from a 
water-wheel. A water-course was cut into the 
works from the Minnamurra river. Large boil- 
ers and engines came from sea and land from 
Sydney. Brick-making, and charcoal-burning 
were carried on in the vicinity. Horse-teams 
and bullock-teams did the hauling between the 
primitive ports of WoUongong, Shellharbour, 
and Kiama, along roads of the most difficult 
nature. The early roads went up and down the 
hills, no money available for side-cuttings or 
zig-zagging to save bullock or horse-power. 
True co-operation in those days, when they 
came to hills, one teamster unhooked his bul- 
locks and helped to haul the load to the top. 
Timber was hauled out of gullies and deep 
ravines in the same way. 

The flour mill at Woodstock, Jamberoo, was 
on a large scale for the period. It was pre- 
sided over by a good miller named Henry 
Hughes, and wheat was brought from as far 
south as Gerringong in the forties, and from 
Shellharbour to be ground into flour. No roads 
in those days, only cedar tracks. Bullocks, 
with a set of harness on the one chap who 
worked in shafts, collar and hames, the collar 
turned upside down. Seven and nine bullocks 
in each team. The dray was like an ordinary 
horse dray — only on a much larger scale. It 
took three days to travel from Gerringong tc 
Woodstock mill and back. As the land was 
cleared more wheat was grown — 60 bushels 



172 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABRA 



per acre. Three other small flour mills were 
erected. One on Griffiths' Hill (now Pike's 
Hill, Kiama), and one at Blay's Creek towards 
Oerringong. A few years later, one was erected 
by John Sharpe at Bush Bank, Kiama. John 
Sharpe afterwards erected a large mill in 
the town of Kiama, and William Wilson 
erected a flour mill at the water's edge, 
SheUharbour. Of all those flour mills 
nothing remains but two stone buildings, 
one at Bush Bank, Kiama, and one at 
SheUharbour. Of the Woodstock mills and 
brewery nothing remains but the mill races 
which supplied the water power for the water- 
wheel. The water-wheel and machinery were 
built up under the supervision of George Atkin- 
son. He was brought from Tasmania for this 
purpose where he had some experience in the 
convict settlement of Van Diemen's Land. He 
settled in Kiama after a time, and established 
an orchard, in which he was buried. 

The first church erected south of Wollongong, 
the old R.C. Church at Jamberoo, by voluntary 
labour from the Woodstock mills. Small settlers 
were pouring in then, and in a few years' time 
a village was formed and named Jamberoo, on a 
portion of a grant of 50 acres to William Davis. 

Mr. Alexander Macleay was born June 24th, 
1767, and was the eldest son of Mr. William 
^lacleay, of Caithness, Scotland. At the age of 
58 he was selected by Earl Bathurst for the 
position of Colonial Secretary for New South 
Wales. He resigned in 1837, when in his 70th 
year. iMr. William Sharp Macleay was a son 
of Mr. Alexander ilaeleay, and was born in 
London, July 21st, 1792. Mr. George Macleay 
was probably a nephew of Mr. Alexander 
Macleay. He (Alexander Macleay) died, the 
result of a carriage accident 19th July, 
1848, in his 31st year. He established 
the Croobar Estate, Ulladulla, in the year 1828. 
His A.M.L. cattle were good, resembling the 
Ayrshire, yet they were larger, ancj more pro- 
nounced in type than the Ayrshire. In the 
early fifties of last century Messrs John Marks, 
of Terragong, Jamberoo, and Henry Grey, of 
Gerringong, purchased exceptionally fine dairy 
cows from Macleay 's Ulladulla Estate. 

We learn from the Sydney "Gazette" of 12th 
February, 1824, that Captain Watson, of the 
ship Aquilar, imported a fine bull and cow of 
the Norman breed. These animals have been 
over and over again stated to have been the 
foundation animals of the MacLeay breed. Be 
it as it may the Macleay cattle were in the 
mid-sixties quite distinct in type and character 
from either the ^IcKay or Robb Ayrshire. 



At the Kiama Show of 1857 the late Mr. Henry 
Grey won 1st prize with a Maeleay-bred cow. 
From that cow the Love and Moses families got 
foundation stock. To name but two bulls will 
suffice here — "Curly" and "Cardigan," as 
both figure in the catalogue of Messrs. Fraser's 
and Morton's Greystaine, pure milking Short- 
horn cattle sale, April 21s{, 1906, lot 102. 

The Hindmarsh Family consisted of Messrs. 
Jlichael, George, and Miss Hindmarsh. They 
were old colonists, and were born at Anakie, 
Northumberland, England, and on arriving in 
New South Wales, about 1825, settled in Syd- 
ne.v. Mr. Geo. and Miss Hindmarsh remained in 
Sydney several years. Mr. Michael Hindmarsh, 
who was born on 1st of January, 1800, went 
out Campbelltown way before he came to Illa- 
warra. When he came to lUawarra he stayed 
with Mr. George Tate at Spring Hill, near 
Wollongong, where he gained much knowledge 
of the district from the old sawyers. He then 
purchased 640 acres at Gerringong at 5/- per 
acre, and his request was granted by Governor 
Darling, which was the rule then. 

He married in Parramatta a Miss Rutter, and 
settled at "Alne Bank," Gerringong, and com- 
menced clearing his land by means of free con- 
vict labour, the custom at that time. And 
we soon learn of him as a grower of maize and 
potatoes, and a raiser of pigs, which, in due 
time, were converted into salted pork packed in 
casks and sold to shipping men. Cedar and 
other timbers were plentiful, and much trade 
was carried on in this way. Mr. Hindmarsh 's 
first born son, Mr. George Hindmarsh, junr. 
(born in 1828), was born in Campbelltown, and 
was brought back by his mother overland 
to Gerringong on horseback. The shipping 
trade and the general development of Kiama 
induced Mr. George and Miss Hindmarsh to 
come and settle in the town. Mr. George Hind- 
marsh owned a fast sailing ship called "^The 
Vision," William Geoghegan, skipper. During 
one of her many trips to Sydney Mr. Hindmarsh 
was on board. A storm arose. Mr. Hindmarsh 
got very sick, and insisted on going in to Kiama, 
against the protests of the old skipper. Result r 
"The Vision" was wrecked, and all hands got 
safely ashore. Mr. Hindmarsh then purchased 
the "Charles Webb." He continued in the 
trade and in other forms of business until his 
death in 29th February, 1871, aged 75 years. 
Miss Hindmarsh took up school teaching; had 
a ladies' school in Kiama, where many of the 
early settlers' daughters received their 
scholastic training. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



173 



Keturning to Mr. Michael Hindmarsh. He 
left Gerringong in 1832 and took a milk run 
in Campbelltown. He used "Glenlee" cattle, 
and in time had a herd at Gerringong, where he 
commenced dairying. He and his wife were 
fortunate, had 14 children of the marriage, 
2 died young, 12 have lived to be men and 
women. He died suddenly 25th January, 1867. 

Mr. Murtock Farraher came from the County 
Mayo, Ireland. Early in the history of lUa- 
warra. He settled in BuUi where Mr. John 
Farraher was born in 1826. In the course of 
a little while the home was established at 
Rellambi, a picturesque spot, and may be easily 
located by persons travelling by either road 
or train through lUawarra. The old couple 
acquired much land in the Illawarra district 
which passed into the hands of their sons, 
ilr. Thomas Farraher settled at Stoney Creek, 
Jamberoo, James and Patrick settled at Bulli, 
Denis settled on the north side of Terragong 
Swamp, Shellharbour, and John settled at Holly 
Mount, Kiama, and eventually went to Candelo, 
Bega. 

]Mr. John Farraher was possibly better known 
than any member of the family owing to the 
fact that he was fond of honest horse racing, 
and owned and bred several good horses in- 
eluding the celebrated race horse and sire, 
"Trump Card." He became a breeder of Jer- 
sey cattle, and made more out of them than 
the ma.iority of men have done. His judgment 
in getting possession of "Lucius," imported 
by the Messrs. Tooth, added to his fame as a 
breeder. 

Michael Hyam. — Micha(!l Hyam was born 
in London in 1799, and arrived in Sydney 
in 1827 with a capital of £2000, and received a 
prant of 640 acres at Lochinvar, Hunter Eiver, 
He then heard of the cedar lands of Illawarra 
and obtained a grant of 1280 acres at Jamberoo. 
and called it Sarah's Valley, after his people 
in the Land of Goshen. He got married in 
Sydnej'' in 1833. and arrived in Jamberoo a few 
months later with about 30 convicts and com- 
menced clearing his land, cutting whatever 
cedar was on it and sending it to Sydney via 
Kiama. He built a store and public house, 
established a tannery, and in a sense, went to 
work on a large scale. The road to Kiama was 
then a cedar track. Hyam's establishment was 
ad.iaeent to where Hugh Colley's house stood, 
a little more to the east. The road from 
Ritchie's Station passed round the south side 
of William Wright's 60 acres grant, and passed 
through Hyam's Estate, keeping the same 



route as the present road through a portion 
of Malcolm Campbell's 500 acres until it 
reached the eastern bank of Fountaindale 
Creek, where it turned south and east, passing 
up the hill to the site of Henry Spinks' house. 
A large figtree stood there in those days which 
formed a camping ground for the teamsters. 
Called by the blacks Culwulla, whisky, fresh 
as mountain dew, was to be had there at all 
times. From Culwulla the track passed down 
into Hughes and Hosking's grant past the site 
of the Jerrara School, and up an easy incline 
till it reached Wright's Creek, called after 
John Wright, a publican in Campbell Street, 
Sydney, near the present homestead of Mr. 
George Grey, called "Greyleigh." This road 
was called the old Longbrush road, and fol- 
lowed the ridge down to the boat harbour 
at Kiama, where the old fig tree stands. That 
road was used until about 1839, when Mr. Ger- 
ard Irving, who was placed over a gang of con- 
victs, had formed a road from Hyam's Station 
direct to Kiama. Two houses on wheels used by 
the chained gangs on the road from WoUongong 
to Hyam's were taken over by Gerard Irvine, 
and one of them was left on the eastern bank of 
Fountaindale Creek, and occupied by old Poll 
Rogers for years. The other was sold to a sett- 
ler. The road formed by Irvine and his gang of 
convicts passed through the properties of Mal- 
colm Campbell, James Marks, Dr. Thomas 
Perrott, and James Robb's Riversdale Estate. 
It passed over Spring Hill, and into the Kiama 
township reserve over Griffith's Hill, and about 
five chains to the left of Terralong Street to 
the site of the public school to the north west 
of the figtree. A gaol and the harbour store 
stood on the bank above high-water mark. The 
old gaol, with a gumtree for a triangle, was 
ordered to be taken away by Captain Perry, 
after some score or more convicts had been 
flogged, tied to the gumtree, and a slab lock- 
up erected near the site of the present court- 
house. The old gaol was built of red stone, 
quarried on the spot. A man named Conroy 
was in charge of the station. A warder 
named Gates land a matron named Rogers 
attended to the wants of the prisoners who 
were sent there in 1835 and 1837. The only 
lawyer in those days in Kiama was David 
Smith, who kept the "Traveller's Rest" Hotel 
at a spot now occupied by the yards adjoining 
the railway sheds. 

IMichael Hyam prospered in Jamberoo, and 
cut cedar away to the range and had it hauled 
by teams to Kiama. He also employed shoe- 
makers and cobblers. His tannery was in what 



174 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARKA 



is known to-day as Minnamurra Lane, where 
Martin Piermont, known in literary circles as 
Martin the Tanner, presided over other work- 
men. In 1844 Hyam had formed a racecourse 
which Martin the Tanner immortalised in verse. 
Michael Hyam sold out his Sarah's Valley 
property to Captain William Wilson for £7000, 
and took his passage for England expecting to 
have all the purchase money paid over before 
leaving Sydney. Heavy storms set in and Wil- 
son lost several boats, and had to forfeit the 
deposit to Hyam, and Hyam forfeited his pas- 
sage money, and the ship he was going home in 
was lost at sea with all hands, and Hyam then 
considered he was a lucky man. He then got 
into business transactions with Parson Meares, 
and it is evident these transactions were not 
to his liking, as he immediately sold out to 
Robert Owen, and came in to Kiama and lived 
in a storied house opposite the storm-bay beach 
in Manning Street. He was then negotiating 
with a storekeeper in Gundagai for the purchase 
of a store, and would have purchased it but 
for the advice he received from Dr. Menzies, of 
Jamberoo. Hyam was once more lucky as the 
store with its contents, inmates and goods were 
lost forever in the great Gundagai flood. In 
1847 Michael Hyam and his family left for the 
Shoalhaven district. Prior to leaving for the 
Shoalhaven district, during the years that 
Martin the Tanner was poet laureate of Jam- 
beroo, Michael Hyam had a score of sawyers 
and teamsters working in the vicinity of Flash 
Bob's Flat collecting cedar. He followed up 
racing, and occasionally made matches. Raced 
on the flat £50 aside, Hyam's Jerry and 
Wright's Pedro, Hyam won, with young Burke 
in the saddle. When he left Jamberoo and 
went to live in Kiama, he had another match 
£50 aside — Hyam' s Corinthian Kate and Dr. 
Kenneth Mackenzie's Duke, on the Kiama 
course. Hyam lost. Burke again in the saddle. 
This Burke family lived in Jamberoo for many 
years, drifted away to Sydney, then went up 
to Murrurundi to take charge of a station, at 
which place the whole family, with one excep- 
tion, was murdered by the blacks. In 1846, 
Michael Hyam went to Dapto to race. The 
chief event was contested between three noted 
liorses — Brown's "Grey," Kennedy's "Grey," 
and Hyam's "Jerry." Result — Hyam 1st. 
Kennedy 2nd, and Brown 3rd. The result was 
not considered final, and there was much talk 
of another match. No money, however, 
changed hands. In 1846 the Hyam Estate. 
"Sarah's Valley," was purchased by Mr. 
Robert Owen, who cut it up into farms, and 



formed the village of Jamberoo. The chief 
part of the estate was purchased by the Howard 
family. Hence we had the Howard's Plats. 
These flats were later on sold to the Messrs. 
CoUey, and the property has remained in pos- 
session of that family since that date. 

Needless to say, Michael Hyam experienced 
much of what may be termed the early, rough 
bush life in Jamberoo, and his dealings with 
the convicts brought him into contact with men 
whose past life had been more or less shady, and 
it might become a habit with him to suspect 
all men. His name, however, does not often 
appear in the records. Yet, when it did, he 
seems to have finished the career of those he 
sent back to the authorities. For instance, a 
convict named Growner stole his grey stallion 
out of the stable at Jamberoo, and was arrested 
in WoUongong. Growner was sent to Norfolk 
Island, which really meant death in those days. 
Yet another example. When James Modie 
Marks kept the Steampacket Hotel, Market 
Wharf, Sydney, in 1834, he (Marks) got 
hold of 50 acres of land adjacent to Terragong 
Swamp, and purchased the adjoining 50 acres 
from an old hand named Walker at 5/- per 
acre. Pie (Marks) sent down two ex-convicts to 
look after his interests. At that time an old 
soldier named Duke who had got into trouble 
for brewing whisky near the Argyle Cut, Syd- 
ney, had an orchard on the south-east corner 
of Marks' 50 acres, and was living in this 
garden. Things moved on slowly until early 
in the year 1836. James Marks' two ex-con- 
victs, Patrick Fox and John McNamee, were 
living together in a hut in the north-west corner 
of the 50-acre grant, right at the edge of the 
swamp, when one morning Patrick Fox was 
found murdered in the hut. McNamee was at 
once placed under arrest. He, however, was 
able to show that on that identical night he was 
at a friend's place at James Mackay Grey's 
homestead, four miles away in a straight line. 
McNamee was discharged, and, on 5th April, 
1836, the Government offered "£200 reward for 
the conviction of some person or persons un- 
known who murdered Patrick Fox, in the house 
of Mr. James Marks, near Kiama, where he 
had been employed as overseer." It so hap- 
pened that another ex-eonviet named John 
Tobin called at Hyam's Hotel, Sarah's Valley, 
and told Michael Hyam of the murder. Hyam 
at once susnected him, and laid information 
against Tobin, who was arrested and hanged. 
He, Tobin, was attended by Rev. Father Therry, 
and he stood calmly on the scaffold and pro- 
tested before God his innocence of the crime. 



Exois. of late WM. H. COOK'S REGISTERED DAIRY CATTLE. 

Glendalough, lllawarra. 



175 





\I'MI|;M, Hl.llDMIlKl.li OK i ;|.K M lA l.ijn;!! 



itriTs OF i;Li:\h\i.ii! i:ii. 





rKAIlL OF (il.K.MlAI.OI Oil. 



FiiEiiin' II OF i;i.FMi \i.oi;oM. 





OEM OF IJLE?>)jALOIjGH. 



FICIISIA OF OI.FMiAIJ.IFOIi. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAKRA 



177 



This event created a terrible sensation at the 
time, and the hanging of John Tobin was re- 
sented on ail sides. The population of Jam- 
beroo continued to increase. A considerable 
number of settlers who had taken advantage 
of grants of from 50 to 100 acres given by the 
early Governors to boys and girls born in New 
South Wales, took up land in the vicinity of 
Hyam and Ritchie's grants, and commenced 
growing wheat. Houses were few, huts were 
plentiful. Dr. Robert Menzies purchased a 
grant, built a good house on it, and com- 
bined farming with his medical practice. 

Alexander Stewart was 85 years old at 
the time of his death, having arrived 
in Wollongong in 1828. Being a resi- 
dent of 67 years, his experience of old 
times was often sought by those in search 
of information about old lUawarra. He said 
on one occasion: "There were only 10 women 
and 16 children between BuUi and Jamberoo 
at the time of my arrival. The land between 
Crown-street and Tom Thumb Lagoon was 
densely covered with swamp oaks, and was all 
Government land. In 1828, going south from 
Crown-street, Wollongong, was a hut upon 
Edmond Burke's land, in which Burke himself 
lived. Sterling Jones' land came next. Next 
place was George Tate's Spring Hill. Heron 
farm was a Crown grant, and was the pro- 
perty of Thomas Barrett, sen. ' ' Beyond this we 
need not follow Alexander Stewart. 

Gerringong. — The early pioneers of this 
locality form an interesting chapter in our 
history of its own in lUawarra. A Sydney mer- 
chant named Thomas Hyndes, was a friend of 
Alexander Berry and John Wright, the brewer 
of Sydney. Hyndes was, among other things, 
a timber merchant. He had the right with 
Aspinall and Brown to cut timber. Their hold- 
ings were originally leaseholds, which they con- 
verted into real property prior to selling to 
Beri-y and Wollstonecroft about the year 1836. 
A soldier named Antony Finn was placed in 
charge of the sawyers to keep order. He had 
a grant of land at Broughton Vale known as 
the little meadow. Finn got the credit of 
having captured Broger, the outlaw, after which 
Broger's Creek (now Harper's Creek) in the 
Kangaroo Valley is named. 

Thomas Hyndes owued "Cockmaleg" Forest, 
and it was. his intention to form a village there 
and name the site "Hyndeston." Geering, who 
was John Wright's brewer, used to trade with 
Hyndes. hence we have Geering Bay, from 
which Gerringong has been evoluted. The 



original name of the locality was Jaron G;ong. 
The first settlers were William Smith and a man 
named Googley, who held a lease of what is now 
Miller's Flats, at about two shillings apd six- 
pence per 100 acres. Smith was at one time 
overseer of convicts at Wollongong. He after- 
wards converted the property into a freehold 
about 1829 at 5/- per acre. Lieutenant Thomas 
Campbell had 1280 acres as a grant from the 
Crown on the northern boundary of Smith's 
land, Michael Hindmarsh taking up the Alne 
Bank Estate in 1828, 640 acres at 5/- per acre, 
lying on the western boundary of Smith's grant. 
These properties were termed grants, although 
purchased at the upset price from the Crown, 
for the reason that the Governor had to give 
his sanction just the same as if they were 
granted by him. On Smith's land there was 
much swamp. Hindmarsh 's land was well tim- 
bered. A large figtree on the hill was the guide 
for skippers to steer into Geering Bay. Be- 
tween the years 1828 and 1832 Michael Hind- 
marsh devoted his attention to the timber trade. 
He employed a number of convicts and cut the 
timber, mostly cedar, in saw-pits. About 1832 
he decided to take up dairying, purchased a 
number of cows from the Glenlee herd, but 
found the business was not profitable, so he 
decided to go to Campbelltown (where he spent 
some time before returning to Illawarra) and 
started a milk run. In 1835 James Mackay 
Grey purchased the interests of his brother- 
in-law, Lieutenant Campbell, and named the 
estate "Omega." He considered it the last 
settlement south of Sydney. Michael Hind- 
marsh then returned to Alne Bank and went in 
for maize growing and pig raising, maize 
always commanding a good price. The pigs 
were not killed until they would reach 300 or 
4001b. in weight, then the pork, when salted 
and placed in casks, found a ready market 
among the shipping agents. Potato and 
tobacco growing was also followed with suc- 
cess. The brothers Rainey went in for potato 
growing on portion of Smith's land. 

A cobbler named Staypleton occupied a hut on 
the south-east corner of Smith's land, and the 
settlement was completed by the arrival of 
Robert Miller and his family. Robert Miller 
sold his farm at Terragong to Dr. Thomas Mont- 
gomery Pei-rott, and purchased William Smith's 
interests. Then for manj' years Michael Hind- 
marsh, J'ames Mackay Grey, and Robert Miller, 
together with their respective families, carried 
on successfully farming and dairying pursuits. 
The Hindmarsh families "became horse and cat- 



178 



THE UISrORY OF ILLAWAKBA 



tie breeders, introducing draught and coaching 
stallions into the district, and Durham bulls 
and heifers at very high prices, not that the 
farming population benefited thereby, but lack 
of judgment was not lack of enterprise in those 
families. From the year 1845 until 1855 the 
clearing lease system brought into the Gerrin- 
gong portion of Illawarra many valuable 
families who left their footprints on the soil. 

The Hindmarsh and Miller families helped to 
develop that part of Illawarra by the manner in 
which they helped to develop their own 
personal interests. Maize, potatoes, tobacco, 
wheat and barley were largely grown land 
hauled by their teams to the sea port at Kiama, 
and the Woodstock mills and brewery. The 
cedar and pork trade was carried on also ; many 
hundreds of barrels of salt pork were sent out 
to the trading ships along the coast. 

The old Illawarra A. & H. Society, and later 
on the Kiama A. & H. Society, had for 
founders Messrs. James Mackay Grey, Michael 
Hindmarsh, and Robert Miller, whose estates 
joined at a point a short distance from the 
present site of the present railway siding. 
Omega. 

James Robb, Riversdale, Kiama, was born in 
Perthshire, Scotland, in 1805 and came to Syd- 
ney, New South Wales, about the year 1828, 
and established himself as a builder and con- 
tractor in Bathurst Street. In 1830 he was the 
architect for a number of buildings in Sydney. 
The Sydney "Gazette" of 21st September, 
1830, has the following notice: — "Court of 
Claims — Case No. 371, James Robb, of Bathurst 
Street, builder, by his attorney, John Smith, 
1280 acres. County of Camden, at Kiama, Illa- 
warra. commencing at the north-west corner of 
Cowell 's farm, on the west by the swamp called 
Terragong, on the north by part swamp and 
Minnamurra River, to the north-west corner 
of Cowell 's farm. This land was located by 
an order of Governor Darling, dated 26th 
October, 1829, in favour of William John CoUis, 
who, it is alleged, sold to William MacDonald, 
who sold to Peter Haydon, who sold to Charles 
Coates Fenton, who died intestate, and whose 
eldest brother and heir at law, Michael Fenton, 
sold to claimant." 

James Robb did not come to live on this 
property for several years after he became 
possessed of it. He built a storied brick house 
to the east of the Kiama public school which 
was occupied by an officer who was in charge 
of the barracks in Kiama; one of the very- 
early constables named Sutherland also lived in 



it. The Riversdale Estate was, in the mean- 
time, denuded of its cedar which, cut on saw- 
pits, and hauled by bullocks to the boat har- 
bour in Kiama and despatched on by boat to 
James Robb in Sydney. About 1840 James 
Robb decided to build at Riversdale and to 
establish an orchard and vineyard. He ap- 
pointed Nicholas Craig, an expert gardener who 
had come to New South Wales with a letter 
of introduction from Sir William Molesworth 
to James Macarthur, of Camden, in 1839. 

In 1843 George Grey, then living in WoUon- 
gong, leased 1000 acres of the Riversdale 
Estate from James Robb with the view of set- 
tling a number of emigrants, relations and 
acquaintances of his own from the County 
Fermanagh, Ireland. In this respect George 
Grey was very successful. After the discovery 
of gold in New South Wales labour became 
very scarce, and in order to meet the difficulties 
that arose, about a dozen German emigrants 
were introduced and carried out their engage- 
ment satisfactorily At one period of the de- 
velopment of dairying on the portion leased by 
George Grey there were 22 families resided on 
that area now occupied by six. In March, 1861, 
Mr. James Robb landed in Kiama from Scot- 
land a noted Ayrshire bull and two fine Ayr- 
shire cows. The name of the bull was "The 
Duke of Argyll," and was highly prized by 
dairy farmers. All the papers connected with 
this importation were burned in the Rivers- 
dale house fire. 

When Mr. Robb landed his cattle in Illawarra, 
March, 1861, consisting of one bull and two 
cows, one cow was just at calving point. When 
she calved her calf was stolen and another sub- 
stitTited. Although one bull calf was taken 
and another bull calf put with its dam, it was 
not by any means a fair exchange. The calf 
taken away was a superior animal, the one left 
an inferior one. In the course of a few years 
much comment was made regarding this in- 
ferior bull's progeny which in some quarters 
gave Robb's Ayrshires a bad reputation. Even 
the columns of the Press became in time filled 
with long letters condemning the Ayrshires. 
Those, however, who got the "Duke of Argyll" 
blood always swore by them. Since then the 
secret was given up, and the man who stole 
the calf admitted having done so to a member 
of the Robb family. "Let the dead past bury 
the past." 

The leaseholders on Riversdale were 24 — 
George Grey, Henry Grey, William Grey, 
William Vance, Joseph Vance, James Hether- 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



179 



ington, John Hetherington, Christy Hethering- 
ton, Thomas Wilson, James Irvine, Gerard 
Irvine, James Irving, D. Lindsay, Donald Robin- 
son, Alexander Robinson, Edward Bryant, 
John Francis, John McClelland, Robert Mc- 
Clelland, William Burless, Lanty Nethery, John 
Noble, Thomas Kent, Mrs Martin. 

Henry Osborne was born in County Tyrone, 
Ireland, on 8th February, 1803 — a son of Archie 
Osborne, of Dairaseer, Tyrone, and was the 
youngest of ten children, three of whom emi- 
grated to New South Wales. Henry Osborne 
arrived 9th May, 1829, and gained a little 
colonial experience and advice from Captain 
Thompson, of Liverpool, New South Wales, 
prior to settling on a grant of land which he 
obtained from the Crown in Illawarra, contain- 
ing 2560 acres, which entitled him to receive 
from the Government from twenty to thirty free 
labourers. He called his estate Marshall Mount 
(after his wife's maiden name, who was a Miss 
Marshall), and set to work, as all pioneers had 
to do in those days who wished to succeed. He 
went in for dairying, and obtained his first 
cattle from William Howe, of Glenlee, Canip- 
belltown, and branded their produce HO. There 
was much of the land open forest, and good 
for grazing, where young cattle could be raised. 
The same condition prevailed in other centres, 
and cattle became plentiful in the course of a 
few years. The spirit of speculation quickly 
asserted itself in his nature. He saw broad 
acres, and delighted in open space cattle deal- 
ing. On 2nd December, 1839, he started from 
Dapto, Illawarra, with a few stockmen, com- 
prising one free settler, three convicts, and 
three aboriginals, with a mob of cattle for South 
Australia. He was four months on the journey, 
and was very fortunate in striking a good mar- 
ket. Sir George Grey, writing of these over- 
landers, said: "The overlanders are, nearly all 
of them, in the prime of life, and their occupa- 
tion is to carry out large herds of stock from 
one market to another. They have overcome 
difficulties of no ordinary kind, which have 
made the more timid-hearted quail and relin- 
quish these enterprises, in which many were 
engaged, Avhilst the resolute and undaunted 
have persevered, and the reward the.y have ob- 
tained in wealth, self-confidence in difficulties 
and danger, together with a fund of accurate 
information in many interesting points, is con- 
siderable. Hence almost every overlander you 
meet is a remarkable man." He continued his 
cattle-dealing enterprises. No mob of cattle 
was either too big nor too small for his own 



personal inspection. About 1840 he began to 
acquire large holdings inland, so as to move his 
stock into convenient centres, and set about im- 
proving the quality of his herds. He gave a 
free exhibition of his imported cattle in the 
Market Square, Wollongong, in October, 1843. 
which laid the foundation of our present-time 
A. & H. Societies in Australia. 

A volume could be devoted to the life and 
times of Henry Osborne. The writer, from in- 
formation received first hand from my father 
during his ten years' close association with 
Henry Osborne, to wit, from 1841 to 1852, could 
supply a few score of pages. To sum the man 
up : Had he lived the allotted span oi life, name- 
ly, "three score years and ten," he would have 
been by far the richest man that ever settled 
in Australia, as he was naturally very clever, 
keen, and immensely energetic, and, above all. 
he was successful. Every act of his life, all 
his dealings and transactions, were for himself. 
He died at Marshall Mount, Illawarra, during 
the year 1859, aged 56 years. He passed out 
at a time when his energy would have been 
worth much to his family. The Osborne Me- 
morial Church at Dapto stands as a monument 
to his memory. His possessions in Illawarra 
■vvere considerable at the time of his death. He 
had secured both Captain Brooks' and Mr. Wil- 
liam Browne's grants at Lake Illawarra and 
The Elyard grant (Avondale) at West Dapto. 
He was largely interested in coal lands in Illa- 
warra and elsewhere. May one add: It took 
an act of Parliament to deprive him of much 
of the land on which the township of West 
Maitland stands. He had secured several large 
cattle stations inland, and was in a large wo- 
at the time of his death, caused by an Internal 
growth. 

In 1841 Mr. Henry Osborne imported a cow 
called "Brutus." She was a large-framed roan 
Durham, produced twins twice (once a pair 
of white bulls). He refused £700 for her in 
1843 when on exhibition in Wollongong. J- 
1843 he imported two bulls, "Duke" and "Mar- 
quis." "Duke" was a roan Durham of great 
quality, and "Marquis" was a blood-red — ■ 
Sussex — an animal of striking appearance 
with hooped horns. 

In 1844 he (Mr. Osborne) imported two cows, 
"Blossom" and "Daisy." "Blossom" was a 
red and white spotted cow; "Daisy" was a light 
roan cow. 

The ship "La Hogue" arrived in Sydney with 
a consignment of cattle for, possibly, various 
owners, which included Durham bulls and cows 



180 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAEBA 



and a two-years-old draught Entire horse. As 
Mr. Osborne did import a horse of that descrip- 
tion from England, we may reasonably infer 
that it was the ship "La Hogue" that brought 
the cow "Charlotte" and her daughter to New 
South Wales. After the arrival of the ship "La 
Hogue" there were for sale at the wharf,, Syd- 
ney, one bull 2 years and 3 months old, one bull 
2 years old, and one bull 4 years old. 

To attempt to describe the transactions in cat- 
tle as carried out year in and year out by 
Messrs. Johnston, Hughes and Osborne in lUa- 
warra, without touching upon their outside sta- 
tion business, would be as futile as it was gigan- 
tic. They each and all purchased and sold cat- 
tle in hundreds. Mr. Henry Osborne, with 
whose cattle transactions I am familiar, owing 
to my father being in his confidence for many 
years, bought cattle as far north as New Eng- 
land and as far south as the border of the 
Murray. In this way he had to import for stud 
purposes but few cattle. He could at any time 
take advantage of the times and buy either im- 
ported cattle or the progeny of imported cattle 
at a quarter the price it cost to import or even 
breed them. In this way he obtained several 
very valuable imported bulls and cows, whose 
names and pedigrees are lost to us owing to 
his papers being mislaid prior to his death. 

For some years there was a little rivalry be- 
tween Mr. Henry Osborne and his neighbour, 
Mr. David Johnston, as the old Illawarra A. £ 
H. Society shows, as will be seen by the old 
records — not that they were directly interested 
in these competitions on all occasion. The stock 
they bred drifted among the settlers, and they 
as breeders were anxious to see the animals 
they bred coming to the fore. In these contests 
the descendants of cattle bred in Campbelltown 
by Mr. William Howe, and at Bringelly by the 
J. Terry Hughes Estate, came in for the show 
honors, which gave a healthy stimulant to the 
breeding of high-class cattle. 

The Somerville family settled at Dapto in 
J 840-41, and commenced dairying on the west 
bank of Mullet Creek, and while being engaged 
in this business the founder of the family (Mr. 
George Somerville) secured the lease of a run 
near Lake Illawarra. During the drought of 
1849 Mr. Henry Osborne arranged to send his 
stud cows to the Lake farm, and when the 
drought broke he went in person to take the 
cattle away. He insisted on old Mr. Somerville 
accepting the present of a white bull calf in 
return for the obligement. This white bull calf 
was called "Major." The Somervilles continued 



dairying on the bank of Mullet Creek until the 
year 1856, when the father and eldest son, 
Robert, sold out and removed to BuUi, where 
they became interested in coal-mining indus- 
try. 

It will be seen that prior to his death Mr. 
H. Osborne had quite a number of pure-bred 
cattle on hand at Marshall Mount, Illawarra. 
These animals had been bred for station sup- 
ply. He was constantly sending drafts of young 
stud bulls inland. He, therefore, seldom sold 
any bulls locally. When he desired he could 
command big prices. He did not believe in 
using pure-bred cattle for dairying purposes. 
His dairy herds were at all times a mixed quan- 
tity, some very fine animals of choice colours, 
but, generally speaking, they were of every 
variety of colour. Dairy quality is what he 
aimed at, and he certainly got it. 

His first purchases were from Mr. William 
Howe's famous Grlenlee herd. He secured early 
in the forties three imported bulls, one a straw- 
berry-Durham ; another was a blood-red bull 
with hooped horns. The late Mr. Gabriel Timbs 
described this bull as being "very like a Devon, 
yet he was much bigger than a Devon." This 
bull may have been a red-hooped horned Sussex. 
The third bull was a large red and white spotted 
bull, with high commanding horns, an old type 
Ayrshire bull. The progeny of this spotted 
bull were highly prized in Illawarra and in the 
Kangaroo Ground. His favourite cow was the 
celebrated roan cow "Brutus." She was said 
to be the best cow ever seen in Illawarra. 

He made, as just stated, other important pur- 
chases, and when he joined the Australian Im- 
portation Company he had at his command the 
best cattle available in Great Britain and Ire- 
land. After the sale of the Osborne stud herd 
in 1860, Mr. Alex. Osborne took charge at Mar- 
shall Mount, Illawarra for a few years. He, 
however, did not trouble about the business 
very much — he merely used the H.O. brand, 
and used the name, and lived on his father's 
reputation. 

Late in the sixties we find that Messrs Ben 
and Alex. Osborne were carrying on dairy-cat- 
tle breeding in the Kangaroo Ground. They di- 
vided the lots equally, Ben's brand was B.H.O., 
and Alex.'s brand A.H.O. Henry Osborne, 
a brother, settled at Avondale, Illawarra; his 
brand was H.H.O. There were several brothers 
who settled elsewhere in New South Wales. 
Marshall Mount was subdivided and sold in 
1872, and so passed out one of the finest dairy- 
ing centres in Australia. 



182 



HUGH DUDGEON & SON, Hill View Stud, Jambsroo. 




CHAP.MKH. 



FUSSY II OF HIl.I.VIEW I '2 ) . 




■SfV III nv IIIMAIFW i\n. :, i-i. I.Ii.r,.II.B.). 




FUSSY IV OF HILLVIEW (No. ^i\, I.D.C.H.B. 





SSV VI IIF HII.I.VIFW 'Xii. r>i3, 1.1 1. T,. II. B. I 'i) 



I.MlV .li:.\N OF IIILI.VIEW (Nil, 99, I.D.C.H.H.). 



183 



HUGH DUDGEON & SON, Hill View Stud, Jamberoo. 




LOVELY or UILLVIEW (N(i. IIS, LTLCILB.] 





LADY MAY OF IIlLL"\'n:\V (Nn. iSti, I.TM ..H.B. ) . 




ITtlNCESS OF ILLLYIEW Cm (IVd. r.CL LI l.l :.H.U. ) . 



^[AYFLO^VEF^ fiF UILLVIEW (?Jo. r,5i. LD.F.H.B.. 





E^niA 11 OF HTLl.VIEW (^cl. 3il. LD.F.H.D.). 



VIOLET OF IIII.L\IE\V ;N'o. 7:1, LIl.C.H. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



185 



Dr. John Osborne made three trips to New 
South Wales as Superintendent of Convicts 
on board transports. In 1836 he purchased 
300 acres, through Charles Throsby Smith, and 
called it "Garden Hill." He let it on clearing 
lease terms. Like Smith's grant, it became part 
of the township of Wollongong. 

Dr. Alexander Osborne was also a Superin- 
tendent of Convicts. Both belonged previously 
to the Royal Navy. Alexander Osborne pur- 
chased 300 acres from William Brown, a cousin 
of George Brown, of Dapto. He became a very 
useful citizen, and resided on his farm, Daisy 
Bank. He was a prominent public man for 
some years. Daisy Bank has been in the pos- 
session of the Marshall family for a long period 
of years. 

Captain Robert Marsh Westmacott was 

A.D.C. to Governor Sir Eiehard Bourke, who 
arrived in New South Wales in 1831. In 1834 
Governor Bourke visited Illawarra and shortly 
afterwards Captain Westmacott settled on a 
small farm in the vicinity of BulH. He went 
in for fruit growing and kept a few racehorses. 
Pie discovered a path up the range which be- 
came known as " Westmacott 's Pass." He was 
the first secretary, of, perhaps, the first Agri- 
cultural and Horticultural Society as we under- 
stand such institutions in New South Wales. 
He only remained a few years in Illawarra. and 
passed on to Sydney. 

Mr. George Brown, of Dapto, was born in 
Fifeshire, Scotland, on 21st November, 1794, 
and arrived when a young man in New South 
Wales, and after a time got married and opened 
a hotel at Liverpool. He succeeded in getting 
a grant of 300 acres of land at Dapto, Illawarra, 
where he settled in 1829. About 1832 he placed 
a man in charge of his farm at Dapto, and 
he opened a public house, "The Ship Inn," 
on a fifty acre grant of land to Edmond 
Bourke. His hotel stood on the flat, due south 
of the sites of the Commercial and Royal Alfred 
Hotels in Wollongong. While he was there 
Governor Bourke visited Wollongong, and 
sent Sir Thomas Mitchell down to survey a 
road from about the foot of Mount Kurd to 
James Mackay Grey's Estate, Omega, Gerrin- 
gong. Between Mr. George Brown and Mr. 
M. Grey the money granted for this road was 
largely absorbed. They had the use of convict 
labour. Mr. Grey worked his contract from Dr. 
Thomas Foster's Curraghmore Estate to a 
gully on the northern side of Mount Pleasant. 
This road was only proclaimed to where the 
road formed bv similar labour branched off at 



Ilyam's public house for Kiama. Going back 
to Mr. Brown, he had a cousin named William 
Brown, who was in the commissariat depart- 
ment, Sydney, who also got a grant of 300 acres 
at Dapto, Illawarra, which he sold to Dr. Alex- 
ander Osborne. Dr. Osborne called it Daisy 
Bank, and carried on farming there for years. 
George Brown in the meantime grew tired of 
hotelkeeping in Wollongong. He found his 
place of business was getting out of line. He 
tried a get a block of land near the proposed 
harbour but failed, and then decided to erect 
a fine hotel on the hill overlooking the valley 
below the Illawarra Hotel. When this hotel 
was completed in 1837, it was far in, advance 
of country hotels. It was, however, myster- 
iously burned in 1838, and Mr. Brown took 
the cottage on the present site of Brownville, 
and opened up what was known as the Illa- 
warra Hotel. He had a wind-power flour 
mill working on the hill for a little time, so 
he decided to erect a steampower mill near the 
Illawarra Hotel. This flourmill was a land- 
mark, as was also the old hotel for years. 

Returning again to Mr. George Brown. If 
Brownsville never advanced it may be attri- 
buted to his over-zeal on its behalf. He died 
on 26th November, 1853, aged 53 years, and his 
sons and daughter took over the management of 
the business. 

Road Tenders in 1834. — No. 1 tender dated 
22nd November, 1834, James Mackay Grey, from 
]\Iinnamnrra Rivulet to Bonna Hill, £3/10/- 
per acre; No. 2 tender dated 24th November, 
1834, J. S. Spearing, from the fence separating 
John Osborne's and Spearing 's farms to the 
foot of the mountains, £2/15/- per acre, and 
from the foot to the top of the mountain 
£4/15 per acre ; and from the commencement 
of the road northwards to the corner of Gillies' 
(now Spearing 's) land, £2/17/6 per acre. Prom 
that point to the extent of Spearing 's land 
£2/10/- per acre. From that point to the old 
Bulli Road £3/10/- per acre. From a marked 
stump southwards to Figtree Rivulet, a little 
beyond Spearing 's fence, £2/15/- per acre. No. 

3 tender, dated 24th November, 1834, John Os- 
borne. From Wollongong to Osborne's and 
Spearing 's boimdary, £2/15/- per acre. From 
Mullet Creek to the marked stump about two 
miles from Wollongong, £3/5/- per acre. No. 

4 tender, William Osborne, from Mullet Creek 
to Maequarie Rivulet, £2/16/- per acre. From 
the Maequarie Rivulet to the Minnamurra, 
£3 per acre. No. 5 tender, 21st November, 
1834, George Brown. The line near Wollon- 



186 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



gong extending northwards to Bulli, £1/12/6 
per acre. No. 6 tender, 21st November, 1834, 
George Brown. Prom the Macquarie Rivulet 
to the Minnamurra, £1/15/- per acre. No. 7 
tender, George Brown, from the marked stump 
about two miles from "Wollongong to Mullet 
Creek, £1/15/- per acre. No. 8, 2lst November, 
1834, George Brown, from Mullet Creek to the 
Macquarie Rivulet, £1/12/6 per acre. These 
tenders were opened on 25th November, 1834, 
in the presence of and considered by Alexander 
McLean, Colonial Secretary Williams, Lithgow, 
Auditor-General, and J. A. Cary, Deputy Sur- 
veyor-General, who recommended the tender of 
James Mackay Grey No. 1 and the tenders of 
George Brown, Nos. 5, 6, 7, 8, the same being 
considered by the Surveyor-General to b^ rea- 
sonable in references to the respective lines of 
road. The document was then sent to the 
Governor for approval, and returned on the 
2nd December, 1834, with the following memo 
written on it: — "Approved of with respect to 
Nos. 1, 5, 6, 7, 8. The other numbers to stand 
over until I have some further information 
on the subject. — Signed Richd. Bourke, Decem- 
ber 2nd, 1834." The following memo is also 
written on the document — -"The tenders for the 
lines not included in the recommendation 
having been considered by the Surveyor-Gen- 
eral to be too high, it was recommended that 
fresh tenders be advertised for." 

A good number of men were set to worTj 
at once by Mr. Brown to clear the roads, and 
about a year or so afterwards, 1835, or early 
in 1836, a gang of prisoners were sent down 
from Sydney to form the streets in Wollongong, 
and also to form and make roads and erect 
bridges and culverts thereon. Stockad'es for 
the prisoners and soldiers who were in charge 
of them were built at the cross roads on the 
north side or corner where Robson 's house now 
stands, and afterwards at the Figtree on the 
south side of the creek where the cottage now 
stands, on the eastern side of the main road, 
at Charcoal Creek, at the rear of where George 
Lindsay now resides; and later on again at 
Mullet Creek on the western side of the main 
road at the northern end of the north bridge. 
The first stockade and headquarters were at 
the cross-roads, and Lieutenant Otway was the 
first officer in charge. The other stockades 
were built further on as the work of making 
the road progressed southwards. Wollongong 
was standing bush at the time, and the first 
work commenced by the prisoners was to clear 
Crown Street from the green to the junction 
of the Bulli Road, where the Royal Alfred Hotel 



now stands, which was the western' end of 
termination of Crown Street. 

Captain Robert Towns was born in Northum- 
berland (England) in 1794, and went to sea 
at the age of 16 years. Was with a trader 
for some years, and got the command of a 
brip' in the Mediterranean. He saved money 
and then started to make money, and after 
building a boat for himself named "The 
Brothers," he took up the business of trading 
between England and New South Wales. In 
1833 he married a daughter of Surgeon De 
Arcy Wentworth, and settled in business in 
Sydney as Towns and Co. He went into the 
cotton growing business in Queensland, and 
worked his plantation with black island labour, 
and collected beehe-de-mer, cocoanut oil, sandal- 
wood, and other products from the natives. He 
was joined by his brother-in-law, Captain 
Samuel Addison, and the firm in lUawarra 
was known as Towns and Addison, and their 
stock brand was TXA. Captain Samuel Addi- 
son settled on the shores of Lake Illawarra, 
near Shellharbour. (Land sale at Sydney, 
May 29th, 1865, by Richardson and Wrench, 
by orders ( ?) from Hugh de Arcy Wentworth 
Addison. 2560 acres at Minnamurra and 2000 
acres at Oakflats, Illawarra ; no title. G. L. 
Fuller chanced it, got it cheap, and won). 
Nor is it at all necessary to follow out 
to the end the career of Captain Samuel Addi- 
son, suffice to say that the late Mr. George 
Laurence Fuller, of Kiama, became the owner 
of nearly all the Illawarra estates of the late 
Surgeon De Arcy Wentworth, which at one 
time amounted to 10,050 acres The prices paid 
by Mr. Fuller were extremely low. He, how- 
ever, got the chances and took advantage of 
them. Hence the Dunmore Estate. 

Captain Towns never lived in Illawarra, b'.jt 
his partner, who was also his brother-in-law, 
Mr. Samuel Addison did. Mr. Addison was 
a useful pioneer, and his name is recorded in 
the proceedings of the old A & H. Society 
of Illawarra. He had two sons, Hugh and John 
Addison. After Mr. Addison's death the 
family went to England Mrs. Addison re-mar- 
ried and became Mrs. HoUings. A grandson of 
Captain Samuel Addison is secretary to the 
Tasmanian Government 

John Hawdon was born in County Durham 
(England) in 1801, landed in N.S.W. in 1823 
with a wife and two sons. In 1833 he went to 
Kiora. Later he took up Howlong Station on 
the River Murray. He also took" up Kulwyne, 
near Mildura, Victoria, where his son John 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



187 



Hawdon died, aged 20 years. His grave, as 
well as Arnijour Forster's (a brother-in-law of 
Hawdon 's overseer), are within three-quarters 
of a mile of old Mildura Station. The Hawdons 
were among the first to overland cattle to Ade- 
laide. He received as a grant from the 
Crown 1,280 acres, called Kiora, on the 
Moruya Eiver, and eventually took up Bodalla 
and Bergalia. He owned some of the finest 
Shorthorn cattle in Australia, and stocked Ber- 
gralia with sheep under the care of a Mr. 
Campbell. Captain McKay took up Eurabo- 
dalla, and a Mr. Carr took up an adjoining 
station. A younger brother of Mr. John Haw- 
don, Mr. Joseph Hawdon, arrived in New South 
Wales in 1834. He became famous as a pioneer 
and overlander with cattle to Victoria. A 
copy of his diary was kindly placed at my dis- 
posal by the late Mr. William Hawdon, of Kiora. 
Moruya, with whom I corresponded for years. 
It will be seen elsewhere that many cattle found 
a ready sale in Illawarra, bred by the men 
just mentioned. 

When the Sir John Eobertson Land Act came 
into existence the Hawdons were deprived of 
their cattle rims. They had often been de- 
prived of valuable cattle by a gang of cattle 
duffers. The bull 15th Duke of Cambridge, 
made famous by "Robbery Under Arms," was 
once owned by the Hawdons. The shanty on 
the creek, immortalised by Henry Clarence 
Kendall, was on one of the Hawdon runs. Pass- 
ing on a Mr. William Wilson, whose sale is men- 
tioned elsewhere as being held on the Mac- 
quarie Rivulet, Illawarra, was a son-in-law of 
Mr. John Hawdon. He however, purchased 
most of his cattle from the late Mr. Henry 
Osborne under whose guidance he worked. At 
Mr. Wilson's sale my late father and the father 
of the Armstrong family purchased largely. I 
quite remember my father bringing from that 
sale a white bull with a few small blue spots 
on his neck. He had a golden skin, and was 
said to have been descended from the imported 
cow "Brutus" that was on exhibition in 
Market Square, Wollongong, suckling four 
calves^, two of which she had just previously 
given birth to. Brutus was a large framed 
roan Durham. She had twins three times, on 
one occasion two white bulls, one of which 
was stolen. The late Mr. William Wright, of 
Jamberoo (old Billy), used to wax eloquent 
on the dispersal of Harry Osborne's and Mr. 
Jack Terry Hughes' choice cattle, including 
the white bull. He always drew a long breath 
when emphasising the feats of horsmanship on 



stockyard and mountain. Messrs. Cole Bros, 
and William James got possession of the 
descendants of William Wilson by purchases 
from Armstrong family and my late father 
respectively. The late Mr. Thomas Alexander 
Browne (Rolf Boldrewood) was a personal 
friend of the Hawdons, and collected much 
colonial experiences under the roof of the Kiora 
homestead. The late Mr. William Hawdon pos- 
sessed a fine store of reminiscence and had a 
clear lucid style of impression. 

Mr. James Mackay Grey was born in Eneagb^ 
County Armagh, Ireland, October 3rd. 1800, 
and was in his youth educated for the Church 
at Edinburgh University. He drifted into a 
brewery, and marred a widow, a sister of Lieu- 
tenant Thomas Campbell's wife. Campbell had, 
for certain reasons, been deprived of his com- 
mission in the Navy, and came to New South 
Wales, where he obtained a grant of 1280 
acres, immediately to the south of Captain 
Parmer's grant, south from Kiama. Something 
went wrong at the Armagh brewery, and James 
Mackay Grey decided quickly to leave for New 
South Wales, and landed first at Tasmania in 
1833. He remained there but a very short time, 
as he was in Kiama in 1834. In 1834 he pur- 
chased his brother-in-law's grant for £400. and 
called it Omega Retreat, as he thought no 
one would ever pass over the swampy land that 
lay between his purchase and the lands of 
Messrs. Berry and WoUstonecraft. The then 
swampy land was in a few years' time the 
richest possession in Gerringong, and is gen- 
erally known as Millers' Plats. Thomas Camp- 
bell purchased Grange Parm, Druwalla Creek, 
Jamberoo, and there made more mistakes. In 
the meantime James Mackay Grey worked intoi 
tlie good graces of the New South Wales -au- 
thorities, obtained about a dozen convicts, and 
set about putting his house in order, with a 
view of bringing out his wife and family. They 
arrived in 1835. His son, Samuel Wiliam Grey, 
then 12 years of age, a schoolboy. Captain 
Hart's mill and brewery were in course of erec- 
tion, and James Mackay Grey at once saw 
where he could make money, which was very 
scarce at that time in his immediate neighbour- 
hood. He wrote the Authorities in Sydney, 
stating that his neighbours desired a road to 
the new settlement at Jamberoo. The Sydney 
Authorities granted his request, and gave him 
the contract. Being wise in his day and gen- 
eration, he began operations on the Jamberoo 
side, and cleared a track two chains wide from 
Hyam's Hotel, passing along towards the site 



188 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARh'A 



of the road marked out by Sir Thomas Mitch- 
ell. Mr. Eobert Young's house and Wauchope 
House were afterwards erected on the old 
track. He then took up the old Cedar track, on 
which Culwalla's house is built. He went down 
the gully by an easy grade, turning to the 
right, he worked up the Jerrara Valley to 
where Mr. John CoUey's house was erected, 
which was known to the sawyers as the "Flat 
I^ock." Much "poteen" was brewed there in 
the early days. He then followed the banks of 
Jerrara Creek until he reached Genera Vale. 
Here James Maekay Grey halted and reported 
that he had discovered an unpassable barrier 
— between his last camp and his own land. This 
road was never either gazetted nor used as a 
road, but portions of it had been used by set- 
tlers who came to reside in the locality some 
years later. This led many to believe that a 
gazetted road was there, and, owing to this 
notion, some few lost considerable sums at 
money trying to prove their notions in the law 
courts. 

James Maekay Grey went in for farming by 
means of convict labour, and quite a long list 
of men worked out their ticket-of-leave terms 
on the Omega Retreat Estate. He went in for 
wheat, maize, potatoes, kept pigs, and manu- 
factured salt pork. In 1844 Messrs. John and 
James Colley built a fine house for that time 
for James Maekay Grey. He became a Magis- 
trate, and Land Commissioner for the Kiama 
district. He leased his land on the Clearing 
Lease system, and had in 1856 no less than 
twenty tenants. "We," said one of the old 
identities, "all knew when rent day came 
round for the Omega Retreat tenants, James 
Maekay Grey could be seen standing at the 
corner of Manning and Terralong Streets, 
Kiama, saluting each tenant as he passed to 
the I.S.N. Coy's, wharf with his produce. What 
a change has taken place there during the last 
50 years, in common with a majority of similar 
settlements in lUawarra, that were built up, so 
to speak, with the sweat and blood of convicts. 
Mr. James Maekay Grey's family consisted of 
Mr. S. W. Grey, Mrs. Samuel Charles, Mrs. 
William Marks, and Mrs. William Osborne. Two 
girls died when young, one in Ireland, and the 
other shortly after landing in New South Wales. 
James Maekay Grey died at Omega House, Ger- 
ringong, on July, 1877, aged 77 years, leaving 
much wealth and property to his son, Mr. Sam- 
uel William Grey, who became a member of 
Parliament, and spent it freely. 

Lieutenant Thomas Campbell, R. N., was bom 



in Belfast, County Antrim, Ireland, in 1778, and 
fought under the British Flag, married Miss 
Burton in 1816. One child was born, who came 
to join her father with her aunt, Mrs. James 
Maekay Grey, in 1835. She married a Mr. Yar- 
nold, who lived on Druwallah Creek, Jamberoo. 
We need not follow the career of Lieutenant 
Thomas Campbell further as he did very little 
to forward the interests of his adopted country. 
His son-in-law James Yarn old, on the other 
hand, gave much promise of usefulness. His 
efforts were, however, cut off owing to an 
unfortunate tragedy over which he had no con- 
trol driving him into oblivion. In this we will 
let the dead past bury the past. 

AN HISTORIC LETTER. 

WoUongong Hotel, 

Mv Dear Sir 27th October, 1840. 

You will, perhaps, be surprised when 
you see where I have dated this letter 
from, but I daresay you will be more 
surprised when you know the occasion. 
My last letter contained nothing but 
bad news. I now mean to make this con- 
tain only good news. When we came in to the 
Sacrament to Goulburn last month my father 
found a letter laying for him from William 
Hart (brother of Miss Hart) stating that he 
had a principal share in a saw mill concern with 
Captain Collins down at Illawarra wherein he 
had advanced about £8000 and never got any 
return, but on the contrary always getting new 
bills drawn upon him. The gentleman he sent 
out to represent his interest in the concern is 
very anxious to give it up and requested to 
have some one put in his place. Walter Jollie 
had met Mr. Hart at Brighton and told him 
of my father and my having gone out to this 
country, the object of his letter was to give my 
father a power of attorney to examine into the 
books of the establishment and requesting me 
to take the place of Mr. Otley, the 'gentleman 
he sent out before; indeed so anxious was he 
that he sent out duplicates of his letters, the 
last more pressing than the first. We accord- 
ingly corresponded with Mr. Otley, and the re- 
sult was our coming down to inspect the mills 
personall.y before finally accepting the situa- 
tion. The result was such as to make 
me accept the situation at once, as I 
think it may be an opening perhaps for 
something else afterwards. We breakfasted 
with Captain Collins this morning here, 
and he promises me £150 per annum, 
board and lodging. How long it would have 
been ere I eould have got such at home. My 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



189 



father will be paid by Mr. Hart, I, by the Con- 
cern. There is a good cottage attached to the 
place where if Captain C. goes to Sydney, as 
he intends to do, my mother and Eliza will 
reside, but we are also in terms for a small 
farm two miles from the mill where they will 
reside, my father farming and looking after 
the mill at the same time. We are on our way 
back to Goulburn to report, and are wearying to 
get home. The situation is six miles from the 
coast where they have coasters for transporting 
the timber to Sydney, distant about 70 miles, 
so that if we take a farm we could send in our 
produce to the Sydney market. David is still 
at Port Phillip and knows nothing of all this. 
He has had sad work, he says, in keeping the 
rest of his men from running away. We are 
wearying much to see him. We have had 
plenty of rain this season, and the country is 
most beautiful. There is so much wheat in the 
ground, and it is so cheap just now that it 
will never pay the cutting down. Men's wages 
are most extravagant ; getting 30/- per week 
just now for common labourers, and at the mil! 
a man gets 42/- per week for doing nothing 
but sharpen saws ! I think, but am not quite 
sure, that your brother wiU have to pass our way 
every time he goes to Sydney, but he is more 
at the Shoalhaven. My next letter will be a 
dissertation upon Timber. I don't know what 
I will take up next. Do you remember wlien 
I came away you gave me a present of a meas- 
uring line? You had surely been gifted with 
a sense of seeing into futurity. We received 
Dr. Muir's pamphlet with your pencil remarks. 
Did you read the other side of the question? 
Your Affectionate Brother, 

JAMES W. WAUGH. 
Mr. D. L. Waugh. — David Lindsay Waugh 
was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1810, and 
came to Sydney, New South Wales, in the ship 
Isabella, in 1834, and settled for a time in 
Victoria, and then came to Jamberoo, Illa- 
warra, in 1840; purchased the Waughope pro- 
pert.v in 1845. Other members of the Waugh 
family came out in 1838 and 1840, and the 
Dymock family in 1845. Mr. D. L. Waugh mar- 
ried a Miss Hope, of Camden, hence the name 
"Waughope" in 1851. Mr. Waugh became a 
magistrate in 1849, and was appointed chair- 
man of directors of the lUawarra Steam Naviga- 
tion Coy. in 1853. His correspondence with 
friends in Scotland will give readers an idea 
of how things were moving in the Illawarra 
district at the time the Waugh and Dymock 
families settled here. Mr. D. L. Dymock was 



a nephew of Mr. D. L. Waugh, and having mar- 
ried a daughter of Dr. Robert Menzies, of Jam- 
beroo, became at once a public man of note. 
As an auctioneer he stood high for many years. 
As a public man he did much for his adopted 
district. He did more in a short space of time 
for the Kiama A. & H. Society than a number 
of men could have done in a life-time. Mr. 
David Lindsay Waugh was a good man in his 
way, but Mr. David Lindsay Dymock was a 
great man. Copies of Mr. D. L. Waugh 's 
letters: — 

Waughope, Jamberoo, N.S.W., 

14th March, 1857. 

To R. Soott Moncrieff, Esq., Edinburgh. 
My Dear Sir, — Your letter of 11th Decem- 
ber last reached us here on the 6th Februaiy, 
the new line of mail steamers doing their work 
well. The one that brought your letter reached 
Sydney exactly two months from the date of its 
departure from England, after having called at 
Melbourne, Port Phillip, and left their mails 
which occasioned a delay of nearly a day. This 
is doing the work well and the Glasgow Com- 
pany that have got the contract are deserving of 
great praise, as it is a gigantic undertaking. 
Their vessels are all above or about 3000 tons, 
yet the people here are not content, and are 
anxious to have the news faster expecting by 

to shorten the term to 45 days. We 

are by the Electric Telegraph Union, in course 
of erection, connecting the capitals of four 
Australian colonies, and expect by way of 
Singapore to be joined to London before any 
very long course of time. 

I am glad that you like any scraps of news 
or information that I can give you from this 
land, for to tell the truth, I am sometimes 
puzzled to know what I can say sufficiently 
interesting to you in the Old Country, etc. 

We have had most extraordinary wet 
weather for more than the last 12 months, 
and great abundance of everything, not much 
to the benefit of farmers as prices go. Prom 
the great influx of population into the colonies 
during the last three years, and the fact that 
it always takes time, generally at least one 
season before a new arrival can become a pro- 
ducer to any extent, the consequence was high 
prices and large imports. But now wheat i.s 
only about 48/- a quarter instead of from 
£5 to £6, butter 9d. to 1/-, instead of 1/8 to 
2/6 per lb., and other things in proportion. 
Potatoes that 18 months ago were £12 to £20 
per ton were sold at £2. In many places hun- 
dreds of tons were never dug at all. It was 



190 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABEA 



found that after paying for taking them up 
and sending them to market the owner had to 
pay expenses over their receipts. For, strange 
as it may appear, wages have not fallen. Men 
cannot be had under £35 to £50 a year, lodgings 
and rations found them. The high price of 
wool and the continuance of gold digging I 
suppose is the cause. But if we have a large 
influx for the next year wages must fall, but 
I don't think that they will ever fall very 
much. 

Meanwhile increased population increases our 
improvements rapidly in our district. Our 
Steam Navigation Coy. of which I have been 
chairman ever since its commencement has had 
difficulties which crippled us very much. "We 
have absorbed another company and extended 
our capital to £22,000. I have been re-elected 
chairman, and am glad now I did not get into 
our colonial Parliament. 

(Signed.) D. L. Waugh. 

The district has long felt the want of steam 
communication with Sydney, and nine months 
ago we started a company to raise £7000, in 
shares at £5 each. I took 40 shares and each 
of the family have a share or two between 
them. Upwards of £6000 were taken by the in- 
habitants of the district. We had a charter of 
incorporation from the Legislative Council, and 
among the directors I was elected chairman 
which has given me a great deal to do. We sent 
an agent home to bring a steamer out in June 
last, to be called the "Kiama." We expect it 
to return at present rates from 25 to 50 per 
cent, when fairly started. Property has in- 
creased enormously in value. I could fret 
£6000 for this farm at present. We are brousrht 
within six hours of Sydney. Two boys, the 
youngest 7 months old. Robert and Gou'biirn 
have a daughter. James is single in Sydney, 
in a good business. 

David L. Waugh, July, 1853, 
State Account, £475 borrowed. 

Waughope, Jamberoo, 
12th November, 1853. 
To E. Scott Moncreff, Esq., Daltreith, 

Edinburgh. 
My Dear Sir. — I received your letter of the 
28th July, /'53, on the 9th inst., and letter to 
acknowledge the receipt of it and its enclosure 
of £130. I need not again express our united 
thanks for the continued kindness you show in 
taking not only so much trouble but taking into 
consideration what you think would be best 
suited for us. 



There has been a great change in this colony 
since the effect of the gold has become more 
generally felt. In regard to the value of money 
it still leaves a higher rate of interest than in 
Britain. But even here it is found that it is 
getting superabundant. I believe that there 
is at present about three millions of deposits 
in the Sydney banks, and mortgages of the first 
character have gradually fallen from 10 to 
8, 7 and 6 per cent. There are few ways of 
investing money to live on the interest, but for 
one who wishes to employ it himself there are 
still ample ways of investing it most profitably. 
As the money borrowed on the credit of insur- 
ance forms partly the old funds. Both Elia 
and Ann possess allotments in the rising town 
of Kiama^ four miles from here, on which they 
wish to erect some suitable buildings, which 
are very much wanted. But to get anything 
done at present is exceedingly difficult; wages 
are very high ; carpenters get 12/- and 15/- 
a day; plasterers and bricklayers can easily 
earn £1 a day. Two sawyers, father and son 
(Irish) earn between them £6 per week. 

Provisions have risen in the colony. At Jam- 
beroo beef 3d. per lb ; floiar 25/- to 30/- per 100 
lbs. ; tea 1/6 per lb., sugar 4d. per lb. Potatoes 
at present not to be had. They were 12/- 
per cwt. Biitter was 2/6, now 1/6 per lb. The 
chief manufacture in the district is butter. I 
am milking between 30 to 40 cows and making 
about £400 a year which will increase every 
year. 

Melbourne, 16th November, 1859. 

To David Waugh, Esq., 

Watighope, Jamberoo, Sydney. 

My Dear Sir. — I had a letter by this post 
from our mutual friend, Mr. Alex. Bremner, 
in which he says: When in New South Wales 
I was asked by Mr. David Waugh to give plans 
for a harbour at Kiama, the port of the district. 
He of course was led to believe from his worth- 
less neighbours that they were to pay the ex- 
penses along with him. I, at a great deal of 
trouble and expense, made the survey and plans 
for which I ought to have got £280 at the very 
least. When, however, they got the plans they 
would not come forward to pay. Mr. Waugh 
asked me to take his acceptance for £120, which 
I did without any understanding of any sort 
to refund any part of it in instalment. Learn- 
ing from the Rev. Dr. McKay when here that 
the main burden was left on Mr. Waugh 's 
shoulders I wrote to him asking a statement 
and find that he is minus £54 by the tran- 
saction. 



ALEXANDER BROS., Kiama. 



1!)! 








FAIRFIELD OF FMRFIEI.D (No. 2. I.D.C.H.B.). 



FAIRY OF FAIRFIELD (No. Sir. I.D.C.H.B.). 



HUGH DALY, Upton, Alstonville. 




riGKO?J OF Ul'TON (Vol. 1, l.n.C.H.B., No. .123), 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAEBA 



193 



He then says: Taking into account Mr. 
Waugh's very excellent character of a most 
consistent Christian, one who serves our Lord 
in the church, etc., and the worthless of the 
others, will you send him £54., etc. 

Very Truly Yours, 

David Ogilvy. 

Reply by the Governor to an address from 
Kiama residents re breakwater. Date 1855-61. 

Gentlemen— j ^^^i deeply grateful to you 
for your kind expressions of sympathy for me 
under my late bereavement. 

I should, had circumstances permitted, been 
glad to make a longer stay in a part of the 
colony which has been so singularly favoured 
by nature, and I trust upon some future occas- 
ion to be able to devote more time to the 
examination of the many remarkable features 
which characterise the lUawarra district. 

The delay which has taken place in consider- 
ing the plans for the improvement of your 
harbour has not been owing to any want of 
appreciation by the Government of the claims 
of the inhabitants of Kiama to such assistance 
as the Government can afford, but to the diffi- 
culty of determining on the best plan to be 
adopted. 

I trust that in a short time the Government 
will be able to submit to the Legislature an 
estimate for the funds required to complete a 
work which will give full security to the vessels 
employed in a trade which will yearly increase, 
and that the result Avill be increased prosperity 
to Kiama. ^^ Denison. 

Ballater, 
Aberdeenshire, August, 10th, 1859. 

My Dear Sir. — I have just returned from a 
ramble to Balmoral and had a peep at the 
interior of the Highland seat of royalty. It 
is very beautiful and grand, but I do not envy 
them for they are on a slippery place. I beg to 
acknowledge yours of 12th May, Old friend, 
you have omitted to mention Mr. and Mrs. 
James, of Sydney. To David Waugh, Esq., 
Waughope. The appointment of Sir W. Deni- 
son to the governship of these colonies is a 
great calamity as could well befall a country, 
in an engineering point of view. I would wish 
you if you will preserve my plans from the 
hands of the spoilers. It may be that some day 
hence they will tell their own tale. — I am, etc., 

Alex. Bremner. 

Mention is again made of Sir W. Denison 
and his "Star of Bidablea. " You will observe 



that the bay is so circumverted that a few 
blunders arriving out of the first grand one 
will fill it up so as to render it useless. I am. 
in the ship St. George, and from the Clyde, 
1838. 

Aberdeen, February 16th, 1859. 

Mr. Dear Sir. — I was sorry to hear that your 
old minister, Eev. George McKie, had left 
Kiama. He had many good parts about him, 
some difficulty in getting his equal. I saw Rev. 
Dr. McKay very shortly when in Great Britain. 
I heard there is nothing doing towards Kiama 
harbour. Your kind neighbours do not show^ 
themselves able for such improvements other- 
wise they would move better in the right 
direction. Did you succeed in recovering from 
them the £120? My address is c/o Archd. 
Ritchie, agent of the Scottish Equitable Life 
Insurance, 26 Poultry Street, London. — From 
Alex. Bremner. 

The Evans Family. — Evan Robert Evans, 
senr., arrived in lUawarra in the mid thirties of 
last century, and shortly afterwards com- 
menced store keeping. Later he purchased a 
farm which he called Penrosevilla, and began 
horse breeding. He purchased in 1841 the 
foundation of his dairy herd from Mr. William 
Howe, of Glenlee, Campbelltown, and later still 
joined in with Mr. Henry Osborne, of Marshall 
Mount, in the business of trading in cattle. 
Mr. Evans bought the young cattle from the 
settlers, and these would be sent in drafts as 
far as the borders of the Murray River. As 
times moved he moved with them. Carried on 
dairying on a large scale at Penrosevilla, Dapto, 
leased Murramarang, a fine cattle run near 
Ulladulla, to which he sent his own bred heifers. 
He was in touch with a Mr. Carr, of Moruya, 
and they did a lot of cattle dealing in com- 
bination. He was a modest, upright man, and 
a consistent supporter of the old Illawarra A. 
& H. Society. After the death of Mr. Henry 
Osborne, he was interested with Mr. Alex, 
Osborne in Murramarang, on the South Coast. 

He had two sons, Mr. John Evans, of Shell- 
harbour, and later of Ulladulla, and Mr. Evan 
Robert Evans who became heir to the Penrose- 
villa property, and five daughters, Mrs. Wil- 
liam R. Hindmarsh, Mrs. Nesbet, M. Hindmarsh, 
Mrs. Robert Ritchie, Mrs. Joseph Ritchie, and 
Mrs. Frank Badgery. So it will be seen that 
the Evans family formed a wide connection. 
He owned several bulls and tried many different 
blends and crosses. He purchased many young 
bulls including the bull, Billy, which was 
several years after Mr. Evans' death named 



194 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABRA 



"Major" (imp.). Mr. Evans died at Penrose- 
villa in 1863, aged 58 years. His son, Mr. 
Evan R. Evans, took charge of the estate and 
tried as best vi^as in his power to follow in 
his father's footsteps, an honest, honourable 
man, a lump too soft-hearted for the crowd 
that were ever ready to make use of him. 

A considerable amount of thoughtless history 
has been centred on the Evans' family over the 
alleged purchase of an imported bull calf at 
Martyn's bazaar, Sydney. The writer heard 
the Hindmarsh Bros, and others talking freely 
at the sale yards in Kiama and other public 
places about the cause of Evan R. Evans' death 
being grief and -worry owing to his son-in-law, 
Robert Ritchie, getting the better of him over 
the possession of the first batch of the Major 
bull's heifers that were sent away from Dapto 
as poddies to his Murramarang holding, and 
then taken on to Robert Ritchie's property, 
Jellet Jellet, Bega. They were of the primest 
quality. 

As Evan R. Evans, junr. had stated over and 
over again: "It was my late father, not 
I, who bought the bull Major as a calf, in Mar- 
tyn's bazaar, Sydney." No one questioned the 
Hindmarsh Bros.' story. It is, however, a 
good plan to keep on and on investigating dates. 
Strolling through the old burying ground at 
Dapto, the wi'iter noticed a head-stone erected 
to the memory of Evan Robert Evans, senr. 
There in plain letters is to be seen : "Died June, 
1863, aged 58 years." This at once gave the 
impression that if Robert Ritchie became pos- 
sessed of heifers of great dairy quality they 
were by a bull in the Penrose herd prior to 
1863. The Martyn bazaar purchase was even 
then a mere calf scarcely 12 months according 
to Evan R. Evans' junr., statement. 

There are other statements that have been 
taken for granted for years, and then passed 
into the newspapers and books as truths, which 
cannot be accepted as been free from grave 
doubts. Take J. W. Cole's stud bull "Com- 
modore" as an example. 

John James, of Rose Valley, Gerringong, 
under date 17th July, 1907, as follows: "Re the 
bull Major. At or after a Kiama show about 
1873, Mr. W. E. "Williams bought him for his 
father the late Thomas Williams. My father 
had a notion to buy but Bill Williams put hiiji 
off as his father wanted a bull and father had 
Robin Hood in his prime, about 2 or 3 years 
old at the time. Cole's Commodore was sired 
after this. Evans said the Major came home 



and served the McGill cow, while Joe Williams 
says he was milking for Evans where this cow 
was, and that one of the A. A. Co.'s bulls, 
'Solon,' gave service." 

Mr. Evan E. Evans bought in 1872, 2030 acrfes 
of land at Sutton Forest at fifteen shillings per 
acre, and commenced cattle dealing in combina- 
tion with dairying. No pedigrees of cattle 
bred or purchased were kept. Nor were there 
any account of sales, so that it is bare justice 
to say that prior to this date the only pedigree 
any man got with any of Mr. Evans' bulls was, 
"He is by the old bull and out of one of my 
best cows." Since that date Mr. Evans, up to 
the time of his death, could not be certain of 
the breeding of any animal as there were 
always three or more bulls running with the 
cows. If then the dairymen of lUawarra who 
have been at all times considered keen critics 
of dairy cattle characters were often dissatisfied 
with the results obtained from certain bulls, 
no one is to blame but those who sold and 
bought bulli» and cows without written state- 
ments regarding their breeding. Bull breed- 
ing for show purposes, and, ultimately for the 
sale of their progeny, has in the past and at the 
present time, given rise to much ill-feeling 
among dairymen. J. W. Cole's "Commodore" 
was not, generally speaking, admired, yet he 
sired good animals when suitably mated, in- 
eluding William Graham's "Sir Robert." 

It is plain that the Mendelian law has come 
to stay in stock raising. Going back to Evan R. 
Evans' Devon bull, "Red Rover," bred by Rey- 
nolds of Tocal, full of red colour and dairy 
quality. There were dominant characters in 
that bull, and were pa.ssed on to William James' 
bull, "Robin Hood," a very superior bull in- 
deed, a far better bull than his photograph 
pictures him. Say what people may, most of 
the red dairy cattle of Illawarra described by 
their owners as being of the "Scotch Jock" 
strain were of the Robin Hood strain. Take 
another example. A Devon bull, "Nobleman," 
owned by Woodhouse, of Mount Gilead, Camp- 
belltown. That bull was noted for his red 
colour and dairy quality, which gave such good 
results in the herds of Yeo, Lackey and Mor- 
rice in the Moss Vale district. The Woodhouse 
"Nobleman" blood was in Hugh Dudgeon's 
noted bull Noble, although it is not mentioned 
in the pedigree given by the original owner. 

Ayrshire Cattle for Illawarra. — ^According to 
the Illawarra "Mercury" of 1st June, 1883, Mr. 
Evan R. Evans, of Penrosevilla, Dapto, had 



THE HI8T0BY OF ILLAWABRA 



195 



purchased an Ayrshire bull and cow from Mr. 
John Wood, of Sydney, a red and white heifer 
from Victoria ; also a red and white bull and a 
cow with female calf at foot. Mr. John Lind- 
say, of Kembla Park, Unanderra, had on 11th 
May, 1883, stated that he then owned 100 head 
of Ayrshire cattle, and had just sold his Ayr- 
shire bull, Earl of Beaeonsfield, at Kiama Show, 
to Mr. John Grey, of Broughton Creek, and in- 
tended purchasing another Ayrshire bull. The 
Earl Beaeonsfield blood had evidently greatly 
improved Mr. Lindsay's herd. 

The niawarra "Mercury" of July 8th, 1884, 
states: "Excelsior appears to be the motto of 
Messrs. John Lindsay and Evan R. Evans, in 
regard to the transformation of their dairy 
herd- into the Ayrshire breed. The former gen- 
tleman introduced the Ayrshire blood into his 
stock a few years ago, and being satisfied in 
his own mind after a trial that that breed was 
the best adapted for the district under present 
circumstances, he has kept on obtaining and 
producing more and more of that kind of cattle 
ever since. Mr. Evans being determined that 
his herd should not lose its prestige as the 
pl-emier one of Illawarra, also decided upon 
giving the pure Ayrshires a trial, and the re- 
sult, so far, is that he, too, is launching out 
still further in the same direction. Others 
of our dairy farmers in this end of the district 
are also experimenting with Ayrshires, princi- 
pally among such being Messrs. "W. M. Cook 
and Edward Gibson, of Dapto. Both of whom 
maintain that they have Ayrshire animals equal 
if not superior, to the best of either of Mr.Tiind- 
say or Mr. Evans. On Tuesday last, however, 
the last two mentioned gentlemen took another 
step forward in the Ayrshire line by making 
important purchases at an auction sale o;E pure 
stock of that kind of cattle, held at Kiss's yards, 
Sydney. These cattle came from New Zealand. 
Mr. Lindsay secured a bull "Teviot," at 113 
guineas. Mr. Evans purchasing three heifers 
at 39 guineas, 29 guineas and 23 guineas. Note, 
some of the New Zealand Ayrshires of that 
period were ill-bred, and notoriously pedigreed. 

Malcolm Campbell arrived in New South 
Wales early and was connected with the set- 
tlement at Coolangatta as an overseer over con- 
victs. For services rendered he received a 
grant of 500 acres along the eastern boundary 
of Michael Hyam's grant, and bounded on the 
north by the southern boundary of the Terra- 
gong Swamp. He built a brick cottage on 
the northern end and about five chains from the 
swamp boundary, and placed a man named 



Black in charge of it. Malcolm Campbell then 
went to reside in Sydney, and was found 
dead, sitting in a chair of the parlour of 
James Modie Marks' hotel adjoining the Rocks 
area in 1837. Two claims were put in in con- 
nection with his estate, one by James Modie 
Marks for board and lodging, etc., and the 
other by Ewen Campbell as next of kin. The 
transaction works out as follows according 
to the deeds: 250 acres granted to James 
Marks on 28th March, 1843, annjial quit rent 
£2/1/8, commencing 1st January, 1838; 250 
acres granted to Ewen Campbell on 16th De- 
cember, 1844, annual quit rent £2/1/8, com- 
mencing 1st January, 1838. Malcolm Campbell 
had obtained possession of the above-mentioned 
500 acres on 24th April, 1830. Ewen Campbell, 
as heir at law of Malcolm Campbell, sold the 
250 acres to David Lindsay Waugh who lived 
for a time on James Modie Marks' property. 
Captain John G. Collins, of the 13th Dragoon 
Guards, while managing the Woodstock mills, 
lived in a house to the south and east of Black's 
residence and not more than 50 yards' distance 
therefrom. The main road in 1838 separated 
these two houses, leaving Black's house on the 
swamp side. As the years passed on John 
Marks married Mrs. Arthur Little, a very rich 
widow who was a daughter of Wil- 
liam Moffitt, a bookseller and stationer, who 
made lots of money in various ways according 
to the customs of the times. His shop stood in 
Pitt Street, near King Street. James Marks 
also married a daughter of William Moffitt. 
John Marks "built Terragong House, and 
James Marks built Culwalla House. David 
Lindsay Waugh built Waughope House (a 
mud wall storied house wtith shingle roof) 
erected by a man named Carnell. Carnell 
built a lockup in Kiama, and a storied house 
for a superintendent of convicts in Kiama, 
Captain Perrv's home overlooking Smith's 
Bay. 

The clan Campbell were also represented in 
Illawarra. Charles was at Coolangatta, and 
EAven was at Numbaa in the early days as 
overseer of convicts. 

After James Modie Marks sold out the 
Steampacket Hotel, Kiama, to William Gard, 
he resided for a time on side of Jamberoo road 
in the house previously occupied by Captain 
John G. Collins. D. L. Waugh, after coming 
from Victoria where he had an overseering 
job, at what was at that time termed Port 
Phillip, lived near Terragong. 

Many changes since those days. Few indeed 



196 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



ate left of the old school boys who can re- 
member those old roadside homes; how many 
are there on earth to-day who can remember 
"old Duke's garden" that flourished in the 
early forties on the west bank of Jerrara 
Creek, immediately to the south of Terragong 
house? Few still could recall the old military 
man whose once straight frame had become 
stooped. 

Lieutenant William Lampriere Frederick 
Sheaffe, of the 39th Regiment H.M. Foot, ar- 
rived incWollongong to relieve Lieutenant Ott- 
way, who was in charge of the Government 
chain gang, who were making a road from 
Wollongong towards Mount Kiera. Ottway 
resented it, and shot himself next day, April, 
1836. Lieutenant Sheaffe was accompanied 
from Norfolk Island by Sergeant Harris and 
Corporal Smith. Harris received a grant of 
200 acres at West Dapto, and sold 100 acres 
of his grant to Sheaffe. They went in for 
farming and dairying. Sheaffe 's portion was 
in charge of a settler, whom the blacks troubled 
by stealing his maize. He set himself the task 
of dealing with them. He, therefore, secreted 
himself in the maize one night, and cut the 
hand off a blackfellow. The blacks never had 
much love for Scotchmen in lUawarra after 
that "terrible" deed. Lieutenant Sheaffe died 
in 1860, aged 59 years. 

Mr. Robert Haworth spent seven years feed- 
ing pigs and calves for Robert and "William 
Carruth, on one-half of John Wyllie's Dunlop 
Vale Estate, Dapto, Illawarra. He was a shoe- 
maker by trade, and made boots for the settlers 
in his own hours. By the time the Carruth 
Bros, had sold out the property to Mr. Gerard 
Gerard, Robert Haworth was preparing to own a 
tannery in Wollongong. He prospered, and when 
Mr. Gerard Gerard was prepared to sell out 
Mr. Haworth was prepared to buy. He bought 
and called the farm "Kembla Grange." He 
built a fine house and lodge on it which remain 
to his memory. He entered Parliament. He 
was ruined, however, by foolishly going secur- 
ity for the completion of the Wollongong Har- 
bour Works. 

Mr. Abraham Lincoln was an important per- 
sonage at the old Woodstock brewery at Jam- 
beroo, in the early forties. He was a native of 
Suffolk, England, and was a very excellent 
authority on farming. He was practically the 
founder of the Illawarra Agricultural Societies. 
He left Illawarra about 1850, married a widow 
in Melbourne. Had an ofBce in Kirk's bazaar. 



Melbourne. He was found dead seated in his 
office chair; heart failure. He had been on 
the agricultural staff of a London journal. 

Mr. William Timbs and his family arrived in 
Illawarra from England in 1838, and entered 
into the employ of Mr. Henry Osborne, of 
Marshall Mount. They were placed in charge 
of some stud dairy cattle purchased from Mr. 
William Howe, of Glenlee, Campbelltown. They 
remained there for several years. Father and 
son (Gabriel) had sole charge of the imported 
cattle that were on exhibition in the Market 
Square, Wollongong, in 1843, when the first 
attempt was made to found the Illawarra A. 
& H. Society. At that time an A. & H. Society 
had been established at Parramatta. But as 
the Illawarra, as part of the district included 
in the original scheme, could not compete owing 
to its isolation, several progressive settlers de- 
cided to establish an A. & H. Society in 
Wollongong. 

In connection with these references to the 
cattle of Messrs. Henry Osborne, William 
Timbs and his son, Gabriel Timbs. The Timbs 
family were the neighbours and friends of the 
writer throughout a long period of years. 
Hence this information came direct from the 
men who played the chief part in these dairy 
cattle transations. 

William Timbs was born in England and 
arrived in 1838, died at Jamberoo, Illa- 
warra, 1882, aged 91 years. His son Gabriel 
Timbs arrived with his parents in Illawarra 
1838, and father and son found employment 
with the late Henry Osborne, of Marshall 
Mount, and were at once placed in charge of 
the H. 0. stud dairy cattle. The greater por- 
tion of the Marshall Mount H. 0. cattle were 
bred at Glenlee, Campbelltown, by William 
Howe, a noted breeder during the late twenties, 
thirties, and 'early forties of last century. The 
Timbs family were with the late Henry Osborn^ 
when that noted pioneer made an overland 
journey from Dapto, Illawarra. (See notes else- 
where). 

William Timbs and family settled on land 
on the banks of Jerrara Creek, near Kiama, in 
1849, and commenced clearing the dense bush in 
that locality ; 40 acres was sufficient to provide 
all necessary comforts for large families then. 
Gabriel Timbs took vip an adjoining block, and 
commenced dairying in a small way. He pros- 
pered, and when the John Terry Hughes Estate 
was subdivided and sold in 1860, he purchased 
a large holding at the foot of Mount Terry, 
Albion Park. He was a sound judge of dairy 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



197 



cattle, and purchased good bulls at all times. 
(See account of his sale.) He died at Albion 
Park in 1912, aged 79 years. 

Andrew McGill was born in Kintyre, Argyl- 
shire (Scotland). He farmed at Musedale for a 
time. His intention was to migrate to Canada, 
but got involved in a lawsuit — McGill v. Perier 
— which altered his design, but not his resolve 
to leave Scotland. He engaged with an agent 
who represented the estate of John Terry 
Hughes, and came to Sydney with his family 
in the ship St. George. 

In conversation with Mr. Duncan McGill, of 
Kangaroo Creek, North Coast, during 17th and 
18th June 1892, he said: "The foundation bull 
of my father's (Andrew McGill) herd was 
called the "Bally Bull"— A bald-faced, white- 
backed bull bred on the Terry Hughes Estate, 
hence the majority of the McGill herd were of 
that description for some years. The "Gardiner 
bull" was bought from William Curtin, an 
orehardist who lived at the head of the Mac- 
quarie Rivulet. The Blucher bull was a red 
bull with brindle stripes, and was bred and used 
on the Terry Hughes' Estate. The roan Mc- 
Gill cattle were the Davey Johnston strain." 
He added that in his opinion the Davey Cole- 
man cattle were at all times of a very superior 
type and of good quality. With regard to 
cattle sales Mr. McGill said: "My father never 
called a clearing out sale. Sometimes he sent 
stores and culls to Duncan Beatson's yards. 
The prize cow 'Queen' was sold as a store. 
She was not supposed to be in calf when she 
was in calf." 

Going back to the year 1839, Mr. McGill said : 
"The cows on the John Terry Hughes' Estate 
when we arrived there were a mixed lot. The 
dairy cows had been purchased in Sydney from 
the executors in the estate of George Howes, 
who was a relative of Edward Lee. They carried 
the GH and EL brands. Our family arrived at 
the Albion Park Station in 1839. My father 
did not commence dairying on his own account 
until 1846. At the homestead at the time we 
went to live on Hopping Joe's Meadow there 
were three bulls. A long-homed bull of the 
Craven breed, with hooped horns, white face, 
a dorsel streak, and reddish brindle sides. He 
was known as the "Bally bull." A red bull 
with brindle streaks, named "Blucher," and a 
large strawberry Durham had just been leased 
for a season from Henry Osborne. To the best 
of my belief those three bulls laid the founda- 
tion of my father's herd. My father's first 
great cow was called "Betsy"; she was out of 



the same cow and by the same bull as the 
ITH Bally bull, and her calf, a white-faced 
white-backed, long-horned bull, with reddish 
brindle sides, was my father's foundation bull. 
After we left, the Terry Hughes Estate leased 
a white bull from Mr. Ben Marshall, of Dapto. 
My father was accompanied from Scotland by 
a very clever cattleman named John McQuilter, 
who was known on Terry's Meadows, Illawarra, 
as 'Scotch Jock.' It was 'Scotch Jock' who 
supervised the upbringing of the young cattle 
and who had much to do with the matings of 
the sires and dams of my father's cattle. 

Mr. Duncan Beatson commenced dairying on 
portion of Terry's Meadows about the year 
1846 where he established the celebrated DB 
brand. Mr. Dimcan Beatson was a bosom 
friend of John McQuilter. Which of the two 
was the more capable man it is difficult to say, 
but this I believe. Duncan Beatson was the best 
judge of dairy cattle in Illawarra in his time. 
His piirchased cattle were at all times tip top. 
At Duncan Beatson's sale my father purchased 
the cow "Lofty," carrying the DB brand for 
£21; an enormous price in those days. He also 
bought a cow called "Reddie" at £15. These 
cows, in addition to the cow just mentioned 
(Betsy), fotinded the AMC brand. The cow 
Lofty calved a red bull calf which was called 
" Lofty 's Boy." The red and white spotted 
bull was McGill 's show bull of 1860. He was 
purchased from Mr. William Kirton, a gardener, 
who lived up "Calderwood" side. This bull 
was called "The Gardiner's bull." There was 
another bull purchased shortly afterwards from 
Peter Coleman, a neighbour and an exhibitor 
at the Illawarra shows. After my father's 
second marriage we separated, and then lost 
interest in the old herd. With regard to the 
disease termed Pleura, I cannot say from 
memory what animals were taken off at the 
time of the outbreak; but always thought that 
some of the choicest animals kept in a reserved 
paddock died off with it." 

In May, 1916, I journeyed in company with 
Mr. Thomas Armstrong, of Oak Farm, Albion 
Park, to interview Mr. Andrew McGill, of 
Tullumbah, and whilst chatting over the McGill 
cattle, the question of the bull "Scotch Jock" 
cropped up. Mr. Andrew McGill gave it as 
his opinion that "Scotch Jock" died of pleura 
in 1862. There may, however, have been ihore 
than one bull called after old John McQuilter 
as he was the guide, philosopher and friend of 
many of those in search of young bulls from 
the McGill herd. This must be so as I hold in 



198 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



possession no less than four different descrip- 
tions o£ the bull "Scotch Jock" all claiming 
to have obtained such first hand. 

Mr. Alex. Fraser who was a neighbour of the 
McGills states: "The bull Mr. Andrew McGill 
iKas using in his herd in 1852 was a red bull 
with a bald face, iron rings on horn tips. I 
think the next bull was purchased from Peter 
Coleman. In 1860 he had a big spotted red 
and white bull with a yellowish tinge in the 
iair, very large spots. He took some prizes 
with this bull. When INIr. Duncan Beatson sold 
out McGill bought several of the best cows." 
Mr. D. L. Dymock states: "My recollections 
of the McGill cattle take me back to a big white 
faced bull. They had many bailies in riyr time, 
not red colour of the present Hereford, more 
yellow with beautiful spotted faces, good milk- 
ers. I was several times in the McGill herd 
when they went to the Green Mountain to live 
after their father's second marriage. I think 
the McGill' bailies had a lot of Ayrshire blood in 
them from the beautiful fine heads they had 
and fine horns. ' ' 

Evidently a big change took place in Mr. 
Andrew McGill 's herd between the year 1862 
and 1867, at which date he sold out to the 
Messrs. Bartlett and came to live in Kiama. 
Mr. John Bartlett writes: "I do not recollect 
Mr. Andrew McGill having a sale at any time ^ 
my father bought him out, prize cattle included. 
The cows were reds and roans. The bulls were 
roans, said to be of the David Johnston breed. 
My father then bought Captain Hopkins' im- 
I>orted bull, and later a Shorthorn bull from 
Mr. Henry H. Osborne, sire Alexander (imp.). 

The best dairy cattle my father ever owned he 
purchased from Mr. Duncan Beatson. My 
brother, Mr. Wyndham Bartlett, came to lUa- 
warra and spent five years gaining colonial 
experience with Mr. Duncan Beatson on the 
Meadows. At Beatson 's sale my brother pur- 
chased 20 head of cows and heifers at an 
average of £17 per head, an enormous price at 
that time, but he knew the animals and they 
were the best dairy cattle we ever owned." 

With reference to the outbreak of pleura 
among the McGill and Johnston cattle, George 
Keed, who" knew those herds, having been in 
the locality from childhood, and had milked 
cows for Andrew McGill for years, states: 
"There cannot be any doubt about the serious- 
ness of the disease on those farms. Both Mc- 
Gill- and Johnston lost many cattle. Johnston 
-could withstand the loss, McGill could not. 
Consequently McGill never seemed to settle 



down again to cattle breeding." It would 
appear that McGill lost several of his prize ani- 
mals including a valuable two-year-old bull. 
Johnston was burning and burying carcases of 
cattle for weeks. 

Dr. Robert Menzies was born in Edinburgh, 
Scotland, in 1812, and came to reside in Jam- 
beroo, in 1838, on 300 acres of land purchased 
from John Lewis Spencer in 1835, at 5/- pe^ 
acre, where he practised his profession and car- 
ried on dairy farming, until his death in 1860, 
aged 48 years. Dr. Menzies was a useful colon- 
ist, and helped to found the Kiama branch of 
the Agricultural and Horticultural Society, and 
became its first president in 1848. 

Mr. J. S. Lomax came to lUawarra from 
Lancashire, England, about 1839. His son, J. 
E. Lomax, was born at St. Aubin's, London. 
The Lomax family settled on Colonel Britain's 
farm, near the Keelogues. Mr. Lomax, senr., 
brought with him a valuable Shorthorn, a rich 
roan, named "Mars." His foundation stock 
he purchased from the estate of Mr. George 
Rouse, of Parramatta. He also obtained a red 
bull from the herd of Governor Gipps that were 
being depastured on the estate of Messrs. Towns 
and Addison, of Shellhai'bour. He did not re- 
main more than six years in Illawarra as his 
son, J. R. Lomax, was only 9 years old when 
the family removed to Victoria. 

Colonel Britain's farm was situated between 
Unanderra railway station and the hillside on 
the west. At the time Mr. Lomax lived there 
it was rich and fertile. He lost a lot of valua- 
ble cattle during a severe drought, and then 
decided to try his luck in Victoria, where he 
procured an estate and carried on beef cattle 
raising — the Lomax Shorthorns, and his noted 
red cattle regarding which we have no reliable 
facts. They were deep red, medium-sized ani- 
mals displaying good dairy quality. Mr. John 
Brown said they were Devons of a larger size 
than usually seen in Illawarra at that time, 
which gives one the impression that they were 
of the Sussex breed. Unfortunately we have 
no records to show to what breed they really 
belonged. Mr. J. R. Lomax, a son of the above- 
mentioned gentleman settled at Yandilla, 
Darling Downs, some few years ago, and with 
his family carried on beef Shorthorn breeding. 

Charley Ransome, better known as "Charley 
the Cobbler," described as a short, stout, red- 
faced man, who settled in the long ago in 
Illawarra. He for a time carried on farming 
near WoUongong, then took on dairying at 
Stoney Creek, near Jamberoo. Mr. G. K. 



199 



GEORGE LINDSA^^ & SONS, Horsley, Dapto. 




DUCHESS II OF HORSLEY. 




PANSEY II OF HORSLEY. 





POLLY OF HORSLEY (5341.1. 



■\I,\K^- SCOT <IF HORSLEY (5339.) 



TRE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



201 



Waldron sold out his herd in IBS'/ , and Charley 
eame to live in Shoalhaven Street, Kiama. He, 
however, continued to own cattle of various 
breeds, generally very good of their kind. He 
owned one noted bull that was known 
as "Charley the Cobbler's" bull. This bull 
was a black and red brindle throughout with 
the exception of the brush of the tail 
which was white. How Charley got pos- 
session of him no one seems to have bothered. 
But some say he was the descendant of a Polish 
breed of cattle imported by Mr. Richard Jones 
of "Fleurs," near Penrith. He was possessed 
of great quality, and laid the foundation of Mr. 
Thomas Black's herd. Omega, Gerringong. 
When his progeny were mated with a blood- 
red bull purchased by Mr. Black in Sydney, the 
brindle disappeared but the dairy quality was 
sustained. The Cobbler's bull was, according 
to those who saw him in the fifties, a model of 
^eauty as regards form. Charley Ransome 
died suddenly in Kiama in 1859, leaving no 
issue. A man with a history before coming 
to Illawarra, and who made history while he 
lived there. Just where or how he got that 
noted bull is not known. Mr. Richard Jones, 
of Fleurs, imported a bull and three cows in 
the ship "Hope," 8th July, 1824. It was the 
same ship that Mr. John Terry Hughes came 
out to Australia in. Mr. Jones we know once 
owned the Five Islands Estate, Port Kembla. 

David Williamson Irving was born in Edin- 
burgh (Scotland) on January 5th, 1819, and 
was the fifth son of John Irving, W.S. (writer 
to the signet), who was an early per- 
sonal friend of Sir Walter Scott. He 
was, therefore, a nephew of Alexander 
Irving, one of the Supreme Court Judges 
in Edinburgh, and known by the title 
of Lord Newtown. He had an elder 
brother named John, who set sail in the 
"Terror" in 1845 with the ill-fated Franklin 
expedition, and whose body was found and 
identified after being in the snow for 30 years 
by means of a silver medal which was in his 
possession. David Williamson Irving studied 
at St. Andrew's University for the medical 
profession, but came to New South Wales at 
the age of 20 years. He shortly afterwards 
married a daughter of that celebrated dairy 
cattle breeder of Glenlee, Campbelltown, and 
later on purchased a part of John Wyllie's 
Dunlop Vale Estate in Illawarra, and named 
it "Newton," where he resided and carried 
on dairying and bred cattle on the lines of 
his father-in-law, Mr. William Howe, who was 



a visiting magistrate in the Cnmden district 
under the old regime for many years. David 
Williamson Irving was associated with the old 
Illawarra A. & H. Society, and was appointed 
the first president of the Dapto A. & H. Society. 
He was a consistent and honourable exhibitor 
for years in both those society show rings. 
The following note is of interest. "His bull 
'Sportsman,' was a bull of the pure Durham 
and Devon extraction, was the winner of the 
1st prize, and was bred by Mr. Evan Evans, of 
Penrose, Dapto. His other bull 'Glenlee,' was 
bred by Mr. William Howe, of Glenlee, Camp- 
belltown, from a pure Alderney cow." See 
sale report 22nd February, 1859, in Illawarra 
"Mercury." 

Mr. D. W. Irving was appointed police magis- 
trate at Tamworth, where he died IMay, 1892, 
aged 73 years. Mr. Irving 's brother-in-law, 
Mr. Ephrium Howe, also settled in Dapto, Illa- 
warra, where he carried on dairying pursuits, 
but did not- enter into the public life of the 
district. It is plain that for many years Messrs. 
Irving, Evan R. Evans, senr., and other dairy- 
men in Illawarra followed closely the lines of 
breeding and systems of dairying as that fol- 
lowed at Glenlee. 

Dr. Richard Lewis Jenkins was born in 
Monmouthshire (England), and eame to Sydney 
in 1841 as medical officer on board the ship 
"James Moran." He practised his profession 
for a time in the Hunter River district, and 
soon became a station owner on the Peel and 
Namoi Rivers. In 1857 he removed to Sydney, 
and then purchased Nepean Towers Estate, near 
Penrith, and went in for breeding pure pedi- 
greed Shorthorn cattle. He hp,d married on 1st 
January, 1852, Miss Mary Rae Johnston, eldest 
daughter of Major Edward Johnston, of H.M. 
50th Regiment. His career as a cattle breeder 
in Ne'w South Wales is well and favourably 
known to fat cattle breeders. But not so fav- 
ourably known to the Illawarra dairymen. He 
died in Brisbane, Queensland, on 13th August, 
1883. He may have been a relation by mar- 
riage of Mr. Edward H. Weston, of Albion 
Park. They were, however, close friends, and 
Mr. Weston purchased bulls from him. That 
great prize winner at nearly all the Illawarra 
A. & H. Society Shows, John Dudgeon's bull 
"Reddie," had on his dam's side the Nepean 
Towers' blood in his pedigree which easily 
accounts for his lack of power to put udders 
of average quality on his female progeny. 

Captain Charles Waldron, of H.M. 39th Regi- 
ment of Foot, arrived with his wife and family 



202 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



in ]828, and settled in the city for a time. 
In 1832 he purchased Spring Hill, Illawarra, 
consisting of 500 acres, with an "all cedar" 
house erected thereon, for £500, which is an 
indication of the depressed conditions then 
prevailing. He did not, however, live long in 
his new home to enjoy and admire the beauty 
of its surroundings. Towards the close of the 
following year, 1833, he found much trouble 
with his assigned servants. The' result is 
quickly told. Two of his female convicts at- 
tacked and mutilated him in such a manner 
that he died on 28th January, 1834. 

1834.- On January 28th, 1834, Captain Wal- 
dron, of Spring Hill, near Wollongong, was 
nnirdered by two female convicts. They were 
tried before Judge Burton and reprieved. 
Judge Burton after this trial proceeded to 
Norfolk Island, which he described as a hell. 

His widow, Mrs. Jemima Waldron. carried 
on the farm with the assistance of her familj'. 
Several of her descendants are interested in 
portions of Spring Hill at the present time. Of 
Captain Waldron 's family, the only one who 
took a lead in public affairs in Illawarra was 
George King Waldron, who was born in the 
Isle of Jersey in 1827. He joined his brother- 
in-law, Thomas J. Fuller, and they bought out 
John Graham, who had a store on tlie site of 
the Kiama Public School. Puller and Waldron 
afterwards moved into premises where the E.S. 
& A. Bank stands. George L. Fuller, who had 
kept a post office in Gerringong and a com- 
mission agencj' business in Sydney, came on 
the scene and bought out his brother and 



brother-in-law, and began by combining a wine 
and spirit business with general storekeeping. 
He succeeded, owing to the influence of his 
brother and brother-in-law. Information came 
easy, as T. J. Fuller became the first manager 
of the City Bank, at the corner of Terralong 
and Manning streets, and G. K. Waldron be- 
came a prominent auctioneer in the Kiama dis- 
trict. 

George King Waldron as an auctioneer was 
a man of many parts. He was a sportsman, 
and owned and raced good horses, including 
"The Maid of Erin" and "Lady Benson." He 
was for years in close business friendship with 
Andrew McGill, James Robb, Duncan Beatron, 
and J. M. Antill, whose strains of dairy cattle 
he admired. His presence as a salesman was 
of the finest style. He was outspoken, and 
at all times advocated the introduction of the 
Devon and Aj^rshire blood with the Short- 
horns. He sold many young Ayrshire bulls at 
his Kiama yards. It was he who induced 
James Mclntyre, of Gerringong, to give £50 
for J. M. Antill's champion Ayrshire bull, 
"Dunlop." At James Mclntyre 's sale Henry 
Frederick purchased a blood red cow in calf 
to "Dunlop." That calf became the property 
of Simon Dudgeon. From that bull came "Sir 
Henry," the sire, of "Admiral." "Admiral" 
in Graham Bros.' herd produced dairy cattle. 

Waldron helped many struggling farmers in 
Illawarra and on the Richmond River. He 
died in the midst of work, suddenly, in 1888, 
at the age of 61 years. His bad debts at the 
time of his death were upwards of £3000. 



:llWWF^ • .yp I 






i>'^ 






C. W. CRAIG'S TEST COWS. 
Winners of National Test Prize, £20, In 1896, 
HeaiJing- Iruni left to right — PRINCESS, EMPRESS, VIOLET. REIiliIE, DANIiY. laojlti, milk in 12 liours- 
'4.D1 per rent, averag-e butter fat per cow. See page 354 



203 



GEO. DUNCAN, Brisbane Grove, Dapto, Illawarra. 





NOBLE LAD OF BRISBANE GROVE. 



BECKY OF BRISBANE GROVE. 





BLOSSOM OF BRISBANE GROS'E. 



STAR OF BRISBANE GROVE. 



BOXSELL BROS., Myrtle Bank, Berry. 




I'IGEON OF MYRTLE BAN|. 



CHARMER'S WARBOMi OF JMRTLE BANK. 



20r, 



MENDELISM. 



Mendelism has no doubt given the key to 
open the door to a certain extent, and has 
therefore enabled several of our noted scient- 
ists to explain away many difficulties in 
cattle breeding^. Until Mendel's discovery, 
which might be summed up in one word "s'^g- 
regation." In the segregation of factors Men- 
del saw that in order to obtain clear results 
it was absolutely necessary to start with pure 
breeding homogeneous material, and consider 
each character separately, and on no account 
to confuse the different generations. Then he 
realised that the progeny of distinct individuals 
must be separately recorded. All these ideas 
were entirely new in his day. The fact of 
segregation v/as the essential discovery which 
Mendel made, such segregation is normal phe- 
aomena of nature, according to the erudite Pro- 
fessor Bateson, and the Professor then came 
to the plain conclusions, "purity of type has 
thus acquired a precise meaning," inasmuch 
as it is dependent on genetic segregation, and 
has nothing to do with a prolonged course of 
selection, natural or artificial. He further- 
more states: — -"The red roan in shorthorn 
cattle is what is called heterogene in character 
caused by the meeting of the factors of red 
and white. The blue roan is often met with 
in the cross of the black Aberdeen Angus and 
the white shorthorn cattle. Many examples 
■Eould be enumerated. Nothing of a definite na- 
ture was suggested to breeders by the scientific 
world that would enable them to solve the 
breeding problems, until Mendel's theory was 
properly explained. Every breeder was on the 
lookout for a wonder bull that M^ould be cap- 
able of mating successfully with every cow in 
the herd. Such wonder animals do come oc- 
casionally. Nothing of a very definite nature 
was suggested to breeders that would enable 
them to work out. 

How could any man then settle down to the 
idea that such continuous red colouring matter 
as found in Boyd's herd could be conveyed 
from sire to son for forty years, unless the 
foundation bulls were full of good red blood? 
We have ample proof of the importance of 
whole colours in blood horse breeding, where 
we find that the chestnut colour will alwavs 
breed true to chestnut. Moreover, the fact is, 



I think becoming every year more widely re- 
cognised that to breed full red cattle great 
care must be exercised in selecting sires true 
to pedigree. The uniformity of the laws of 
Nature is of such a character as under few 
circumstances to cause breeders to marvel over 
the simplicity of breeding stock true to colour. 
To argue then that Boyd's blood red cattle 
were the product of spotted red and white, or 
roan bulls is to set up a fetish, and, then call 
upon one's neighbours to worship a fantasy, 
or a tiresome idol, or one who may happen 
to be a romancer. 

By the laws of uniformity of Nature we un- 
derstand that the phenomena of Nature follow 
a regular sequence, and is therefore commonly 
defined as a uniform mode of acting which a 
natural agent observes when under the same 
circumstances. The Universe, as daily exper- 
ience bears witness, is not a chaos of objects 
unrelated one to another, but is organised in a 
series of types. Bach individual belonging to 
any one of these possessive properties similar to 
those of all other examples of that type. In 
the same circumstances they all act in the same 
way. So too, in regard to objects imbued with 
life, whether vegetable or animal. Trees of 
the same species will always produce fruit of 
the same sort, and wood of similar texture. 
So will red cattle produce red cattle. These 
uniformities are called 'Laws of Nature.' The 
Law of Continuity is also a valuable truth. 
But both must be argued with caution, as the 
only qualities which we can prove to be uni- 
form to all matter are the Laws of Motion and 
Gravity. 

Every theory of cattle breeding is based 
upon, and must take into accounf, two prime 
factors: Heredity and Variation. To put the 
thing into simple language, it must be obvious, 
even to the most unobservant, that the off- 
spring of any couple, whilst more or less 
resembling that couple, also more or less depart 
from their standard. Tn other words, they 
inherit a general resemblance, but they have 
varied slightly, so that they do not present 
absolute faesimilies of their parents; but this 
is taking a very narrow view of the matter. 
The real wonder of heredity, which has ceased 
to be a wonder because it is universal, is the 



206 



THE HISTORY 0!F ILLAWABKA 



fact that species breed true. That there are 
small differences, which may be either absol- 
utely or relatively small, is the result of the 
secoud factor, that of variation. 

There are only two ways in which a biologist 
can deal with these problems, he can try to 
explain them, or he can assume them, and 
pass to the laws of both or either of them, so 
far as such can be observed. Let us consider. 
Heredity, of which it may at once be said, that 
whilst we know a good deal about its opera- 
tions, we know little or nothing about its mech- 
anism. We may turn to the other question, 
that of Variation, and we are confronted with 
a similar difficulty. No one doubts that the 
thing is there ; but can we in any way account 
for it? Another tangled tale. 

When we mention such names as Darwin, 
Galton, Mendel, and Bateson, in connection 
with the science of breeding domestic animals 
it must be kept in mind that the views of those 
great investigators are by no means universally 
accepted, and that in the course of time further 
facts may come into notice which may utterly 
upset their varied hypotheses. Sir Bertram 
C. A. Windle has stated: — "Scientific opinion 
on any particular point is apt to waver from 
view to view, as new acts swim into one's ken; 
it swings from one side to another like a pen- 
dulum, and is sometimes found, after a long 
interval of time, to have returned to a position 
which it might have been supposed had been 
abandoned for ever." That such must neces- 
sarily be the case will not require much demon- 
stration to an astute cattle-breeder who has ex- 
perienced similar difficulties to that experienced 
by Mr. Boyd — conscious of the fact that a 
change of type was absolutely necessary, yet 
unable to decide as to which would be the bet- 
ter of several suggested ways of bringing it 
about. 

That segregation is an important factor in 
cattle may, or may not be successfully demon- 
strated as our knowledge of heredity is de- 
fective. The term segregation is commonly 
used to denote the splitting out of the parental 
characters amongst the offspring of hybrids, 
but in dairy cattle it means bringing in an out- 
cross, and then getting back on to the original 
strain with a view of increasing the size and 
vigor of the herd without sacrificing the colour 
to any serious extent. 

The methods of a breeder are tAvo. They are, 
as a matter of fact, nearly always used in con- 
junction, and not separately; but they are 
nevertheless essentially distinct. They are 



selections and crossing. Pure selection, 
operating on material which is not the imme- 
diate result of a cross, modifies the form of an 
animal, and leaves it different from what it 
was when the selection began; something has 
to be added or taken away; something created 
or destroyed. The primary object of crossing 
is to combine within one strain two desirable 
qualities existing in distinct strains. Selection, 
however, may create something new, or bring 
forth character which had long been hidden 
and long separated. 

The breeder who gets rid of his first crosses 
because they did not display the character he 
was working for would be acting foolishly. 
First crosses are, however, not always bred, 
because they may possess new characteristics, 
yet, they often possess greater vigour when 
the parents crossed. If say, a red bull is mat- 
ed with white cows, the progeny will be termed 
hybrids if they display red and white, and roan 
colours. It is then a point with the breeder 
as to whether it would be better to continue 
using a red bull on white cows, or a white bull 
on red cows, in preference to mated, the red 
and white animals or the roan animals separ- 
ately, with a view of raising a spotted red and 
white herd, or a roan herd, according to his 
fancy. In theory, if a breeder were to pur- 
chase a pure bred red Sussex or a Norfolk bull 
and a dozen white shorthorn heifers, some of 
the progeny, in the course of a few years, would 
be red, others white, others roan, and others 
of the cross would be red and white spotted. 
Then, in the selection of the future stud sires 
and dams it might be wise to use the full eol^ 
oured animals. 

As Derbyshire states: — "The student of her- 
edity aims at finding out how the characters 
of animals are handed on from generation to 
generation. The breeder is not concerned with 
the interpretation of what he achieves ; he does 
not care how the character of his stock is 
handed on from generation to generation, so 
long as the change which he effects tends in the 
direction of an improvement." The student of 
heredity, thus, is seldom interested in imme- 
diate profits. But there cannot be any doubt 
that both the practical breeder and the student 
of heredity would profit much by exchanging 
ideas constantly. There is a wide field for inves- 
tigation. Hybrids are as sterile as they ever 
were. New specimens have failed to materialise. 
Artificial variations are still puzzling breeders 
who have not yet grasped the idea of Mendel- 
ism — dairy cattle as we understand them, un- 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAWAEEA 



207 



less fixed by the crossing of Mendel's domin- 
ants with dominants or regressives with re- 
gressives, (of which Darwin knew nothing) 
still tend to revert to original conditions. 

That many of these newer ideas have had 
their origin in older ones, is shown by Dr. 
Thomas Dwight, where he states: — "Trust- 
worthy of serious consideration is the theory 
of changes, by sudden leaps, advocated by 
Mivart and the Duke of Argyll, and in old 
times by St. Hilairs. It has since become 
known as the mutation theory of De Vries. 
According to Osborne, a very competent critic, 
De Vries has demonstrated the law of saltation, 
and, that saltation is a constant phenomenon 
in Nature, a vera causa of evolution. Professor 
Bateson shows that it harmonizes with Mendel 's 
conception of heredity, and it may be regarded 
as par excellence the contribution of the experi- 
mental method." "It is to this theory," says 
Dr. Dwight, "that I myself incline very 
strongly, always with certain reservations and 
limitations." Further, he implies, "That the 
saltation theory implies vitalism, or the exist- 
ence of something in the organiser which di- 
rects its growth under normal and unusual cir- 
cumstances, allowing it to adapt itself to 
changed conditions." 

Be all this as it may, head and shoulders 
above most workers in the science of evolution 
stood "Abbot Mendel," who, trusting not to 
theory, but to experiment, discovered a law, 
which has stood the test, concerning the work- 
ing of variation through inheritance. 

The one great, outstanding difficulty con- 
fronting all experimenters who may attempt to 
Mendelise our domestic animals is the lack of a 
sufficiency of really pure bred animals. All, 
or nearly all our domesticated animals are the 
blends of several breeds or sub-varieties, which 
give no end of trouble, under the most favour- 
able circumstances to their masters to get them 
to breed true to type. The conditions become 
more and more complicated when an array of 
fancy points have to be worked into any given 
breed, namely: — type, size, colour, constitution- 
al vigor, and quality. 

The trouble with the majority of our stock 
breeders is, they are a little of almost every- 
thing, and not much of anything for very long. 
Certainly not long enough to prove any of the 
many rules demanded in stock raising. 

Mendelism. — The question. What is Mendel- 
ism? has been asked through the press of the 
world during the last twentv years, and al- 
though the answers come with equal prompti- 



tude, but iew seem to be able to grasp its great 
importance to breeders. All we can do is to 
give the old stereotyped answer, namely, "Men- 
delism is the name of the discovery of Abbot 
Mendel, a peasant boy who turned monk, and 
died in Brunn in 1882. This priest-scientist 
carried out a series of experiments with the 
common pea, crossing varieties, with astonish- 
ing results." Mendel's work has been taken 
up by several enthusiasts during the last 
twenty years. Professor Bijffen began experi- 
menting with wheat to find a variety of wheat 
which would be rust-resisting. Then the whole 
wheat question in its relation to milling and 
yielding properties came into the limelight, and 
experiments on a large scale have been con- 
ducted everywhere. 

As soon as a wheat which produced a fine, 
stiff, upstanding straw and a high quality of 
yield of grain was established, experiments 
were tried on the animals of the farm. When 
the writer read of these results, it fiashed with 
irresistible force on his mind that it was pos- 
sible to produce better types of cattle than 
hitherto in Illawarra. Professor Biffen had to 
cross good wheat liable to rust with poor wheat 
not liable. He succeeded in his wheat breeding 
experiments. Why, then, if all flesh is grass, 
could not the Illawarra dairymen produce good 
results by judiciously crossing breeds of cattle? 
The practice of crossing was not new in Illa- 
warra, but it was always carried out by blind 
chance, and was in consequence constantly fall- 
ing into disrepute. It had, however, been con- 
tinued in long enough in so many quarters that 
the theory of long-dated pedigrees had been 
shaken to its foundations, and the continual 
clamouring of some dairymen for the introduc- 
tion of new blood did not improve matters. 
Nature and nurture work hand in hand when 
understood and practised. As with wheat so 
with cattle. It is a matter of a much longer 
time with cattle owing to the slowness of the 
maturing of cattle. Time is money, and money 
is everything with the great majority of our 
dairymen. Hence the difficulty of keeping a 
sufficient number of them together to form a 
strong one-idea cattle association. If the theory 
is not first sensitised on the brain, it is too 
much to expect much earnestness in the pursuit 
of the objective. 

Types of dairy cattle vary, and no doubt this 
variation has been noticed by dairy cattle fan- 
ciers who have followed up the A. and H. So- 
ciety shows held in the diflferent dairying 
centres of N.S.W. and Queensland during the 



208 



THE HISTORY OF ILL AW ABBA 



last thirty or forty years. It may have oc- 
curred to many how different in certain charac- 
teristics certain of these types are. 

Needless to say all have been moulded' by 
Nature for a purpose. Henee it is that good 
cattle judges in one locality fail to satisfy the 
views of judges a few hundred, or even fifty, 
miles away. "Use is second nature," and, 
therefore, when a dairyman gets a type fixed 
on his mind's eye he is constantly looking for 
that type. This is a mistake when the judge 
follows it up in another locality where the true 
dairy type is different, however small or great 
that difference may be. There is a very old 
saying, "Handsome is as handsome does," and 
it applies with considerable force in dairy 
cattle breeding ; unfortunately too often ! 

This brings us face to face with each other 
in regard to defining a general type for all 
dairymen to follow. At once I should say such 
a thing is impossible. What, then, is the way 
out? It is this — each district should decide for 
itself, and then each breeder should try and 
prove or disprove the correctness of that type 
to his own entire satisfaction. 

The difficulty in arriving at conclusions is 
begotten of lack of concentrating one's brain 
power sufficiently long on any given type to be 
able to draw a clear, honest opinion therefrom. 
With some breeders it is impossible to reason, 
as whatever type they may have in stock for 
the time being is the best. Such men have 
really no fixed ideas. They can tell you the 
cows that are giving them the most milk, but 
that is about all they can tell you. When it 
comes to a matter of breeding good cows true 
to a given type or colour they fail. 

If our dairy cattle breeders were more sin- 
cere, and less inclined to find fault with their 
neighbours' cattle, we would get nearer a cor- 
rect solution of the best types to follow in our 
several localities than we are doing in a much 
quicker time. It is now forty years since the 
first conference was held in Kiama, embracing 
as it did delegates from Bega to Bulli on the 
coast, and was extended to the tableland. Its 
deliberations were good apparently, but evi- 
dently lacked sincerity. 

Size, it has been said, though we might sus- 
pect such remark may have emanated from 
those who owned large cattle, is everything in 
a dairy cow. It is difficult to arrive at a defi- 
nite settlement of this question, as many me- 
dium-sized cows have been long and consistent 
producers of rich milk. Many experiments 
have been entered upon to prove which is the 



more profitable cow, the large, or the medium, 
or the small sized, without definite results. 

It is generally recognised that the soil on 
which dairy cattle are raised has all to do with 
the size of a breed, as where the bone-making 
constituents are present in large quantities in 
a soil the animals raised there are sure to be 
larger, and that the progeny of these large 
animals will deteriorate in size when removed 
to a less congenial soil as regards bone-making 
proclivities. 

Without stopping _,to gainsay an opinion so 
manifestly apociyphal, I will content myself 
with the observation that to my certain know- 
ledge all big cows are not good dairy cows, nor 
are all medium or small sized cows bad dairy 
cows. Trees and plants are supposed to stretch 
themselves upwards in quest of air and light, 
but the upward growths of cows and bulls can- 
not be said to be free from objections, and 
spring from a different origin. 

We have ample proof that deficiency in ap- 
pearance is by no means a proper object of re- 
proach in either bulls or cows, for a plain frame 
may contain remarkable vitality, and angular 
bodies often contain great producing powers. 
The unfortunate thing about this is that when 
a breeder brings one of these typed bulls into 
a show ring, its mean appearance is at once the 
object of scorn and derision, and becomes the 
target for the shafts of ridicule. 

It has been over and over again wished that 
a scale of excellence could be made to accom- 
pany degrees of quality, and that the higher the 
quality rose the higher should be the scale of 
excellence. Experience has. however, taught 
us many lessons in this respect, one of which 
is very patent, namely, we can adjust points to 
suit for general appearance, but when show ex- 
cellence is placed in a dairy quality balance the 
appearance theorj' is found wanting in a large 
majority of cases. It was these thoughts now 
expressed that caused the writer to found the 
I.D.C. Association in 1910. 

There are many cases that could be recorded 
where bulls on which no value was placed while 
they were in the Illawarra district as bulls, yet 
their progeny in every respect far excelled the 
prized ones, but space does not permit to record 
them here. There are also many cases that 
could be mentioned of bulls whose pedigrees 
have never been satisfactorily explained, ow- 
ing to the fact that a host of breeders either 
claimed to have bred one or more such animals, 
but who had notwithstanding never produced 
anything so good themselves. 



JAMES R. KNAPP. Swanlea, Belong, Shoalhaven. 



209 





JOCK OF SWANLEA. 



GWE.N OF SWANLEA. 
'.No. 1 I -it;, LD.C.ILB.) 





VKLN'ET -itll OF SWA.NLEA. 



BLOS^dM iiKl OF SWANLEA. 
(No. I 13;i, LD.C.FLB.) 




FLOSSIE OF SWANLEA. 

Test for ful] .vcar: — IO.C.tII His. .Milk: i.S per fciiL niiller 

Fat; .^OS.i'.K ll)s. liiittiT Fat. 



JESSIE illl (.IF SWANLEA (No. Il-iS, I. P.O. II. B. 



TRE HISTORY OF ILL AW ABBA 



211 



The stories of dairy cattle breeding are only 
interesting when they are true. There are also 
many vexed questions that should always de- 
mand truth, such as Reversion or Atavism, 
which is the reappearance of ancestral . traits 
which have been absent or latent in the race 
for one or more generations. Next in order we 
have telegony, or the influence of the first sire 
with a female, or the sire of another breed, 
maternjii impressions. Before one is carried 
away with these theories, it would be wise be- 
fore giving way to such arguments to carefully 
study the natural photograph to see what in- 
fluence the sun or moon's rays have regarding 
the color of animals, as nearly all the evidence 
brought forward as proofs of acquired 
characters is capable of being interpreted in 
another way. Many characters in plant and 
animal life depend on the presence of deter- 
mining factors behaving as units. 

Now, supposing that these determining fac- 
tors have been persevered in for years — gene- 
rations, in fact — ^by the art of breeding, what 
would happen if that art was relaxed? We 
will submit a case in point: On a stretch of 
tableland in Queensland, situated between the 
Bulloo Downs station, on the BuUoo River, and 
the Nocatunga station, on the Wilson River, 
which may be termed at the time no-man's land, 
as it was considered to be useless country for 
grazing purposes. Both the stations were short- 
horn cattle stations. No other breeds were 
ever introduced, and pure sires were being con- 
stantly supplied. It is said that "instinct -pre- 
vails where science fails." Be that as it may, 
a number of cows in charge of a biill or two 
found their way to the tableland from Bulloo 
Downs station, and established themselves 
there. They bred freely, evidently on the lines 
of consanguinity, regardless, perhaps, of con- 
sequences ; certain they were free from the law 
of the patriarchal devices of father Abraham. 
This society of friends occupied the tableland 
for about twenty years. When discovered 
there was approximately an equal number of 
males and females of variegated colors. The 
earlier generations had died off, and the re- 
maining family were of brown, brindle, and 
yellowish-red colors, with long, coarse horns. 
Now, if you were asked what breed did they 
belong to, all that could be said is that they 
were of no particular breed, but representatives 
of the several units from which the shorthorn 
breed had been made up! When, however, we 
come to the question, supposing all the males 
were taken away and pure shorthorn bulls 



used, how long would it take to bring the pro- 
geny back to their sires' status? This is a 
question scarcely worth arguing, as it would be 
better to kill off the whole lot, and start with 
fewer and purer stock. Mention has been 
made of "Charley the Cobbler's" red and black 
brindle bull, and "Andrew McGill's" red bull 
with the brindle stripes. In the case of the 
complete brindle that colour disappeared and 
never reappeared in his descendants. On the 
other hand Blueher's descendants according as 
they were mated displayed the brindle stripes. 
Yet, in both instances the dairy qualities, and 
general appearances have been sustained. 

It will be seen from the foregoing facts that 
if the atoms that go to build up an animal 
had the power of choice it would be impossible 
to be certain of one's breeding experiments, 
and breeding could not be successfully carried 
on, as it is a game, not of chance, but one 
of playing with stacked cards. He is a smart 
man who can predict the future of his herd 
20 years hence. For be it known, "heredity 
is a vexed problem." No animal can inherit 
the whole of its ancestors, nor, need it be 
wholly dominated by traits descending to it 
from any one of them. It will have its own 
individual attributes to nullify these, and its 
own environment to influence what shall not 
be. Calculate the fragments scattered here and 
there through the pedigree of Mr. George 
Grey's bull Togo. These fragments would re- 
mind one of a house b^nlt of various kinds of 
bricks — a mosaic, so to speak. Perhaps, purity 
of types as regards Togo acquired a precise 
meaning, and had nothing to do with a long 
prolonged course of selection, natural or arti- 
ficial. His great characteristic depended on 
the result of the meeting of two gametes 
bearing similar factors. When they met, the 
product, Togo, was a distinct animal, with its 
own characteristics. 

It would therefore seem that every egg is 
a law unto itself, and has the power of reach- 
ing an individual end according to its environ- 
ment. Few have not formed an opinion as to 
whether or not new features do appear — as 
they certainly, to our untrained minds, do seem 
to appear. But according to the authorities 
who havie ^studied Mendelism, they* are not 
really new qualities in any proper sense of the 
word. They are qualities which have all the 
time been there, but have been prevented from 
coming to the front. Yet. if these theories are 
pushed too far it will be found that what an- 



212 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAIiliA 



peai-s to be a gain was really a loss, for uutil 
the retaining qualities have been removed the 
hidden qualities could not appear. Added 
characters are never permanent, on the other 
hand mutations are lost characters, and can be 
comprehended. Example, polled cattle. 

Facts and theories require proofs, and at 
times proofs are elusive things. It has ever 
been the tendency of man to measure himself 
.by the expanse of the universe, yet the cell 
from which he sprung may be defined as the 
smallest particle of organic matter capable of 
life. 

Perhaps, when the Mendel law, as it. is now 
termed, comes to be better understood by prac- 
tical breeders, it will be found applicable to 
all kinds of animal characters. Nature and 
nurture working from within and without. 



Hence it is that all cattle breeders, in truth 
all animal breeders, have to exercise care when 
selecting a sire, and equally as much care with 
regard to their systems of feeding. In 1913 
Sir Oliver Lodge spoke strongly of "a critical 
examination of scientific foundation, and of a 
growing mistrust in purely intellectual pro- 
cesses." Professor Bateson, in 1914, speaking 
from the stand-point of a biologist, said: — "The 
age is one of rapid progress and profouflld scep- 
ticism in scientific thought,'" and added, "we 
must confess also to a deep, but irksome humil- 
ity in the presence of great vital problems." 
Alexander Pope hath said: "The bliss of man 
could pride that blessing find, Is not to act 
or think beyond mankind ; no power of body 
or of soul to share, But what his nature and 
his state can bear." 



213 



EARLY SHOWS IN ILLAWARRA. 



l-HE FIRST AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY OF 
NEW SOUTH WALES. 

The first Agricultural Society of New South 
Wales was established in 1821. The following 
gentlemen were the first dtily appointed office- 
bearers : — President, Sir John Jamieson ; Vice- 
Presidents, Kev. Samuel Marsden, Dr. Townson, 
LL.D., and William Cox, Esq.; Secretaries, 
Messrs. E. T. Palmer and Alexander Berry; 
Treasurers, Messrs. Alexander Riley and Wil- 
liam Walker. 

The prospectus of the Agricultural Society 
of New South Wales for 1821-2, set out to give 
the merino fleece to 300,000 sheep; to improve 
400 horses, and breed them for exportation; 
and to give the Hereford and Devon carcase 
or the Suffolk udder to 100,000 head of cattle. 
This was considered no mean undertaking, for 
the Colony then had only been 35 years under 
British rule. The original Society became de- 
funct in 1833. The old committee had 118 sub- 
scribers; 31 of those came from Newcastle. A 
stock fund was formed, of which £1000 was 
sent to England, and absorbed in the purchase 
of merino ewes £500, £200 on horned cattle, 
and £300 in horses from the general fund. 
Captain King, E..N., expended a sum of money 
in the purchase of grass and corn seeds, to- 
gether with a collection of agricultural literary 
works. The first show was held at Parramatta 
on the first Thursday in October, 1822, when 
£100 was distributed — prizes for the best sheep, 
lambs, horned cattle, and stallions. Prizes were 
also given for the best shepherds and farm ser- 
vants. Jonas Bradley won a silver tankard 
for exhibiting 1 cwt. of negro-head tobacco, 
grown by himself at Windsor. Premiums were 
offered by the Society of Arts, manufactures, 
and export, to persons who could manufacture 
and export no less than 10 gallons of oil dur- 
ing the years 1824-5-6, and to persons who dur- 
ing the years 1824-5 should export the best 
wine, not less than 20 gallons, the produce of 
their land. In 1821 726 bales, or 181,500 lbs., 
of wool was exported, also a small quantity of 
lambs' wool, from New South Wales. 

The annual subscription was five guineas each 
member, and a subscription fund of £25 each 
was started, with a view of introducing from 



the mother country more important breeds of 
horses, cattle and sheep. This was owing to 
the better types of stock in the Colony not be- 
ing considered equal to the demand. The num- 
ber of breeders were few, and most of those 
who bred the better class of stock bred for 
their own use. The following is a list of the 
subscribers in 1823 to the Stock Importation 
Fund: — Major Goulburn and Sir John Jamie- 
son, £100 each; Messrs. Alexander Berry, Ed- 
ward Wollstonecraft, and William Walker, £50 
each ; Messrs. James Atkinson, John Blaxland, 
Richard Brooks, John T. Campbell, James 
Chandler, William Gox, sen., William Cox, jun., 
Robert Crawford, Prosper de Mestre, John 
Dixon, William Howe, Captain King, R.N., 
William Dawson, Robert Lowe, Hannibal Haw- 
kins Macarthur, .Thomas McVitie, Rev. Samuel 
Marsden, William H. Moore, James Norton, 
John Oxley, John Palmer, John Piper, Edward 
Riley, Charles Throsby, Robert Townson, 
Thomas Walker, De Arcy Wentworth, and 
Major West, £25 each. Allan Cunningham was 
corresponding secretary. 

The Agricultural Society of New South 
Wales. — The premiums awarded were present- 
ed at Walker's Inn, Parramatta, on 17th Octo- 
ber, 1824, consisting of plate value equal to 
40 Spanish dollars each to Edward Riley and 
William Howe for five best 2-toothed Australian 
merino ewes ; to Rev. Samuel Marsden for best 
colonial bred bull; to George Cox for best 
colonial bred heifer; a piece of plate valued at 
30 Spanish dollars to John Buekland for best 
team of bullocks; to William Howe for best 
colonial made cheese; a piece of plate valued 
at 10 Spanish dollars to John Thomas Camp- 
bell for best colonial bred stallion; a piece of 
plate valued at 40 Spanish dollars to John Pye 
for best colonial bred boar; a piece of plate 
valued at 10 dollars to John Pye for best 
colonial bred sow. 

Taking advantage of this show of stock, Mr. 
Robert Cooper, the distiller, offered for sale 
eight capital English-bred cows (milkers) off 
the first dairy farm in the Colony, and one 
thoroughbred English bull. Note. — Had the 
name of the farm been mentioned in the above 
advertisement it would have been possible for 
us to describe the breeding to which the above 



214 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



animals belonged. The sale took place at Par- 
ramatta on 28tli October, 1824. 

Early Show in Parramatta, 13th October, 
J.825. — Neither cattle, sheep, nor horses were 
present as exhibits. A few horses were brought 
there for sale. Mr. John Macarthur sold two 
at 50 guineas, the other at 40 guineas. We 
read of medals being awarded to Messrs. John 
T. Campbell, H. H. Macarthur, and John Peis- 
ley, and of Mr. Lethbridge having a fine ram 
on exhibition on one occasion, but no prize was 
awarded, as it was the only exhibit in its class. 
Mr. Bayly had a bull on exhibition the same 
day. It was the only exhibit in its class, bur 
as the judges declared it to be "much aboye 
mediocrity" the owner pressed his claims and 
a prize was awarded. 

Very little has come down to us from the 
ruins of the first agricultural shows that were 
held in Australia — mere items. For example: 
' ' In October, 1833, after the exhibition at Parra- 
matta, for sale, two pure-bred Durham bulls." 

THE HISTORY OF AGRICULTURAL 

SOCIETIES IN ILLAWARRA, 

N.S.W. 

When a writer takes upon himself a duty 
such as this — to wit, the publication of a book 
of historical importance — it may be inferred 
that he is going to give the world, in readable 
form, his own personal experiences. Pew 
writers, however, confine themselves to their 
own personal experiences; as a rule they are 
men possessed of a keen perception, always 
observant, good conversationalists, and deep 
readers. Where many writers err is when they 
listen to clap-trap on subjects about which they 
have had no personal experience, and thereby 
taking for granted stories that have little or 
no historical foundation. Such is the free and 
easy way of writing. But what is its real 
value? Just what it pans out in the washing, 
namely, a few grains of gold, out of tons of 
waste material, or non-facts. 

Too much ink has been wasted by writers 
on matters relating to soil, climate and environ- 
ment, and their influence on animal life, with- 
out a thought as to whether the owners of the 
animals ever used, or knew how to use, those 
natural advantages for the purposes of demon- 
stration. What is here being alluded to is 
the often foolish way in which incapable press 
representatives — self-chosen of course — make 
fatal havoc with these subjects through not 
being able to study the true history of animal 
life on the farms. Too much theory has been 
set down in cold type about the origin of our 



cattle, and far too much has been taken for 
granted. No one in the past set himself the 
task of collecting facts.' 

Fortunately the writer went through the old 
records, and is now in a position to give them 
to the public for the benefit of the present and 
future generations of Illawarraians. There is 
nothing to be gained by referring to Homer nor 
to Virgil to learn that the animals of the farm 
were domesticated and raised to a high stan- 
dard of excellence not only at the dawn of the 
Christian era, but for centuries before the dawn 
of our era. It suffices for the present purpose 
to go back about a century and a half ago, 
when the only inhabitants of Australia belong- 
ed to the stone-hatchet age, and to the landing 
of "The First Fleet." No horses, no cattle, 
no sheep, no goats nor pigs were then on Aus- 
tralian soil. 

What do our Australian histories tell us 
about that period? See early chapter of this 
volume. 

THE ILLAWARRA A. & H. SOCIETY. 

As will be seen elsewhere, the beginnings of 
this Society are traditional, owing to the ab- 
sence of a local newspaper or a recognised press 
correspondent. The story of its founding is 
none the less true, as the writer's father, who 
landed in Wollongong on the 17th of March, 
1841 (in company with quite a number of other 
immigrants from the North of Ireland), and 
went direct into the employ of the late Mr. 
Henry Osborne at Marshall Mount, lUawarra, 
was at that first exhibition in the Market 
Square, Wollongong, in 1843. It was purely an 
exhibition of the cattle imported into lUawarra 
by the Osborne family, which comprised three 
brothers — Dr. John Osborne, R.N., Dr. Alex- 
ander Osborne, R.N., and Mr. Henry Osborne, 
of Marshall Mount. 

The object of this Osborne exhibition was 
what should be the prevailing principle of all 
our A. & H. Societies, namely, an honorary dis- 
play, with a view of bettering the district, the 
reward, if any, to come from the sale of the 
animals, plants, fruits, and vegetables thus ex- 
hibited. 

There were at least two such exhibitions of 
stock in the Market Square, Wollongong,- be- 
fore the Agricultural and Horticultural Society 
of Illawarra was founded, which can honestly 
be placed o^ record as being the first and oldest 
of its kind in Australia. This statement is 
borne out by the minute books of the Illawarra 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society, and 
run as follows: "On the 15th Aprils 1844, a 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



215 



meeting of the landed proprietors and others 
took place in the new school house, 
■WoUongong, to take into consideration 
whether it would not be advisable and 
•advantageous for the general interests of 
the district to establish an Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society. The proposition was 
favourably received, and it was unanimously 
agreed that such a Society should be forthwith 
formed, the subscription being limited to one 
shilling per month, in order that all classes 
might be enabled to subscribe." 

In June, 1843, the Cumberland, Cook, and 
Camden counties combined to form a Society 
on, the lines of the English county shows, and 
began its operations by holding a ploughing 
match at Parramatta on 6th June, 1843. This 
was the beginning of Agricultural Societies as 
we understand them to-day. Prior to this date 
shows were practically wealthy pastoralists 
concerns, in which the small landowners and 
settlers generally had no interests — in truth, 
they were not considered, as small settlers had 
little or no standing then in New South Wales. 

Owing to its isolation, lUawarra was out of 
the running in this Society. There were no 
macadamised roads to any given centre. Bong 
Bong was then the chief town in the County 
of Camden, and Hoddles' track along the crest 
of Saddleback the only way to it in a direct 
line. The Dapto people did not feel disposed 
to come so far south, and set to work to reach 
Bong Bong in their own way, with a view, of 
course, of forwarding their own personal in- 
terests. Nature Avas, however, against the ad- 
vocates of either track, and as the years rolled 
by the old cattle tracks used in the early days 
by Colonel George Johnston and John Ritchie's 
stockmen became the recognised roads. 

The Wollongong-Dapto-Berrima road was for 
some years known as Jack Waite's track; thcii 
the Bong Bong road up to 1843. In 1842 Dr. 
George Underwood Alley, a clever man, with a 
taste for writing combined with progressive 
ideas, conceived the idea of forming a road 
capable of bringing trade to the seaboard at 
WoUongong. He was joined in his efforts by 
Mr. George Brown, of Dapto. Dr. Alley's letter 
to the "S.M. Herald" of 27th January, 1843, 
stands as a memorial to his effort. He and Mr. 
Brown could not see eye to eye, so Dr. Alley 
removed to Hyam's Flats, Jamberoo, and then 
Mr. George Brown induced the Government to 
send a batch of convicts from Sydney, 30 in 
number, to form a dray track from Dapto across 
Molly Morgan's Swamp to Berrima. 



When the late Mr. Henry Osborne and others 
caught the idea of shows for the benefit of them- 
selves and the small settlers they set to work 
in a practical way to benefit their own district, 
and allowed the people in all the other locali- 
ties to look after their own affairs in like 
fashion. 

On 15th April, 1844, in a public school build- 
ing, at that time unoccupied, in Crown Street, 
WoUongong, and, after discussion, was adjourn- 
ed to the 21st April, 1844, on which date a 
Society was formed, to be called the lUawarra 
Agricultural Society. E. F. Wood was elected 
first President, and R. M. Westmacott was the 
first hon. secretary. The following gentlemen 
were members of the first committee : Gerard 
Gerard, J.P., Charles Throsby Smith, Captain 
William Lampriere, Frederick Sheaffe, Michael 
Hindmarsh, Edward Palmer, James Mackay 
Grey, J.P., James Shoobert, J. R. Comins, Dr. 
Robert Menzies, J.P., Robert Miller, Thomas 
Way, Dr. Alexander Osborne, J.P., Henry Os- 
borne, J.P., George Brown, James Robb, Cap- 
tain Samuel Addison, William Warren Jenkins, 
Captain Plunkett, and Dr. Charles 'Brien. The 
first show was held in the verandah and house 
next to the present Telegraph Office on Thurs- 
day, 27th January, 1845. The exhibits were 
good, but the room spaces being too small much 
inconvenience was felt. The first ploughing 
match was held at Dapto in Mr. George Brown's 
paddock, on the bank of Mullet Creek. 

There was a time, not many years ago, when 
the residents of the Shoalhaven Valley con- 
sidered that they at no time formed part of 
the great Illawarra district. The Shoalhaven 
Valley having had its beginnings at Coolan- 
gatta very likely led many to form that con- 
elusion. However, there is now sufficient evi- 
dence to show that it then, and is now, a 
part of one great centre of production. 

The part played by those who were asso- 
ciated with Captain Hart's great enterprise at 
Woodstock, Jamberoo, is not generally known. 
It was this: — 

Abraham Lincoln came to the Woodstock 
Mills, Jamberoo, in about 1840, from Suffolk; 
England, where he had been traine'd in agri- 
cultural pursuits in his youth. He was a writer 
and contributor on agricultural subjects before 
coming to Australia. Contemporary with Lin- 
coln at the Woodstock Mills was James W. 
Waugh, who had been prior to coming to Aus- 
tralia a publisher in Edinburgh, Scotland. He 
afterwards founded and published Waugh 's 
Almanac in New South Wales. Those two nien 



216 



THE mSTOB^ OF ILLAWAKRA 



were the real founders of the old Illawarra 
A. & H. Society. They understood the busi- 
ness, and furnished for the guidance of those 
who followed them the propaganda on which 
every society of the kind has been worked out. 
The staff of Captain Hart's Woodstock Mills 
and brewery were men of great worth to Aus- 
tralia. They were in the forefront of matters 
relating to agricultural progress. Hop-growing, 
fruit-growing, as well as root crops and cereals 
.of every kind, were carefully experimented 
with at the old Woodstock-Jamberoo establish- 
ment. One might with every confidence say 
that the Kent Brewery, established there in 
1835 with the capital supplied by Captain 
Thomas Frederick Hart, was the forerunner of 
Tooth's Kent Brewery in Sydney, as John 
Tooth was associated with Hart's Brewery in 
its later stages. 

As mentioned elsewhere, the last mortal re- 
mains of Captain Hart are lying in a neglected 
grave at Unanderra, Illawarra. Yet few, if 
any, of our old Australian pioneers were more 
worthy of a public monument. 

The people who nestled ' around Captain 
Hart's great enterprise came from the chief 
centres of Great Britain and Ireland, bringing 
with them the newest ideas of the old lands. 
True, an Agricultural Society had been formed 
in New South "Wales as early as 1822, but it 
had not the same ideals as the Illawarra Society 
had. This is plain when we know 
that the former was under the domination of 
the city merchants and large landed proprie- 
tors, whilst the latter has been controlled and 
supported through all the years of its existence 
by the dairy farmers and small agricul- 
turists. 

The following gentlenien were proposed to 
conduct the general arrangements of the So- 
ciety, viz. : Chairman, Henry (Tsborne, Esq., 
J.P. ; Committee, Gerard Gerard, Esq., J.P., 
Messrs. Edward F. Wood, Michael Hindmarsh, 
Thomas Way, Edward Palmer, Charles Throsby 
Smith, James Shoobert, James Mackay Grey, 
Dr. Eobert Menzies, Captain E. M. Westmacott, 
Robert Miller, Dr. Alexander Osborne, George 
Wood, GeOrge Brown, Thomas Atchison, James 
Kobb, Captain Samuel Addison, and William 
Warren Jenkins ; Secretary and Treasurer, Mr. 
William Taylor, C.P.S. 

.At the next meeting of the Committee Mr. 
Henry Osborne resigned his position as Chair- 
man of the Society, and Edward F. Wood, Esq., 
was appointed Chairman; and Mr. William 
Taylor resigned the position of Secretary and 



Treasurer, and Captain R. M. Westmacott (who 
had been A.D.C. to Governor Sir Richard 
Bourke) was appointed, and the names of Cap- 
tain Francis Plunkett and Charles James Tin- 
dall were added to the Committee. 

At meeting held on May 7th, 1844, the fol- 
lowing gentlemen were appointed to arrange 
a list of prizes : — Edward F. Wood, Esq., 
chairman. Dr. Alexander Osborne, William 
Warren Jenkins, Captain R. M. Westmacott, 
Henry Osborne, Captain Samuel Addison, W. 
Crawford, and Edward Palmer. Another 
meeting was subsequently held at the Wol- 
longong Hotel, and rules were drawn up and 
adopted for the first ploughing match, and the 
following was the list of prizes for live stock : — 
Horse section: Best two-year-old colt £2/10/-, 
best two-year-old filly £1/10/-, best entire horse 
in exhibition (naming the purpose for which 
bred) £2/10/-. Cattle section: Best two-year- 
old bull £2/10/-, best two-year-old heifer 
£2/10/-, best calf (two months old) £1/10/-. 
Swine : Best boar under 12 months old £1, best 
sow under 12 months old £1, best fat pig 10/-, 
best sow and litter 10/-. Then followed a list 
of prizes for grain and dairy products^ fruits, 
vegetables and flowers, for which liberal prizes 
were offered. 

At meeting held July 7th, 1844, the date of 
the show was fixed for the third Thursday in 
January, 1845. The system of voting adopted 
was suitable to capitalists. In the voting Clear- 
ing Lease exhibitors and such as occupied small 
farms of not more than 20 acres were allowed 
but one vote. 

The prizes for ploughmen and drivers:— 
Bullock teams, six bullocks, 1st prize £1/10/-, 
2nd prize 10/- ; fat bullock team with four bul- 
locks, 10/-; driver of six bullocks, 1st prize 
7/6, 2nd prize 2/6 ; driver of four bullocks, 4/-. 
The judges were Messrs. Henry Osborne, W. 
W. Jenkins, and Jas. M. Grey in all the agri- 
cultural classes; Mr. H. Heathorne, Dr. Alex- 
ander Osborne, and Captain William L. F. 
Seaffe were iia charge of the awards in the hor- 
ticultural classes. Judges for the ploughing 
matches were Dr. Alex. Osborne and Messrs. 
Way and Hindmarsh, who also acted as judges 
of stock. 

At a meeting of the Society held on 10th De- 
cember, 1844, Dr. Robert Menzies spoke on be- 
half of the subscribers from Captain's Hart's 
mills and brewery, Woodstock, to the effect that 
Mr. Heathorne requested that £3 out of the 
£25 collected there be devoted to a first prize 
for barley, and that Mr. Lincoln requested that 



THE HI STORY OF ILL AW AURA 



217 



his donation of £2 should be added to the prizes 
for ploughing. A sub-committee, consisting of 
Gerard Gerard, Edward Palmer, Captain E. M. 
Westmacott, and James Shoobert, were appoint- 
ed to make all arrangements about the show 
and ploughing matches. Messrs. Black and 
McKay were appointed judges in place of Dr. 
Alex. Osborne, W. W. Jenkins, and James M. 
Grey in the ploughing matches. The report of 
show dated February 10th, 1845, missing. 

A general meeting was held in WoUongong 
on March 11th, 1845, when the accounts for 
1844 were laid before the committee. The 
meeting then proceeded to elect a chairman, 
secretary and treasurer for the year 1845. E. 
P. Wood, Esq., was again elected Chairman, 
and Captain Robert March "Westmacott was 
elected Secretary and Treasurer; Committee, 
E. F. Wood, Henry Osborne, Michael Hind- 
marsh, William W. Jenkins, Gerard Gerard, 
Edward Palmer, Dr. Jerrett, Dr. Alex. Osborne, 
James Shoobert, Edwin Gerard, Thomas Black, 
Captain R. M. Westmacott (five to form a 
quorum). The annual meetings were fixed for 
the 11th March in each year. The following 
notices were dealt with, viz.: (1) To make the 
floral show at such season as flowers can be 
obtained; (2) to allow small farmers whose 
lands do not exceed 20 acres to pay sixpence 
per month; (3) no person be allowed to exhibit 
unless a subscriber; (4) entrance money to be 
une shilling for first and second horses; (5) 
no person to touch any article exhibited; (6) 
day and place to be both mentioned for both 
che show and ploughing matches; (7) to con- 
sider prizes for 1845. These propositions had 
been duly submitted, and, 14 rules in all, had 
been adopted on that date, which were the 
foundation rules of every A. & H. Society and 
Ploughing Match Committee since established 
in Australia. 

During April, 1845, Mr. E. F. Wood resigned 
from the Society owing to his departure for 
England. It was then suggested to appoint 
Captain Westmacott, but on a motion by Dr. 
O'Brien and Captain Sheaffe, Mr. Gerard Ger- 
ard was appointed Chairman. The appoint- 
ment of Mr. Gerard Gerard was warmly sup- 
ported by Captain Samuel Addison, who had 
become a strong supporter of the Society. 

The following members were appointed at a 
meeting held January 6th, 1846, to arrange 
matters in connection with the show to be held 
on 28th January, 1846, also for ploughing 
matches on 27th January, 1846 : — Dr. Alex. Os- 
borne, C. T. Smith, James Shoobert, Edward 



Palmer, J. T. Lomax, Gerard Gerard, and Cap- 
tain Westmacott It was also agreed that a 
dinner should take place on the 28th January, 
1846, and that the tickets were not to exceed 
5/- each, to which the judges should be in- 
vited. 

A sub-committee, consisting of Messrs. W. A. 
•Crawford, J. T. Lomax, Thomas Palmer, J. 
McDonald, and Captain Westmacott, were ap- 
pointed to arrange the dinner; prizes to be 
awarded after dinner. 

A general meeting was held on February 
15th, 1846, and accounts were submitted. Mr. 
Gerard Gerard was elected Chairman, and 
Captain Westmacott Secretary and Treasurer. 
A committee was appointed, consisting of 
Gerard Gerard, Dr. Alex. Osborne, Edward Pal- 
mer, Captain W. Sheaffe, James Shoobert, Dr. 
Robert Menzies, W. A. Crawford, Captain Ad- 
dison, W. W. Jenkins, Captain Westmacott, Dr. 
J. Jerrett, H. Heathorne, C. T. Smith. Next 
meeting was held in WoUongong on 26th March, 
1846, when the Chairman, Mr. Gerard Gerard, 
and the Secretary, Captain Westmacott, re- 
signed their respective offices, thus leaving the 
Society without officers. Then we find the fol- 
lowing notice in the "Sydney Morning Herald" 
of that date: "To Edward Palmer, Esq. We 
the undersigned members of the Agricultural 
Societies of Illawarra request that you will act 
as Secretary for the time being to the Society, 
also that you will communicate with Captain 
Westmacott, the late Secretary, and obtain from 
him such documents, or books, as belong to the 
Society, and that you will report upon them at 
your earliest convenience. (Signed) Alex. 
Osborne, C. T. Smith, Henry Heathorne, George 
Brown, Andrew Thompson, Edward Elliott, 
John Osborne, Robert Haworth, Bernard 
McCauley, Edmond Bourke, Edward Corrigan, 
John Gilligan, Thomas W. Palmer, Gerard Ger- 
ard, Thomas Jessett, and James Commins. 
Dated WoUongong, 9th April, 1846." A meet- 
ing was called for 19th May, but it was post- 
poned until the 21st of same month, when Mr. 
Charles Throsby Smith was voted to the chair. 
After the books had been duly examined, Mr. 
C. T. Smith was appointed Chairman of the 
Society, and Edward Palmer Secretary for the 
remainder of the year 1846 ; Committee, Messrs. 
Guion, John Osborne, William Ahearn. It was 
then decided to erect a shed in the Market 
Square, WoUongong, in which to house the ex- 
hibits. Drs. O'Brien and John Osborne carried 
a motion of thanks to Captain Robert March 
Westmacott. The following memorial was also 



218 



THE HliSTOKY OF ILL AW AUK J 



drawn up for presentation to the Governor for 
leave to erect a shed in Market Square: — "To 
the Governor, — I beg leave to inform you that 
the members of the Agricultural Society of II- 
lawarra propose to erect a shed in the Market 
Square of WoUongong for general purposes, 
but particularly for the use of the Society, to 
enable them to hold their half-yearly meetings, 
and to have their annual show there. (Signed) 
Edward Palmer, Secretary. 4th June, 184tj." 
' ' Sir, — In reply, I am directed to state that His 
Excellency regrets that he has no authority to 
grant the required permission, as to do so would 
be virtually to give the ground on which tho 
shed is to be erected. (Signed) E. Deas Thomp- 
son." On July 1st, 1846, at a meeting held in 
the store of the I.S.N. Company at the wharf, 
WoUongong, it was decided to postpone the 
idea of building in the Market Square, WoUon- 
gong. Then followed the revision of the prize 
list, as between fifty and sixty pounds sterling 
were forthcoming for prizes. On motion by 
Captain Addison and Captain William Sheaffe 
it was decided to allot prize-money as follows: 
Horse stock £7, horned cattle £8/10/-, grain 
£12, swine £4/15/-, poultry £2, butter £2/10/-, 
cheese £1/15/-, honey 10/-, wax 10/-, wine £1, 
mead 10/- ; horticulture, fruit £5, vegetables £2, 
flowers £1; ploughing matches, £8; total, £57. 

At a meeting held on 29th September, 1846, 
it was decided to hold a meeting 14 days before 
the show; the ploughing match to come off in 
Mr. George Brown's paddock at Dapto. Mr. 
Gerard handed in a memo, to the Secretary 
to the effect that he wished his donation of 
two pounds to be given as prizes to farm ser- 
vants who have been taught in the services of 
their masters, and known to be of sober and 
industrious habits (£1), and to best cheese (£1). 
Mr. George Brown stated that he would give 
£1 as a donation, to be divided among the plough 
drivers. On motion by Dr. Alex. Osborne and 
Captain W. Sheaffe a dinner was to be arranged 
for at the Marine Hotel, tickets not to exceed 
10/-; the dinner to comprise such gentlemen as 
are willing to express their appreciation of the 
comfort and advantages of the establishment 
of a good hotel in WoUongong, and the advan 
tage to the community at large from the in- 
creased inducement for strangers visiting the 
district. The following committee was appoint- 
ed to receive names for the dinner : — Dr. Alex. 
Osborne, Captain Addison, C. T. Smith, Edward 
Palmer, Dr. John Osborne, Captain Richard 
Hopkins, Henry Heathorne, and Captain West- 
macott, when all the members, numbering 21, 



gave in their names. Captain Westmacott pro- 
posed to present the Society with two paintings, 
to be hung up in the room of the Society, it 
was considered a very handsome gift, and 
would be cherished as a memento of the first 
Secretary of the Society. The stewards for 
show dinner were Dr, O'Brien, Captain Addi- 
son, Captain Westmacott, Dr., Jessett, Edward 
Palmer, C. T. Smith, and WiUiam Taylor. Din- 
ner to take place at 3 o'clock. Cattle judges 
and horse judges were to be selected from 
Messrs. Eaken, Creagh, Gerard, Guion, Field, 
Westmacott, M. ITindmarsh, Curry, Beatson. 
Judges for ploughing matches, Messrs. Turking- 
ton, Dr. Jessett, and Andrew Thompson. Eo 
medal for first prize cow, it was agreed that 
the owner of the first prize cow should be at 
liberty to take either the medal or £1/10/- 
(the prize-money), and that the same should 
apply to the winner of the second cow prize. 
The show was held on 28th January, 1847, and, 
according to report, was marred by rain — it 
was very wet — and in many classes, namely, 
wheat, barley, tobacco, hops, poultry, wine, 
and mead, were poorly represented; many of 
the fruits were not ripe. Prizes,_however, were 
awarded for articles that were decidedly good, 
or where the competition was considered 
worthy of the name. The prize-list was read 
out as follows: — Best carting stallion (£1/10/-), 
George Brown; best thoroughbred stallion 
(£1/10/-), Captain Westmacott; best carting 
mare (£1/10/-), George Brown; best thorough- 
bred mare (£1/10/-), Henry Osborne; best bull, 
any age (£1/10/), Henry Osborne; best two- 
year-old bull (£1/10/-), Evan Evans; best cow 
(medal), Henry Osborne; second best (£1/10/-), 
Henry Osborne; best heifer (£1/10/-), Evan 
Evans; best bullock (£1/10/-), George Brown; 
best mangel wurzel Dr. Jessett; best potatoes, 
Alex. Mackenzie; best hops. Dr. Jessett; best 
boar. Dr. Alex. Osborne; best sow, Dr. Alex. 
Osbbrne ; best fat pig, Thomas Black ; best sow 
and pigs, Gerard Gerard ; best fowls, Dr. Jes- 
sett ; best butter, Thomas Black ; second best, 
J. R. Lomax. 

Ploughing matches : 1st prize, Stephen Lynch 
(bullocks) ; 2nd prize, Hudson; 3rd prize, Jacob 
Bucket; 4th prize, Mossop. The judge con- 
sidered that the second prize for horse team 
should be awarded to the four-bullock team 
owned by Dr. R. Menzies. There was also a 
long lilt of awards in horticultural and floral 
exhibits. The show dinner was held in Rus- 
sell's Marine Hotel; owing to the rain only 40 
persons sat down for dinner. 



219 



ROY O'GORMAN, "The Gift," Albion Park, Illawarra. 





FAVOIRITE OV THE l.ilFT. 



BLOSSOM or THE CilFT. 





MODEL OF THE GIFT. 



nEAl'l"!' OF THE GIFT. 





SHAMROCk' II OF THE GIFT. 



liAlin .\l AMI 01' THE GIFT. 



THE tllHTORY OF ILLAWAKRA 



221 



A meeting of the Society was held on 1st 
March, 1847, at the Marine Hotel, at which 
Mr. Charles Throsby Smith was elected Chair- 
man, and Edward Palmer Secretary, on motion 
by Captain Sheaffe and Dr. Alex. Osborne. It 
was decided, on motion of Dr. Alex. Osborne 
and Henry Heathorne, that the next ploughing 
matches would be held near the Woodstock 
Mills, Jamberoo, in season 1847-48. This evi- 
dently disturbed Mr. George Brown, of Dapto. 
who moved at next meeting that the ploughing 
match shall take place on 2nd January, and 
another show on the 21st of January, 1845, and 
that in case the show shall take place at my 
inn I will offer every facility in the shape of 
show-room and stalls, without cost to the So- 
ciety. This motion was also seconded by Mr. 
Henry Heathorne and carried. It was moved 
by Captain W. Sheaffe and seconded by Edward 
Palmer, that Mr. Henry Osborne be requested 
to act on the Committee. The Committee con- 
sisted of Messrs. Gerard Gerard, Dr. Alex, Os- 
borne, Captain Sheaffe, Dr. Robert Menzies, Dr. 
Thomas Jessett, Henry Osborne, and George 
Brown. All members who paid one pound were 
then entitled to sit on the Committee of the 
lUawarra A. & H. Society. Note. — At this 
period of the old Society the people of the 
Kiama district put in their claim for a show, 
as it was understood that the shows were for 
Illawarra, and Illawarra extended to the shores 
of Jervis Bay. The members of the Society 
were gathered in from almost every part of 
Illawarra; hence each centre had its claims 
on the Society. WoUongong had had the shows ; 
Dapto the ploughing matches. 

At a meeting held at George Brown's Illa- 
warra Hotel, Dapto, on 2nd August, 1847— Mr. 
C. T. Smith in the chair — it was decided to 
approach Mr. Owen with reference to selection 
of a suitable paddock at Jamberoo in which 
to hold a ploughing match. At this meeting 
it was moved by Mr. Henry Osborne, seconded 
by Dr. Thomas Jessett, that medals instead of 
prizes be awarded by the Society in the fol- 
lowing sections: — ^Best stallion, best mare, best 
bull, best cow, best butter, and the design of 
medals be obtained. Prize-list: Horse stock 
£3, cattle £7/15/-, grain £7/15/-, swine £3, fowls 
£2, butter £4/10/-, honey £2/10/-. Judges in 
horticultural section, Messrs Brewer, Goodall, 
Creagh ; in butter, Mr. Micklejohn ; in horses, 
Messrs. Jones and Stewart (they were also to 
act as cattle judges). In the ploughing 
matches the judges were Mr. John Berry and 
Mr. Thomas Hall, of Shoalhaven. Mr. Mickle- 



john sent a donation of £2, to be awarded for 
butter, as a special prize. Messrs. J. R. Lomax, 
Thomas Hall, and Williams were regulated ex- 
tra judging duties. 

Meeting held 18th January, 1848, to receive 
report on ploughing matches that took place in 
John Ritchie's paddock, adjacent to the Wood- 
stock Mills, Jamberoo, when James Hukins, 
sen., George Woods, sen., and William Wright 
were appointed judges. The following teams 
were on the ground: — William Keevers, Edwin 
Vidler, John Bradney, Captain Addison's man, 
Dr. Robert Menzies' man, and James Swan. 
The judges awarded the prizes as follows: — 
1st prize (£2/10/-), won by Dr. Menzies' man; 
2nd prize (£1/10/-), Captain Addison's man; 
3rd prize (£1), won by Edwin Vidler; 4th prize 
(10/-), won by William Keevers; 5th prize, 
(5/-), won by John Bradney; 6th prize (5/-), 
won by James Swan. 

Show held on 21st January, 1848, at Dapto. 
This was the fourth show of the Society, Mr. 
George Brown having made preparations in 
his mill for the agricultural and horticultural 
products, and the mill gi-ound was set apart 
for horses and cattle. Pour judges were ap- 
pointed for inside exhibits and four judges 
for outside exhibits. Best stallion (silver 
medal), awarded to Michael Fitzgerald; best 
bull, any age (silver medal), Gerard Gerard; 
best two-year-old bull (£1), Henry Osborne; 
best cow (silver medal), Henry Osborne; second 
best cow (£1), Evan Evans; third best cow 
(15/-), Dr. Thos. Jessett; best heifer (£1), 
David Johnston; best fat beast (£1), David 
Johnstone; best boar (silver medal). Captain 
Hopkins; best sow (silver medal). Dr. Jessett; 
sow and pigs. Black; best fowls. Dr. Jessett; 
best ducks, George Brown; best butter 
(£2/10/- and silver medal), Mr. J. R. Lomax; 
second prize, James Shoobert; best cheese, 
Gerard Gerard; best wine, Guion. Cost of 
medals, £10 ; prizes for ploughing, £6. 

At next Committee meeting Mr. Charles 
Throsby Smith was re-elected Chairman, and 
Mr. Edward Palmer was re-elected Secretary. 
On motion by Mr. Gerard Gerard and Dr. Men- 
zies, it was decided to hold the fifth show in 
WoUongong. Mr. C. T. Smith offered 20 acres 
of land for show purposes on the banks of the 
Macquarie rivulet. It was then moved by Cap- 
tain Sheaffe and Dr. O'Brien that a sub-com- 
mittee, consisting of the Chairman and Secre- 
tary, Messrs. P. R. Cole, James Shoobert, Creagh 
and Gerard, to report at next meeting. 



•i-:>-j 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAHEA 



The foregoing offei' of land was made on 
behalf of Captain Samuel Addison. 

The question of altering and amending the 
rules of the Society was being considered, and 
a suggestion to offer cups instead of medals 
was being considered. The prize-list for the 
fifth show was as follows : — Horses £5, cattle 
£10, grain £10, swine £4, poultry £2, butter £4, 
honey £5, fruit £5, vegetables £3, flowers £2, 
ploughing £7, bacon £1, leather £1/10/-; total, 
£57/10/-. 

The sub-committee appointed to alter and 
amend the rules of the Society brought forth 
18 alterations and amendments on December 
28th, 1848, and the next show meeting was 
fixed for 22nd January, 1849. It was also 
decided that the next ploughing match should 
take place on Mr. James Shoobert's land at the 
Cross Roads, near Wollongong. 

The Show Committee met on 22nd January, 
1849, to appoint judges and stewards, and it 
was decided to hold the show in the Market 
Square, Wollongong, and to use Mr. Palmer's 
store for inside exhibits. The stewards ap- 
pointed were Dr. Alex. Osborne, Henry Os- 
borne, Dr. Thomas Jessett, C. T. Smith, and 
T. S. Palmer; the dinner to consist of cold 
meats, hot vegetables, plum pudding, ale in 
abundance, two bottles of wine between two 
persons; price 7/-. Mr. Andrew Elliott, an 
opposition hotelkeeper, offered to do it for 5/ 
and got the job. It was decided to appoint 
]\Iessrs. John Marks and David Johnston ; 
judges. 

Meeting held 2nd July, 1849. Mr. C. T. 
Smith and Mr. Edward Palmer were again re- 
elected Chairman and Secretary, when it was 
decided to hold the next show at Dapto, and 
that the ploughing match should be held on the 
12th and the show on the 14th February, 1850, 
and Dr. Jessett, Messrs. Newnham, Fred R. 
Cole, and George Brown were appointed a sub- 
committee of management. Subscriptions to 
be paid before 1st January, 1850. 

Meeting held at Brown's Illawarra Hotel on 
6th February, 1850. Mr. Henry Osborne in the 
chair. A serious drought prevailed, and it was 
decided to postpone the ploughing match. The 
show dinner was to be at Brown's hotel at 
4 o'clock p.m. Stewards, Dr. Alex. Osborne, 
Captain Sheaffe, Dr. Jessett ,and Mr. Gerard 
Gerard. Judges to be invited to dine, and ad- 
vertisements to be sent to the "S.M. Herald" 
Rnd "The People's Advocate." 

It was plain that the Dapto influence had 
created trouble in the Committee of the Illa- 



warra A. & H. Society. It was evidently re- 
sented by the officers of the Society, as no 
report of this show is to be found in the books 
of the Society. These feuds — or storms in tea- 
cups — must have been very bitter, as leaves 
have been torn out, so to say, from the pages 
of our history. If there was anything wrong 
it is just as well they are missing; on the other 
hand, if it was merely spite, it is regrettable. 

Meetings were resumed on 28th October, 

1850, at Wollongong. The first was called by 
the Warden to ascertain whether it was desir- 
able that the Society should be continued. It 
was held at Mr. Tom Evans' Inn, when Dr. 
Alex. Osborne, the Warden, was called to the 
chair. It was at that meeting decided to carry 
on the Society, on motion by Dr. George Under- 
wood Alley and Mr. Gordon. Mr. C. T. Smith 
was elected President, and, on motion by 
Messrs. Gerard Gerard and Thomas Atcheson, 
Mr. Edward Palmer was re-appointed Secre- 
tary, with the following gentlemen as Com- 
mittee: Messrs. Charles Fairs, George W. 
Brown, James Wilshire, Thomas Atcheson, Evan 
Evans, Gordon, Robert Haworth, Bernard 
McCauley, and Dr. G. U. Alley. Mr. Henry 
Osborne proposed to call tenders from publi- 
cans who were members of the Society for the 
show dinner, and that the best offer be accept- 
ed. Messrs. William Taylor, James Shoobert, 
Guion, Lea, Meares, Evan Evans, and Dr. Alex. 
Osborne to act as stewards. 

Messrs. C. T. Smith and Edward Palmer 
were once more Chairman and Secretary of the 
Society. Mr. Andrew Elliott carried a motion 
to have cattle show and ploughing match held 
on same day. At a meeting held at the 
Farmers' Inn, Wollongong, on 1st September, 

1851, it was decided to hold a show on the 
4th February, 1851, in Wollongong, and a 
ploughing match at Dapto on the Friday before 
the show. 

Meeting held at Mr. Tom Evans' Farmers' 
Inn, Wollongong. Mr. C. T. Smith was ap- 
pointed President. As Mr. Palmer had resigned 
the secretaryship of the Society, Mr. George 
William Brown was appointed Secretary. It 
was decided, on motion by Messrs. Charlc? 
Newnham and Thomas Atcheson, that the Sec- 
retary write Henry Osborne, Esq., M.C., and 
all the magistrates of the district soliciting 
funds for the Society, and that the next meet- 
ing would be held at Barney McCauley 's Inn, 
Wollongong. Appointment of collectors: 
Messrs. Edward Palmer and Thomas Atcheson 
for Fairy Meadow ; Messrs. C. T. Smith, Barney 



THE IJISrORY OF ILLAWARKA 



223 



MeCauley, and Sam Russell for "WoUoiigong ; 
Captain Sheaffe and Mr. Yates for West Dapto ; 
Messrs. Evan Evans and Andrew McGill for 
Dapto. A vote of thanks was carried to Mr. 
C. T. Smith, who had acted as Chairman for 
the Society for a period of six years. 

Meeting held at Barney MeCauley 's hotel, 
WoUongong, on 6th September, 1852. It was 
decided, on motion by Dr. Alex. Osborne and 
Mr. McKenzie, that the next show be held on 
3rd February, 1853, in "WoUongong, and the 
ploughing match at Dapto on Tuesday before 
the show. Prize-list: Horse stock £9, cattle 
£10, swine £4, grain £9/5/-, poultry £5/12/6, 
flowers £2/5/-, ploughing £5/5/- ; conditions of 
ploughing, furrow Sin. x 9in. Tent or booth, 
10/-. Fifteen amended rules and regulations 
were considered by the Society. Mr. George 
W. Brown offered the ground for the ploughing 
match, provided no other publican's booth but 
his was allowed on the ground. 

Kiama Show, held 5th December, 1848. — The 
inside exhibits were housed in a building owned 
by William Gard, who had first erected it for 
flour milling purposes, and changed his mind 
and converted it into a brewery. It stood on 
the flat a little to the east of the present Masonic 
Hall. The cattle were enclosed where Tory's 
hotel stands. James Barton had bought and 
cleared the block, and was about to erect the 
Fermanagh Hotel thereon. The horses were 
shown where Terralong Street and the Presby- 
terian Church grounds join. What is somewhat 
out of order in prize descriptions could be seen 
in that old prize-list. The sum of 10/- was 
awarded for the "best sucking bull." It was 
practically for a male calf that was at the time 
sucking its mother. Cows with calves at foot 
were often exhibited. The prize was won by 
Mr. Michael Fitzgerald, of Stackwood, Dapto. 
Mr. D. L. Dymock, then a mere youth, held a 
rope to which a similar calf was attached, owned 
by his uncle, Mr. D. L. Waugh, of Jamberoo. 

List of stock exhibited at the Kiama A. & H, 
Society's Show, 1851: — Mr. Nicholas Craig, Or- 
ange Grove, Kiama, 1 draught mare ; Messrs. 
Charles and William Newnham, Woodstock 
Mills, 1 heifer, 1 boar, 2 sows ; Mr. George Hind- 
marsh, jun., Gerringong, 1 cow, 1 fat beast, 1 
draught mare : ilr. Henry Osborne, Marshall 
Mount, 1 bull, 1 cow, 1 blood colt (2 years), 1 
blood mare, 1 draught mare, 1 boar, 
1 sow; Mr. Charles Beck, Kiama, 1 
blood mare ; Mr. Thomas S. Kendall, Bar- 
roul, Kiama, 1 fat calf; Mr. Michael Hind- 
marsh, Alne Rank, Gerringong, 1 bull, 1 cow ; 



Mr. Henry Grey, Omega, Gerringong, 1 bull, 2 
cows, 1 fat cow, 1 draught mare, 1 heifer, 1 
boar, 1 fat pig. 

Much maize, potatoes, fruits, flowers, butter, 
cheese, and bacon was exhibited. The stock at 
this show were exhibited where the Public 
School stands to-day. 

BY-LAWS OF KIAMA AGRICULTURAL 
SOCIETY, 1848. 

Agreed upon at a general meeting of sub- 
scribers, December 6th, 1848. 

I. All subscribers to pay 10/6 per annum, 
but any person subscribing one guinea to be 
qualified to act on the Committee and have 
a voice in the general management of the So- 
ciety, taking date from 1st October in each 
year. 

II. Donations will be received of any amount, 
and the same may be awarded in any way the 
donor may think proper. 

III. Any person not having paid up his sub- 
scription on or before the 1st of February will 
not be entitled to compete for any of the 
prizes. 

IV. All articles for exhibition to be delivered 
over to the care of the officers of the Society, 
or other responsible persons appointed for that 
purpose at the place of show, previous to the 
hour of 10 o'clock a.m. on that day. And each 
exhibitor to give in writing list at the same 
time to the Secretary of the various articles 
he has brought for competition. 

V. All persons intending to exhibit stock 
to give notice to the Secretary at least a week 
previous to day of show, and also to state how 
many and what animals they intend to exhibit. 

VI. Any non-subscriber may exhibit by nomi- 
nation of a subscriber, but he will not be en- 
titled to a prize. 

VII. All agricultural, horticultural and flori- 
cultural produce, and all manufactures, must 
be grown or made by the party so exhibiting 
them; and all stock must have been the pro- 
perty of the exhibitor at least six months pre- 
vious to the day of sho■w^ 

VIII. That no prize shall be awarded without 
competition, unless the article exhibited be such 
as in the opinion of the judges shall be con- 
sidered possessed of merit and good of their 
kind ; and it will not follow that prizes shall 
be awarded unless the judges approve of the 
article so exhibited. 

IX. No person shall be admitted during the 
time the judges are awarding the prizes. 

X. On the day of the show all subscribers 



224 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAERA 



and their families will be admitted free ; adult 
non-subscribers will be charged 1/- per head; 
children 6d. 

XI. In ease of dispute, the decision of the 
judges to be final. 

XII. To prevent confusion, the prizes will be 
paid the day after the show. 

The Illawarra A. & H. Society held a show 
in Kiama during February, 1848. The inside 
exhibits were stored in William Gard's new 
brewery building, situated near where the pre- 
sent Masonic Hall stands, near Collins Street. 
The cattle were penned in yards erected upon 
the site of . the present Public School. The 
horses were shown where the Presbyterian 
Church stands. The best stock exhibitors at 
the time exhibited animals to give a stimulus 
to the objective of that old society, which was 
to encourage the breeding of horses, cattle and 
pigs, and the production of all classes of grain, 
vegetables, and other farm products. 

The amount of prize-money distributed was 
£31/4/6, biit there is no record of the indi- 
vidual amounts won. The following list is all 
that is available, so it looks as if a debt was 
incurred. In that case, such an encumberance 
would be paid oif quickly by private subscrip- 
tion, as names appear here and . there which 
indicate that they came on the scene to help 
the old Society along after the event. Horses : 
Best blood horse, David Johnston, 1st prize; 
best blood horse, Henry Osborne, 2nd prize ; 
best blood mare, Michael Fitzgerald, 1st prize; 
best blood mare, Henry Osborne, 2nd prize ; best 
blood two-years-old colt, Henry Osborne, 1st 
T)rize; best draught mare, Dr. Thos. Jessett, 
1st prize; best draught filly, G-eorge Hind- 
marsh, 1st prize. Cattle: Best bull, Henry Os- 
borne, 1st prize; best bull, William Haslem, 
2nd prize; best cow, David Johnston, 1st prize; 
best cow, Evan Evans, 2nd prize ; best heifer, 
Henry Grey, 1st prize; best fat calf, Michael 
Fitzgerald, 1st prize. Pigs: Best boar, Henry 
Osborne, 1st prize; best sow, Henry Osborne, 
1st prize; best fat pig, Henry Grey, 1st prize. 
Frederick R. Cole, bull, cow, heifer, 2 mares : 
David Johnston, fat bullock, 2 cows, 1 heifer, 
1 fat calf, 1 blood horse; William Haslem, 2 
cows, 2 bulls, 2 heifers; Evan Evans, 2 cows, 
1 bull, 1 two-year-old entire colt; Dr. Thomas 
Jessett, 1 draught mare; Hugh Colley, 2 cows; 
James Colley, 1 fat calf; Dr. Menzies, 1 fat 
cow; Samuel Forward, 1 two-years-old filly; 
Nicholas Craig, 1 draught mare ; C. and W. 
Newnham, 1 heifer, 1 boar, 2 sows; Haslem, 
maize (2 bushels) ; Charles Beck, 1 blood mare; 



Thomas Kendall, 1 fat calf; Michael Hind- 
marsh, 1 cow, 1 bull; George Hindmarsh, jun., 
1 cow, 1 fat beast, 1 draught mare; Henry 
Grey, 1 fat cow, 1 bull, 2 cows, 1 draught mare, 
1 heifer, 1 boar, 1 fat pig; Henry Osborne, 1 
bull, 1 cow, 1 entire blood colt (two years), 
1 blood mare, 1 draught mare, 1 boar, 1 sow. 

Ploughing match held in Jamberoo in 1850 
(February 19th). — Hugh Boyle, 1st prize, 
valued £3; Edward Spinks, 2nd prize, valued 
£2/10/-; John Keevers, 3rd prize, valued £2; 
John Bradney, 4th prize, valued £l/lO/- ; James 
Keevers, 5th prize, valued £1. 

List of stock exhibited Illawarra A. & fi. 
Society Show, 1850, held in Kiama: — Mr, 
Frederick R. Cole, Heme Farm, Figtree, 1 bull, 
1 cow, 1 heifer, 2 mares ; Mr. David Johnston, 
The Meadows, 2 fat bullocks, 1 heifer, 1 fat 
calf, 1 blood horse ; Mr. William Haslem, Terry's 
Meadows, 2 bulls, 2 cows, 2 heifers; Mr. Evan 
R. Evans, Penrose Villa, Dapto, 1 bull, 2 cows, 
1 2-years-old entire colt; Dr. Jessett, West 
Dapto, 1 draught mare ; Mr. Hugh Colley, 
Muskfield, Kiama, 2 cows; Mr. James Colley, 
Antrim Hill, Kiama, 1 fat calf; Dr. Robert 
Menzies, Minnamurra, Jamberoo, 1 fat cow; 
Mr. Samuel Forward, Spring Hill. Kiama, 1 
2-years-old filly. 

KIAMA AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 1851. 

President, James Macartliur, M.C. ; Robert 
Menzies, Vice-President; D. L. Waugh, Secre- 
tary. 

List of prizes to be competed for at the 
Kiama Agricultural Society's ploughing match 
and show meeting on Tuesday and Thursday, 
18th and 20th February, 1851. 

Ploughing match : Without regard to the 
numbCT of oxen employed in the team; best 
executed work £3, second best £2/10/-, third 
best £2, fourth best £1/10/-, fifth best £1. For 
two horses with reins, best executed work £2, 
second best £1/10/-. Any party having car- 
ried off a first prize at a previous show not be- 
ing allowed to compete. Tent booth on ground, 
£1/1-. The match will take place on Tuesday, 
18th February, in a paddock belonging to Mr. 
Miller, Gerringong, and the competitors will 
be required to cut out and back up one whole 
land and two halves, but the ground marked 
out will not exceed V^ acre ; the work to be 
done with a furrow of 4in. deep by Tin., and 
properly finished off. All teams to be on the 
ground by half-past 9 a.m. ; start at 10, and 
finish not later than 4 o'clock. The farmer 
who has his land ploughed shall pay to the 
treasurer at the rate of 10/- per acre for the 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAKRA 



225 



quantity of land ploughed, out of which he 
shall pay to the competitors who gain no prize 
the price of ploughing half-an-acre. The 
ploughmen shall be provided with refreshments 
in the m,iddle of the day by the Society. The 
prizes will be awarded as soon as the judges 
give their decision. No one will be allowed 
to compete who is not a subscriber. 

Prize-list for Kiama A. & H. Society's show, 
held on 20th February, 1851: — Horses: Best 
blood horse £1/10/-, best draught horse £1/10/-, 
"best blood mare £1, best draught mare £1, best 
2-year-old colt 15/-, best 2-year-old filly 15/-. 
Cattle: Best bull (any age) £1/10/-, best 
cow £1/10/-, best cow £1, best heifer under 3 
years old £1, best fat calf under 6 months 10/-, 
best beast (grass-fed) £1. Pigs: Best boar £1, 
best sow £1, best porker under 6 months 10/-. 
Grain : Best collection of cereals, £1. Wine : 
Best two bottles of wine £1/10/-, best two 
bottles of wine £1, best two bottles of wine 
made from other fruit 15/-. Mead : Best mead 
10/-. Vinegar: Best vinegar 5/. Miscellane- 
ous : Best side of bacon £1, best ham 10/-, best 
five gallons of ale (made of malt and hops 
only) £1, best cured pork (in cask, not less than 
2 ewt.) £1; samples of silk, cabbage-tree hats, 
plaits of straw, and cabbage-tree plant; agri- 
cultural implements in variety. 

Ploughing match in connection with the 
Kiama A. & H. Society was held in Mr. Robert 
Miller's paddock, Renfrew Park, Gerringong, 
on 18th February, 1851. The following was 
the prize-list: — First match, two horses with 
reins, best executed work, £2 first prize (if 
bullocks are used, driver allowed no limit as 
to number used) ; £1/10/- second prize. Note. — 
Any' person having carried off a prize at a pre- 
vious match not to compete. The competitors 
will be required to cut out and back up one 
whole land and two halves, and the ground 
marked out not to exceed '/^ acre ; the work 
to be done with a furrow 4in. x Tin., and pro- 
perly finished off. All teams to be on the ground 
at 9 o'clock a.m.; to start at 10 o'clock a.m., 
and to finish not later than 4 o'clock p.m. The 
farmer who has his land ploughed shall pay the 
teamster at the rate of 10/- per acre for the 
quantity of land ploughed; those who gain 
nrizes to be paid extra. The ploughmen shall 
be provided with refreshments in the middle 
of the day bv the Society. Bullock teams were 
also allowed in this match. All competitors 
must bo subscribers. 

The only record obtainable regard'ng this 
match is to the effect that llr. James Mnc- 



nrthur, President of the Societ.y at the time, 
was present with the secretary, Mr. D. L. 
Waugh, and that Abraham Kent won first prize, 
and William Burless won second prize. Mr. 
Miller paid £2 for land ploughed, so there must 
have been several entries, especially in the 
Clearing Lease settlers class, of which there is 
no record beyond James Lees, first prize. 

Tuesday, 1st February, 1853. A ploughing 
match in Mrs. Brown's paddock, Dapto. The 
following entrances were received by the sec- 
retary; — No. 1, ploughman, William Evans, 
driver, Thomas Edwards; No. 2, ploughman, 
Patrick Gorman, driver, John Gorman; No. 3, 
plovighman, Thomas Barrett, driver, Thomas 
Garwood; No. 4, ploughman, Robert Hutson, 
driver, Phillip Town; No. 5, ploughman, Archie 
Colville, driver. Neil McGdll; (No. 6, James 
Rixon, driver, John Rixon ; No. 7, ploughman, 
Adam Dennis, driver, Reuben Dennis. Judges : 
Andrew Thompson, John Nunan, and Joseph 
Ritchie. Winners — 1st prize, £2, Adam Dennis ; 
2nd prize, £1/10/-, James Rixon ; 3rd prize, 
£1, Robert Hutson ; 4th prize, 10/-, Thomas 
Barritt; 5th prize, Archie Colville. 

Entries for show, February, 1853, were as 
follows: — Messrs. George Somerville, 1 two- 
year-old bull, 2 cows, 1 two-year-old heifer; 
George Buchanan, 1 fat beast; James Arm- 
strong, 1 draught stallion; Andrew McGill, 1 
blood stallion, 1 draught stallion, 1 two-year- 
old heifer; Evan R. Evans, 3 cows, 2 bulls; 
James R. Cummins, 1 two-years-old draught 
colt; Joseph Derrett, 1 draught mare. 1 two- 
year-old draught colt, 1 blood mare ; Henry 
Harris, 1 blood mare; Captain Hopkins, 2 two- 
year-old heifers (branded RH), 1 draught mare 
(branded WL) ; Henry Osborne, 2 aged bulls, 
1 two-year-old bull, 1 cow, 1 fat beast, 1 blood 
mare. This show was held in the Market 
Square, Wollongong. 

List of prize-winners at show held February 
3rd, 1853. (This was the ninth annual show 
of the Illawarra A. & H. Society, and was held 
in Wollongong. Other shows of the Society 
were held in Kiama. (See other pages). The 
.iudges were Messrs. Michael Hindmarsh, Robert 
J. Marshall, and Joseph Moon for agriculture; 
Messrs. Robert Rutter, Thomas Black, and An- 
drew Thompson were the judges of all stock. 

Protests.— Best draught filly (£1/10/-), 
awarded Joseph Dunster ; protest lodged. Vege- 
tables and cereals, award Richard Dennis 
(£3/5/-) at stake; protest lodged. Blood filly 
(£1), awarded Mrs. E. Williamson; protest en- 
tered. 



226 



THE HISTORY OF 1LLA^YARBA 



Best Draught Stallion . 

Best Blood Stallion 

Best Draught Mare 

Best Blood 2 yr. old Colt 

Best Draught Colt 

Best Bull, any age 

Best Cow 

2nd Best Cow . . 

Best Ball, 2 years old 

Best Heifer 

2nd Best Heifer 

Best Fat Beast 

Best Calf 

Best Boar 

2nd Best Boar . . 

Best Sow 

2ud Best Sow . . 

Best Young Boar 

Best Young Sow 

Best Cheese 

Best Butter (in cask) 

Best Salt Butter (in cask) 



£1/10 
£1/10 

£1 

£1 

£1 

£2 

£2 
£1/10 
£1/10 

£1 

10/- 
£1/10 
10/- 

£1 
12/6 

£1 
12/6 

7/6 

7/6 

£1 

£1 

£1 



Michael Hindmarsh 
Andrew McGill 
Evan R. Evans, sen. 
Evan R. Evans, sen. 
Henry Grey 
William Yates 
Evan R. Evans, sen. 
David Johnston 
David Johnston 
Joseph Derrett 
David Johnston 
David Johnston 
WUlaim Yates 
Archie Graham 
Dr. Alex. Osborne . 
Archie Graham 
Archie Graham 
Captain Hopkins . . 
Captain Hopkins . , 
Joseph Derrett 
C. T. Smith 
C. T. Smith 



PEIZE 



1st 

1st 

1st 

1st 

1st 

1st 

1st 

2nd 

1st 

1st 

2nd 

1st 

1st 

1st 

2nd 

1st 

2nd 

1st 

let 

1st 

1st 

1st 



After the show a meeting was held in the 
show-room, Market Square, Wollongong, date 
14th March, 1853, at which meeting the secre- 
tary showed a credit balance of £7/13/4. Mr. 
C. T. Smith was appointed President, and Mr. 
George William Brown Secretary, for the cur- 
rent year. At meeting held at Tom Evans' 
Farmers' Hotel, Wollongong, it was decided, 
on motion by Dr. Alex. Osborne and Mr. Evan 
Evans, sen., to increase the prize for best two- 
year-old bull by an additional £1. The next 
show to be held on 8th February, 1854. The 
prize-list was reviewed and slightly altered. 
The ploughing match to take place at Dapto. 
The report of the ploughing match held at 
Dapto during 1853 was read out before the 
Committee, and the following is the statement: 
Tuesday, 1st February, 1853. 

THE ILLAWAERA AGRICULTURAL 
SOCIETY OF 1854. 

Chairman, Charles Throsby Smith, Esq. ; Hon. 
Secretary, George William Brown, Esq.; Com- 
mittee, Thomas Hales, John Musgrave, Fred. 
R. Cole, William Kirton, Eobert Haworth, 
Robert Osborne, Alexander McKenzie, Even 
Evans, Thomas Hobbs, Henry H. Osborne, 
James Achison, Andrew McGill, Dr. J. D. 
Kinear, Alexander Elliott (subscribers of one 
guinea and upwards). Other subscribers: 
Barker and Wyatt, Stephen Lynch, Duncan 
Beatson, Phillip Town, John Manning, Mat- 
thew Ryan, Thomas Wholohan, Thomas A. Red- 
dall, John Hetherington, Patrick Larkins, 
George Buchanan, John Tighe, James Hether- 
ington, James Kidd, James Scott, Benjamin 
Marshall, William Yates, Joseph Staff (sub- 



scribers of £2/2/- and down to 10/6). The 
design of the institution was to give encour- 
agement to husbandry, servants, and others in 
the district of Illawarra by granting rewards 
and prizes annually for skill in ploughing, and 
to improve the produce of the district gener- 
ally. 

List of prizewinners at the Illawarra A. & H. 
Society's show, 8th February, 1854. Horses: 
best draught stallion, £1/10/-, D. McKinney 1st 
prize; best blood stallion, £1/10/-, Henry Os- 
borne 1st prize; best draught mare, £1, Evan 
R. Evans 1st prize; best blood filly, £1, Henry 
Harris 1st prize. Note. — The other horse ex- 
hibits were considered by the Judges unworthy 
of a prize. Cattle: best bull (any age), £2, 
David Johnston 1st prize; best bull (any age), 
£1/10-, Evan R. Evans, 2nd prize; best bull 
(2 years old), £1, Evan R. Evans 1st prize; 
best cow, £2, David Johnston 1st prize ; best 
cow, £1/10/-, Henry Osborne 2nd prize; best 
heifer (2 years old), £1, Evan R. Evans 1st 
prize; best heifer (2 years old), 10/-, Evan R. 
Evans 2nd prize; best fat beast, £1, David 
Johnston 1st prize; best fat calf, 10/-, Henry 
Osborne 1st prize. 

Note. — In butter honours were divided be- 
tween Messrs Evan R. Evans, Andrew McGill, 
Jas. R. Cummins and Henry Gordon. Bacon, 
Flitch, Evan R. Evans — only one prize. There 
was also a fine display of cereals, vegetables, 
fruits and flowers. 

Entries for show of 8th February, 1854 were 
as follows: Henry Osborne, 4 cows, 2 calves, 1 
horse, 2 pigs; David Johnston, 1 cow, 2 fat 
beasts, 1 bull, 1 heifer ; Evan R. Evans, 1 two- 
year-old bull, 3 cows, 2 two-year-old heifers, 1 
mare; D. McKinney, 1 blood stallion; D. Giiion 
(an orchardist), fruits, etc. 

Kiama Show Committee for show, February, 
1854. The Kiama A. & H. Society held a meet- 
ing at the Kiama hotel, January, 1854 — -Mr. 
Joseph Pike in the chair — when the following 
office-bearers were appointed for the year 1854 : 
President, Mr. Robert I. Perrott ; Vice-President, 
Mr. Nicholas Craig; Treasurer, Mr. James Col- 
ley; Committee, Messrs. John McMahon, George 
Turner, Joseph King, Robert Morris, John 
Black, Alexander Gordon, Thomas Tempest, 
George Wood, jun., James Harrison, John 
Sharpe, William Rutter Hindmarsh, John Mil- 
ler, James McGill, William Moles ; Mr. William 
Irvine, Secretary. It was the custom in those 
early days to appoint all committees of man- 
agement on motion at first meeting each year, 
and, as the mover always concluded with these 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAWAEEA 



227 



words, "With power to add to the number," 
it is impossible to get hold of many of the 
best workers for the Society in each year. The 
formation of the K.iama Society was much criti- 
cised by the northern section of the Illawarra 
Society. 




Kiama Show held February, 1854, was con- 
sidered to be a success as the quality of the 
exhibits, although not numerous, was of good 
merit. The cattle were exhibited in the sale 
yards on west side of Shoalhaven Street, and 
the grain, produce, fruits, flowers, etc., in a 
shed on the east side of the same street. The 
awards. Horses — ^Best draught stallion, 
£1/10/-, Michael Hindmarsh, 1st prize; best 
draught 2-year old colt, £1/10/-, James McGill. 
1st prize; best draught mare, £1, Patrick Daly, 
1st prize: best blood stallion, £1/10/-, I-Ienry 
Osborne, 1st prize ; best blood mare, £1, Michael 
Fitzgerald, 1st prize ; best blood filly, 10/-, 
Robert Miller, 1st prize. Cattle — Best bull, 
any age, £2, Henry Osborne, 1st prize ; best bull, 
any age, £1/10/-, Andrew McGill, 2nd prize; 
best cow, £2, Henry Osborne, 1st prize ; best 
cow, £1/10/-, Henry Grey, 2nd prize; best 
heifer, 10/-, Thomas Black, 1st prize; best fat 
beast, £1, Robert Miller, 1st prize ; best fat 
calf, 10/-, Michael Fitzgerald, 1st prize. Pigs — 
Best boar, £1, Thomas Black, 1st prize ; best 
sow, 10/-. James Harvison, 1st prize ; best fat 
pig, 10/-, Michael Hindmarsh, 1st prize. 

The ploughing match for 1854 came off in 
the same paddock as previous years. It was 
of a boggy nature, and suitable for certain types 
of ploughs and ploughmen. No, 1, ploughman, 
James Swan, driver, Charles Gower, 3rd prize, 
£1 ; No. 2, ploughman, Adam Dennis, driver, 
William Thomas, 1st prize, £2; No. 3, plough- 
man, James Rixon, driver, John Rixon, 2nd 
prize £1/10/-. The judges were James Hukins. 
serr.. Michael Hindmarsh, and Samuel Rowley 

The 10th Annual Show of the Illawarra A. 
& H. Society took place in the Market Square, 
Wollongong. The Judges for inside exhibits 



were E. Gerard, W. Hindmarsh and W. Yates. 
No report available of this show (1854), nor 
the following year, 1855. 

It would appear that there were more dis- 
putes, and the disappearance of records. 

In 1855 a meeting of the Illawarra A. and H. 
Society was held in Mr. George Hall's Commer- 
cial Hotel, Wollongong, 15th October, 1855, Mr. 
G. W. Brown, Secretary. No report at this 
12th annual meeting of the Illawarra A. & H. 
Society. The President, Mr. Charles Throsby 
Smith, delivered an address on the benefits of 
agriculture, which he considered was "a social 
agent, which would be found to have more hu- 
manising influences over the mind than an'/ 
other occupation. The practice of agriculture 
had softened the forces of nature among our 
ancestors, and prepared them to rule over a 
large proportion of the inhabited world." The 
Secretary, Mr. George William Brown, how- 
ever was not convinced that "Agriculture, as 
a social agent, had by any means worked out 
to the satisfaction of the Illawarra A. & H. 
Society, the financial side of which had always 
been a serious difficulty. 

The Illawarra A. & H. Society's ploughing 
match took place in Mr. Wiliam Ryan's pad- 
dock, opposite the old Dapto R.C. Church on 
Thursday, November 8th, 1855 — ^ acre of land 
to be ploughed in equal furrows 5in. x Sin. wide, 
land when finished to be in two equal halves. 
First match, horse teams, no competition. Se- 
cond match, bullocks teams, result: No. 1, 
ploughman James Swan, driver James Swan 
Jnr; No. 2, ploughman, James Rixon, driver, 
Ben Rixon Jnr., 2nd prize; No. 3, ploughman, 
Adam Dennis, driver, Reuben Dennis, 1st prize. 
Third match, with oxen, for ploughmen who 
never won a prize: No. 1. ploughman, Charles 
Gower. driver Isaac Edwards, 2nd prize ; No. 2, 
ploughman, John Rixon, driver Archie Gilles- 
pie, 1st prize ; No. 3, ploughman, John Gorman, 
driver John Town ; No. 4, ploughman John Rus- 
sell, driver, John Preyhoe, 3rd prize. Note. — 
The John Russell mentioned here eventually 
became the Squire of Croome, Shellharbour. 
The Judges were Messrs. John Baker, John 
Nunan and Robert Hutson. 

The formation of a separate A. & H. Society 
in Kiama, which practically meant the breaking 
away from the old Illawarra A. & H. Society, 
of which Kiama had been from its foun- 
dation a part, caused the "Illawarra Mercury,'' 
of November 19th, 1855 to wince, and say: "In- 
dividual exertion will never accomplish much, 
and our agricultural friends in Kiama may be 



228 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



assured of failure. ' ' The Kiama Society held a 
meeting on November 22nd, 1855, in Mr. James 
Barton's Fermanagh Hotel 

1855. — The funds were supported by dona- 
tions, and monthly subscriptions of members 
to the amount of one shilling. B. H. Wood was 
chairman, and Eobert Marsh Westmaeott, Hon. 
Sec. The following gentlemen were mem- 
bers: Roger Therry, Esq., M.C., William Pos- 
ter, Esq., M.C., George W. Allen, Esq.. Dr. John 
Osborne, R.N., J.P,. John Hubert Plunkett, Esq., 
M.C., W. H. Kerr, Esq., William Manning, Esq., 
J.P., Dr. Alexander Osborne, R.N., J.P., Captain 
AVilliam Frederick Lampriere Sheaffe, Ed. Way, 
Esq., William Warren Jenkins, Esq., Ed. Rowe, 
Esq., Capt. Plunkett, J. P., Henry Osborne, Esq.. 
J.P., Revd. W. B. Mears, William Cummings. 
Esq., George Brown Esq., Abraham Lincoln, 
Esq., Edward Palmei-, Esq., Dr. Cox, Joseph 
Ross, Esq., William Taylor, Esq., D. L. Waugh. 
Esq., J.P., Captain Cole, R.N., J.P., Gerard 
Gerard, Esq., J.P., Michael Hindmarsh, Esq., 
George Hindmarsh, Esq., Captain R. M. West- 
maeott, Dr. Gerard, Thomas Black, Esq., J- 
Jeflfries, Esq., Dr. O'Brien, E. Widgett, Esq., 
James Mackay Grey, Esq., J.P., Benjamin Mar- 
shall, Esq., Captain Aitken, William Heme, 
Esq., David Johnston, Esq., J.P., Frederick 
Elliott, Esq., Samuel Clarke, Esq., Captain Wil- 
liam Weston, Matthew Ryan, Esq., Edmond 
Gerard, Esq., Fincham, Esq., S. A. Bryant, Esq., 
Dr. Robert Menzies, J.P., Captain Innes, J.P., 
Robert Hancock, Esq., Charles I. Smith, Esq., 
J.P., A. Crawford Esq., Captain Robert Towns, 
Hugh Coulston, Esq., John Collary, Esq., Ber- 
nard McCauley, Esq., Hugh Kennedy, Esq., R. 
H. Tweedie, Esq., D. Aitken, Esq., John 
Terry Hughes, Esq., J. H. Hebden, Esq., 
Thomas Holt, Esq., James Shoobert, Esq., 
^lichael Keele, Esq., H. Calvert, Esq., Alex- 
ander Elliott, Esq., Thomas Smith, Esq., 
Captain Stephen Addison, Dr. Kenneth Mack- 
zie, J.P., Henry Heathorne, Esq., Rev. Mr. 
Atchison. 

A meeting of the Kiama A. & H. Associa- 
tion was held in James Barton's Fermanagh 
Hotel, Kiama, on 22nd November, 1855, which 
was fairly well attended. It was decided to 
form an independent Society, to be called the 
Kiama Agricultural and Horticultural Society, 
and that the first exhibition was to take place 
on the first Wednesday in March, 1856. Owing 
to the loss of the Society's books and the op- 
position towards the movement by the Illa- 
warra press, no report of the show was publish- 
ed in the press. 



A Societj', to be named the Kiama Horti- 
cultural Society, was duly established in Kiama 
on December 20th, 1855. Kiama had then 
practically two societies. The Horticultural 
Society decided to hold a flower show on the 
first Wednesday in March, 1856. 

The lUawarra A. & H. Society's show was 
held in Market Square, Wollongong, 7th Feb- 
ruary, 1856, when the awards were made: 
Horses : best draught stallion, £2/10/-, Evan R. 
Evans 1st prize; best draught mare, £1/10/-, 
George Somerville, 1st prize; best blood mare, 
£1/10/-, Edward Graham 1st prize; best 
draught two-year-old colt, £1, William Lind- 
say 1st prize; best draught two-year-old filly, 
£1, Andrew McGill 1st prize ; best blood two- 
year-old filly, £1, John Beatson 1st prize. Cattle : 
best bull (any age) £2/10/-, Edward Graham 
1st prize; best bull (any age) £1, Andrew 
McGill, 2nd prize ; best two-year-old bull, £1/10 
McGill 2nd prize ; best bull (2 years old) £1/10/, 
Andrew McGill 1st prize; best cow, £2/10/-, 
David W. Irving 1st prize; best cow, £1/10/-; 
Thomas Barrett 2nd prize ; best heifer, (2 years 
old), £1/10/-, David Johnston 1st prize; best 
heifer (2 years old), £1, David Johnston 2nd 
prize. For pigs honours were divided between 
Messrs. D. W. Irving and Evan R. Evans. Mr. 
John Nunan was awarded a special prize for 
a plough of his own make. 

James R. Cummins was living at Hopefield, 
lUawarra. 

A meeting was held on 23rd September, 1856, 
at Brown's Illawarra Hotel, Dapto, Mr. C. T. 
Smith in the chair. Mr. Smith was elected 
President, and Mr. George William Brown, Sec- 
retary for the ensuing year. The accounts — re- 
ceipts, £89/13/2; expenditure, including prizes, 
£83/9/11; balance in hand, £6/3/3. It would 
seem that £26/15/- of prize money had not been 
paid, thus showing a debt of £20/11/9. Com- 
mittee appointed for ensuing year: Messrs. J. 
R. Cummins, John Davis, Evan Evans, Senr., 
Andrew Thompson, James Wright, S. S. Rog- 
gers, Robert Osborne, R. T. Hales, Andrew Mc- 
Gill, Frederick R. Cole, William Kirton, J. B. 
Clyne. Patrick Gorman, Joseph Ritchie, -James 
McGill and George Buchanan. Next meeting to 
be held at R. T. Hayles' Sportsman's Arms Ho- 
tel. Wollongong, on Monday, 6th October, 1856. 

But without going further into details than 
was necessary it is plain that they were affectefl 
by certain troubles such as lack of duties, 
negligence, and petty jealousy. 

The Kiama Show Committee decided to hold 
its show of inside exhibits in Mr. John Car- 



229 



MRS. GOWER, "The Meadows," Albion Park, Illawarra. 




<\\.\<\ OV TIIK MEADOWS 



TnirMi'ir oi- tiik mkahows. 




.WKN IJI' TIIK MKMHJW'S. 



.MViriKE iji' Tin: meatiows. 





AMY OF THE :MEAD0WS. 



nOLLY OF THE MEAIIOW> 



THE HISTORY OF ILL AW AREA 



231 



ruthers' Kiama Hotel, just erected in Shoal- 
haven Street. The cattle were shown at the 
rear of the hotel, the horse stock near where 
the Presbyterian Church stands. At this show 
which was not held until 1st Wednesday in 
March, 1856, Messrs. Atkinson, Craig, Kendall, 
King, Bullen, Turner and Hindmarsh showed to 
advantage in the inside exhibits. The cattle 
were shown at a great disadvantage. 

A ploughing match in connection with the 
Kiama A. & H. Society took place in Mr. George 
Wood's paddock, Jamberoo, on 4th March, 
1856. The hours allowed for performing the 
work were from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m., i acre to be 
ploughed in two equal parts in even furrow, 5in. 
X 8in. The following was the result: No. 1, 
Henry Fredericks, first prize, £5 ; No. 2, George 
Yates, 2nd prize, £3; No. 3, George Wood, 3rd 
prize, £2; No. 4, Robert Young, 4th prize, £1. 
Note. — The work was carried out excellently. 

The 13th annual ploughing match, under 
the auspices of the Illawarra A. & H. Society 
to take place at Dapto. A meeting was held 
at Brown's Illawarra Hotel, Dapto, at which 
the following gentlemen were present: Messrs. 
S. S. Rogers, Jas. R. Cummins, J. Davis. And- 
rew Thompson, Evan Evans, J. Wright, Robert 
Osborne, R. T. Hales, W. Kirton, Joseph Ritchie, 
J. Buchanan, P. Gorman and Captain Clymo, 
date of meeting, 21st September 1856. A report 
of the last show was read, which showed that 
a balance had been carried forward, and from 
the previous show of £17/12/8. From subscrip- 
tions, and money taken at the door, £72/0/6, 
total, £89/13/2, and of this, £83/9/11 had been 
paid out in prizes, leaving a balance of £6/3/3. 
There were, however, unpaid accounts amount- 
ing to £26/15/-, leaving a debit balance of 
£20/11/9. There was £30 of unpaid subscrip- 
tions. 

The Kiama A. & H. Society was founded as 
an independent Society on 17th December, 1856. 
It had for President Dr. Robert Menzies, J.P. : 
3Ir. Joseph Pike was Treasurer, and Mr. Wil- 
liam Irvine was Secretary. Committee, Messrs. 
Robert Miller, John Black, James Marks, sen., 
George Tate, James Spinks, George Wood, sen., 
Nicholas Craig, William CoUey, John Colley, 
James Colley, Neil Sharpe, George Turner, 
George Grey, Henry Lee, James Robinson, 
Joseph Blow, John Carruthers, Joseph King. 
Edward Moses, and James Harvison. 

The Dapto A. & H. Society held its first show 
near the present site of Brownsville. The in- 
side exbibits were housed on the second floor 
of the Steam Flour Mill, and the Illawarra 



Hotel saleyards were used for the cattle. The 
horses were exhibited in a paddock at the rear 
of the hotel. £140 had been subscribed for the 
show. 

New subscribers to the Illawarra Show held 
in Wollongong on 12th February, 1857, were: 
Messrs. Gerald Anderson, Duncan Beatson, 
John Beatson, and Captain Benjamin Darley, 
Dr. Robert Davison, and Mrs. .Geraghty. The 
new subscribers to the Dapto A. & H. Society 
were: Hon. Daniel Cooper, M.L.C., John 
Marks, Esq., M.P., James Thompson, Esq., 
M.P., and Dr. John Gerard, the amount of their 
subscriptions being one guinea each. 

Robert Campbell, Esq. (per Captain Daniel 
Leahy), W. Carr, Esq., Ellis, Esq., James Robb, 
Rev. Father Rigney, Joseph Barrett, Esq., Cap- 
tain Hopkins, B. Marshall, Esq., Lyons, Esq., 
Guion, Esq., Thomas Palmer, Esq., Robert Jen- 
kins, Esq. 

Prizes: Best 2-year-old colt, £1/10/-; best 2- 
year-old filly, £1/10/-; best entire horse (the 
exhibitor naming the purpose for which it was 
bred), £2/10/-; best two- year-old bull, £2; best 
two-year-old heifer, £2; veal calf (two months 
old), £1/10/-; prizes for 2-horse teams, £1/10/-; 
prizes for 6-bulloek teams, £1/10/-; prizes for 
4-bullock teams, 15/- ; prizes for bullock drivers 
of 6 and 4 bullock teams. 

It was arranged that the next annual show 
should take place in Wollongong on Thursday, 
12th of February, 1857, and that th-3 ploaghing 
match should be held at Dapto about the 10th 
of February, 1857. There was some infiuence 
used to have this ploughing match held on the 
farm of Mr. Patrick Larkin, known as Galway 
Farm, West Dapto. Mr. Brown reported 
against it, and again recommended his 
brother's Swamp paddock, leased to Mr. Bu- 
chanan, who was favourable to it being used 
for the purpose. Eventually Dapto formed an 
A. & H. Society, as the following lettei' shows 
(Mr. Francis Peter McCabe had been appoint- 
ed President of the Illawarra A. & H Society 
for 1857; Dr. Robert Menzies had been pre- 
viously appointed President of the Kiama A. 
& H. Society) :— "Dapto Steam Mills, 6th 
August, 1857. Sir, — I have the honor to in- 
form you that at a meeting of the Dapto A. 
(<'. H. Society, held at the Illawarra hotel on 
the 5th instant, your communication of the 3rd 
ultimo, respecting the amalgamation of the Illa- 
warra and Dapto A. & H. Societies was duly 
laid before the members of the Society, when 
(he following resolution was unanimously 
agreed to, viz. : 'That the Dapto A. & TI Society 



■1^2 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



be continued in its integrity.' (Signed) John 
Brown, Hon. Secretary Dapto A. & H. Society," 
and addressed to Francis Peter McCabe, Esq., 
President of the Illawarra A. & IT. Society. 
Mr. David Williamson Irving was then ap- 
pointed President of the Dapto A. & H. So- 
ciety. 

The Illawarra A. & H. Society held a plough- 
ing match at Kembla Grange, the property of 
Mr. Robert Haworth. The spot on which the 
match took place was held by lease by Mr. 
John Armstrong. The following is the result : — 
No. I., ploughman John Dixon, driver Archie 
Gillespie; No. II., ploughman Stephen Lynch, 
driver Phillip Town, 2nd prize £2 ; No. III., 
ploughman James Rixon, driver Ben. Rixon, 
jun., 1st prize £4; No. IV., ploughman Adam 
Dennis, driven Reuben Dennis, 3rd prize £1/5/- ; 
No. v., ploughman Robert Hutson, driver John 
Town, 4th prize £1 ; No. VI., ploughman Thomas 
Berrett, driver John Kelly. 

The following were members of the Com- 
mittee of the Illawarra A. & H. Society for 
the term 1857-8 : — Messrs. J. R. Cummins, Evan 
Evans, sen., Andrew Thompson, James Wright, 
S. S. Rogers, Robert Osborne, R. T. Hales, 
George Hewlett, Andrew McGill, William Kir- 
ton, James McGill, William Hales, Charles 
Fairs, sen., C. T. Smith, Dr. Lambert, A. McKen- 
zie (EUengowan), A. McKenzie (BuUi), James 
Hetherington, Thomas Garrett, and Edward 
Johnston. It was decided that Messrs. G. W. 
Brown and James R. Cummins be joint secre- 
taries for the ensuing year. It was decided 
that the 14th annual show should take place 
in Wollongong, 19th January, 1858, and that 
the ploughing match should take place at Fairy 
Meadow on the Thursday before the show. This 
show was very successful. The exhibits of 
horned cattle were not numerous, but of good 
quality. Mr. David Johnston, of The Meadows, 
Albion Park, and his neighbour, Mr. Henry 
Osborne, of Marshall Mount, won all the lead- 
ing prizes. Patrick Larkin, of Galway Farm, 
West Dapto, exhibited a beautiful grey draught 
horse, and Mr. James Hetherington exhibited 
the blood stallion "Sir Charles." Mr. Alex- 
ander Elliott won for blood mare, Mr. Andrew 
McGill won for best draught mare, Mr. John 
Graham won for best blood filly one-year-old, 
Mr. John Mnsgrave won for blood filly tiyo- 
years-old. 

Cattle— Best bull, any age (£3), Mr. Henry 
Osborne, 1st prize; second best (£1), Mr. David 
Johnston; best bull, two-years-old (£1/10/-), 
!\Tt- D W. Irving, 1st prize; best cow (£3), 



Mr. David Johnston, 1st prize ; second best cow 
(£1/10/-), Mr. D. W. Irving; best heifer, two- 
years-old (£1/10/-), Mr. Evan Evans, sen., 1st 
prize; best fat beast (£1), Mr. David Johnston; 
best boar, Mr. Edward Graham; second best, 
Mr. Thomas Armstrong; best so%'', Mr. Edward 
Graham. The stock exhibitors were : — Mr. Evan 
Evans, 1 bull, 2 cows, 1 two-year-old heifer, 1 
fat cow; Mr. Patrick Larkin, 1 draught stal- 
lion; Mr. George Buchanan, 1 draught maie; 
Mr. F. Darragh, 1 two-year-old filly, 1 draught 
mare; Mr. D. W. Irving, 1 two-year-old bull, 2 
cows, 2 two-year-old heifers; Mr. Alexander 
Elliott, 1 blood mare ; Mr. James Hetherington, 
1 blood stallion, 1 blood mare; Mr. David John- 
ston, 1 bull, 1 cow, 1 two-year-old heifer, 2 fat 
bullocks; Mr. Andrew McGill, 1 draught stal- 
lion, 1 two-year-old bull, 1 fat bullock, 1 
draught mare ; Mr. Edward Graham, 1 two-year- 
old colt; Mr. William Coughrane, 4 two-year- 
old heifers ; Mr. John Maxwell, 1 draught mare ; 
Mr. P. McHugh, 1 two-year-old colt, 1 two- 
year-old filly ; Mr. James McGill, 1 blood mare ; 
Mr. Henry Gordon, 1 two-year-old draught colt ; 
Mr. Henry Osborne, 1 draught stallion, 2 bulls, 
1 imported cow, 1 cow, and 2 fat heifers; Mr. 
John Graham, 1 two-year-old draught filly ; Mr. 
John Keys, 1 two-year-old draught filly; Mr. 
David Payne, 1 draught mare; Mr. Andre i», 
Lysaght, 1 blood mare, 1 two-year-old blood 
filly. The judges of stock were Messrs. Joseph 
Sullivan Smith, Archibald Beatson, and Wil- 
liam Keele. In farm produce the judges were 
Messrs. D. Aitkin, William Wilson, and Wil- 
liam Ritchie. The dinner was held at Mr. John- 
stone's hotel, Wollongong, and passed off 
quietly. The ploughing match at Fairy 
Meadow was a failure, owing, no doubt, to the 
nature of the soil. The ploughmen who had 
been trained on the Swamp paddock had no 
show in the stiffer clay soils where formation 
was difficult to attain. 

Kiama A. & H. Society's show, held February 
28th, 1857, in the Market Square, Kiama. 
Heavy rain almost prevented the show being 
held. There were no less than 67 exhibitors, 
a building 100 feet long being well filled with 
exhibits. The building was owned by George 
Bullen, and Bullen and Turner's displays of 
flowers were very superior. The stock were 
located behind John Carruthers' hotel, occu- 
pied by host John Reed. The prizes were 
awarded as follows: — Horses: Best draught 
stallion, £5, Michael Hindmarsh; best draught 
mare, £3, Alexander King; best blood mare, 
£2, Larry 'Toole; best draught two-year-old 



THE IIISTOh'Y OF ILLAWAliUA 



233 



eolt, £2, Patrick Daly; best draught two-year- 
old filly, Patrick Daly. Cattle : Best bull, two- 
years-old, £2, Francis Grey; best dairy cow, £3, 
Henry Grey; second best dairy cow, £2, "William 
Vance ; best heifer, £2, Thomas S. Kendall ; best 
fat beast, William White ; second best, Thomas 
Black. Swine: Thomas Black, James Harrison, 
and R. Busknell won the prizes. 

FOUNDING OF THE DAPTO A. & H. 
SOCIETY. 

The first exhibition held under the auspices 
of the Committee of the Dapto A. & H. Soeietj^ 
at Shorn 's Point on January 28th, 1857. Re- 
ported in "lUawarra Mercury" of 2nd Febru- 
ary, 1857. The President of the lUawarra A. 
& H. Society, Mr. Charles Throsby Smith, and 
Dr. Robert Menzies, President of the Kiama 
A. & H. Society, were present by invitation. 
The report states: "The examination of stock 
and agricultural and horticultural produce oc- 
cupied a considerable time, and.it was about 
4 o'clock when the names of the successful 
competitors were read out by the Secretary, 
John Brown. Previous to this the President 
of the Dapto Society, David Williamson Irving, 
addressed those present, thanking them for 
their attendance, taking it as an evidence of 
their approval, not only of the committee, but 
in showing that Dapto was the best place for 
holding a meeting of the kind in the district." 

The show of horned cattle was said to have 
been the most numerous ever shown in the dis- 
trict. From the quantity enumerated our 
readers may judge for themselves, but they 
certainly exceed in number any show it has 
been our privilege to attend, and we will ven- 
ture another opinion — that in their quality they 
have been unequalled, of all ages. They were 
composed of draught horse stock, 4 horses, 4 
colts, 7 mares, 3 fillies ; total 18. Blood horses 
1, colts 3, mares 9, fillies 2; total 15. Horned 
cattle, aged bulls 8, two-year-old bulls 5, cows 
54, heifers 22, fat bullocks 9, calves 4; total 
102. Swine, boars 4, sows 6; total 10. The 
total number of articles entered for exhibition 
were 355, entered by 65 competitors. 

Awards. — Horse stock: Best draught horse, 
Evan R. Evans, sen.; best blood horse, James 
McGill; best draught mare, Joseph Dunster; 
best blood mare, Thomas Wholohan ; best 
draught two-year-old colt, George Tate ; best 
draught two-year-old filly, James McGill. 
Cattle : Best bull, any age, Edward Graham ; 
second best, Robert Ritchie ; third best, Andrew 
McGill; best bull, two years, David Johnston; 
best ieow, David Johnston; second best, Ed- 



ward Graham ; third best, David Johnston ; best 
heifer, two-years-old, William Wilson; second 
best two-year-old heifer, David Johnston; best 
fat beast, David Johnston; second best, Joseph 
Ritchie ; best fat calf, Mrs. Fitzgerald. 




LLiWI^im^ miTEL 



^{ Dinner on Table at 4 p.m. Ticket One Guinea. 



The Dapto A. & H. Society held a ploughing 
match on 10th February, 1857 ; oxen only to 
be used. The result was as follows: — Entries: 
Xo. 1, ploughman Adam Dennis, driver Raebur 
Dennis, 2nd prize £3 ; No. XL, ploughman Robert 
Hutson, driver Edward Dawe, jun., 3rd prize 
£1 ; No. III., ploughman James Rixon, driver 
Ben Rixon, jun. ; No. IV., ploughman Stephen 
Lynch, driver Phillip Town, 1st prize £5; No. 
v., ploughman John Rixon, driver Archie 
Gillespie. 

Ploughing match in connection with he 
Kiama A. & H. Society was held on 20th Feb- 
ruary, 1857, in Mr. Thomas Tempest's paddock 
(near the Jamberoo Recreation Ground), Jam- 
beroo. This match was conducted under diffi- 
culties owing to the uneven nature of the ground 
at the time. The drawing for places decided 
against four of the competitors, who retired. 
Rain also operated against the men. The boys 
were, on the other hand, quite happy, and put 
in good work. The following is the results: — 
Thomas Campbell won 1st prize, valued at 
£7/10/-; George Wood, jun., won 2nd prize, 
valued at £4; Thomas Gould won 3rd prize, 
valued at £3. These ploughmen were at the 
time of the match under 20 years of age, hence 
the term boys. 

During the time the match was in progress 
it was witnessed by a large and orderly crowd 
of interested farmers. A shooting match had 
been arranged with Colt's revolvers; distance 
84 yards. Eighteen shots were fired, and Mr. 
Will'' am Black was declared the winner. At 
the conclusion of this match a meeting was 
held, at which it was decided to meet later at 
Mr. John Reed's hotel, Kiama. This meeting 



2U 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



took place, as arranged, on 10th March, 1857, 
when a Gun and Revolver Club was formed. 

At the Dapto Show held on 28th February, 
1857, there was a fine display of horned cattle, 
and the most numerous ever seen in the dis- 
trict. The stock display was good and was com- 
posed of : Horse stock -. horses, 4 ; colts, 4 ; mares, 
7 ; fillies, 2 ; total 18. Blood Stock : horses, 1 ; 
colts, 3 ; mares, 9 ; fillies, 2 ; total, 15. Horned 
Cattle : aged bulls 8 ; two-year-old bulls, 5 ; cows, 
54 ; heifers, 22 ; fat bullocks, 9 ; calves, 4 ; total, 
102. Swine: boars, 4; sows, 6; total, 10. The 
gross number of entries 355 ; 65 competitors. 
Prizes — Horses : best draught horse, Evan R. 
Evans 1st prize; best blood horse, James Mc- 
Gill 1st prize; best draught mare, Joseph Dun- 
ster 1st prize; best blood mare, Thomas Who- 
lohan 1st prize; best draught two-year-old 
colt, George Tate, protest entered ; best draught 
two-year old filly, Henry Lee, protest entered; 
best blood two-year-old colt, George Buchanan, 
1st prize; best blood two-year-old filly, James 
McGill 1st prize. Cattle: best bull (any age), 
Edward Graham 1st prize; best bull (any age), 
Joseph Ritchie 2nd prize; best bull (any age), 
Andrew McGill 3rd prize; best bull (2 years 
old), David Johnston 1st prize; best cow, David 
Johnston 1st prize; best cow, Edward Graham 
2nd prize ; best cow, David Johnston 3rd prize ; 
best heifer (2 years old), William Wilson 1st 
prize ; best heifer (2 years old) David John- 
ston 2nd prize ; best fat beast, David Johnston 
1st prize; best fat beast, Joseph Ritchie 2nd 
prize; best fat calf, Mrs. Fitzgerald 1st prize. 
Swine: John Armstrong, D. W. Irving, John 
Graham, Stephen Lynch and G. W. Brown 
divided honours. 

A meeting of the Society was held at Mr. Jim 
Heatherington's Hotel, Wollongong, on March 
]8th, 1858. It would appear that the dignified, 
courteous, and kindly disposed President, Mr. 
Francis Peter McCabe, had accidentally trod 
on someone's pet corn — there was a consider- 
able amount of fuss. Then Mr. George William 
Brown resigned, and Mr. James R. Cummins 
took over the entire control of the books of 
the Society, and lasting peace was restored. 

The lUawarra A- & H. Association held meet- 
ing at Commercial Hotel, Wollongong, on Oc- 
tober 4th, 1858, Robert Haworth in the chair. 
A report was laid before the meeting. £50 was 
collected, of which £20 was collected at Terry's 
Meadows by James McGill and Evan Evans. 
Next meeting was held at Davis' Harp Inn, on 
31st January, 1859, when arrangements were 
made to hold the show in Market Square, Wol- 



longong on 9th February, 1859, ploughing 
matches to be held on 7th February, 1859. 
Messrs. McCabe, Hales, Stemmel, Evans and 
Elliott were appointed a sub-committee to ap- 
point Judges. 

The faith of the farmers in the possibility of 
holding the Illawarra district shows under one 
central committee. The year 1856 was fruitful 
of discontent. 

The Committee for 1859-60 comprised: Mr. 
F. P. McCabe (President), Mr. James R. Cum- 
mins (Secretary), and Mr. George Hewlett 
(Treasurer) ; Mr. Thomas Hale was elected 
Vice-President; Messrs. C. T. Smith, Evan 
Evans, Dr. Alex. Osborne, Thomas Garrett, F. 
Stenell, S. D. Lott, John Somerville, William 
Kirton, Dr. G. P. Lambert, Andrew McGill, 
William Spence, A. McKenzie (Ellengowan), 
A. McKenzie (Bulli), Andrew Elliott, Robert 
Osborne, G. G. Rogers, and Andrew Thompson. 
It was decided to hold the show in Wollongong 
on 12th February, 1859. Ploughing match to 
take place at Mr. Andy Lysaught's Hotel, Fairy 
Meadow, on 5th January, 1859. Messrs. R. 
Haworth, Robert Longmore, Patrick Higgins, 
Percy Owen, and Evan R. Evans, jun., were 
added to the Committee. For the ploughing 
match only two teams started. James Rixon 
ploughman, John Rixon driver, 1st prize (£3), 
won by Rixon ; Ben Rixon, jun., ploughman, A. 
Robertson driver, 2nd prize (£2), won by Ben 
Rixon, jun. 

The 15th annual show took place in the Mar- 
ket Square, Wollongong, on February 12th, 
1859. Horse stock: Judges, Messrs. Burke, 
Gallaway, and Kerr. Best draught stallion, no 
prize awarded; best blood stallion (30/-), Mr. 
P. McHugh 1st prize; best draught mare (30/-), 
Mr. Felix Darragh 1st prize; best blood inare 
(30/-), Mr. P. McHugh 1st prize; best draught 
two-year-old stallion (30/-), Mr. Joseph Dun- 
ster 1st prize; best two-year-old draught geld- 
ing (£1), Mr. John Graham (Avondale) 1st 
prize; best blood two-year-old colt (20/-), Mr. 
P. McHugh 1st prize; best blood two-year-old 
any age (£3), Andrew McGill 1st prize, only 
one exhibitor; best cow (£3), Evan Evans 1st 
prize ; second i)est cow (30/-), Evan Evans ; best 
three-year-old heifer (30/-), Joseph Ritchie 1st 
prize; best fat beast (20/-), Andrew McGill 1st 
prize; best boar, John Geddes; best sow. John 
Geddes. The show dinner was a great success, 
and 40 people were present. Mr. F. R. McCabe 
occupied the chair, whilst Captain Hart occu- 
pied the vice-chair. Donations to the show 
amounted to £90/16/6, door taking's £4/2/4; ex- 



THE niSTOHY OF ILLAWAliliA 



235 



peuses, prize £63/7/6, other exijenses £27/9/7. 
leaving cash in hand £4/1/9. 

The show for 1860 was to be held in Wol- 
longong in January, 1860, and the ploughing 
match on May 5th, 1860. Prizes for ploughing 
match : Best executed work, 1st prize £5, second 
best £3, third best £1. The Society was com- 
manding attention. His Excellency the Gover- 
nor-General was Patron. President, Mr. C. T. 
Smith ; Vice-President, Mr. Thomas Hale ; Alder- 
man Hewlett, Treasurer; James R. Cummins, 
Secretary; Committee, Councillors Evans, 
McGill, and Ritchie, and Messrs. Fred. R. Cole, 
Robert Longmore, Aldermen James Wilshire, 
J. R. Robson, Lott, Messrs. Evan R. Evans, jun., 
Thomas Garrett, Richard Dennis, W. D. Wright, 
Henry Hill Osborne, John Somerville, Robert 
Wilson, Dr. G. P. Lambert, Messrs. T. A. Red- 
dall, William Kirton, William Osborne, William 
Spence, Thomas Garrett, M.P., D. W. Irving, 
A. McKenzie (Ellengown), Andrew Elliott, G. 
S. Rogers, Andrew Thompson, John Musgrave, 
James McGill, John Rixon, John Evans, and 
Michael Devlin. Mr. George Pinchin was ap- 
pointed collector. With a view of pouring 
oil on the troubled waters, Mr. Garrett, M.P., 
hinted that it might be a wise step to hold the 
next show at Dapto. Mr. C. T. Smith consider- 
ed it would be useless, as it had been tried 
and proved a failure. Mr. Robert Haworth con- 
sidered it would be a wrong move, now that 
they were established, to go to Dapto. It was 
then decided to hold the next show in Wollon- 
gong on 24th January, 1860, the ploughing 
match to take place at Dapto. Messrs. Robert 
Wilson and John Evans, of Shellharbour, were 
added to the Committee. Messrs. Evan Evans, 
Joseph Ritchie, and John Rixon were appointed 
sub-committees to select judges for the forth- 
coming show. 

At the Illawarra A. & H. Society's show, 
1860, the judges for horse stock were Messrs. 
William Keele, Archibald Beatson, and Thomas 
Wholohan, and gave satisfaction. Both blood 
and draught horse stock were very superior 
A chestnut two-year-old blood stallion, bred by 
Mr. James McGill, got by "Hopping Joe" out 
of a mare named "Queen," was much admired. 
Mr. John Smith, of Shoalhaven (formerly of 
Illawarra) exhibited the well-known race mare 
"Whynot," a great turf performer. In 1850 
she beat Sir Charles in the Maiden Plate, and 
in the following year, when ridden by Mr. 
James McGill. she ran neck and neck with 
"The Plover." Mr. Smith also exhibited the 
blood stallion Mozart," three years old, in the 



aged horse class. His dam was "Whynot." In 
horned cattle Mr. Andrew McGill exhibited a 
fine two-year-old bull, equal to anything exhibit- 
ed in Illawarra, and a remarkably well-bred 
cow, got by an imported bull out of an imported 
cow, and was sold to Mr. McGill by Mr. Duncan 
Beatson, who had purchased her from Mr. Rodd, 
of Five Dock, Cumberland. Note. — It was said 
that this cow founded the McGill "Scotch Jock" 
strain. 

The prizes : — Horses : Best draught stallion, 
Mr. Andrew McGill 1st prize, Mr. Evan Evans 
2nd prize ; best blood stallion, Mr. Thomas Sla- 
vin, 1st prize. Messrs. John Smith, Hugh Gal- 
lagher, Jas. H. Evans, John Maxwell, George 
Osborne also exhibited in this class. Best blood 
mare, Mr. William Osborne 1st prize. Messrs. 
John Graham, Jas. H. Swan, and John Smith 
also exhibited in this class. Best draught two- 
year-old stallion, Mr. Thomas Coughrane 1st 
prize. Mr. John Collins exhibited in this class. 
Best draught two-year-old filly, Mr. Edward 
Dawes 1st prize. Mr. William James also ex- 
hibited. Best blood two-year-old stallion, James 
McGill 1st prize. Horned cattle : Best bull, any 
age, Andrew McGill 1st prize, Peter Coleman 
2nd prize. Messrs. Jas. H. Swan and William 
Wilson also exhibited. Best cow, Andrew 
McGill 1st prize, Mr. Evans Evans 2ad prize. 
Messrs. Evans exhibited three cows, Samuel 
Parkes and Joseph Ritchie two cows each, in 
this class. Best heifer, Mr. Andrew McGill 1st 
and 2nd prizes. Best fat beast, Mr. Andrew 
McGill 1st prize, Mr. Samuel Parkes 2nd prize. 
Mr. Joseph Ritchie also exhibited in this class. 
Best fat calves, Mr. Samuel Parkes 1st prize. 
Mr. Parkes had two exhibits, and Mr. John 
Geddes one exhibit, in this class. Swine: Best 
boar, Mr. Robert Marshall 1st prize, Mr. W. 
Brown 2nd prize; best sow, Mr. W. Brown 1st 
prize, Mr. John Graham 2nd prize. The sum 
of £71/12/6 was duly paid out in prizes by the 
Treasurer, and the funds of the Society only 
amounted to £82/10/3. It will thus be seen 
that in those times much work was put into 
these shows of a highly honourable nature. 

In 1860 Robert Issel Perrott was President of 
the Kiama A. and H. Society, and William Ir- 
vine, the Secretary. No more impossible men 
could be selected for those positions. They mix- 
ed their own ai¥airs with the business of the 
Society. 

The Berrys, of C®olangatta, confiscated 
the files of the "Kiama Examiner," the 
result of a libel action through the proprie- 
tors, Messrs. Barr and Pratt, daring to publish a 



236 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAllKA 



strong address delivered in Wollongong, by 
Dr. John Dunmore Lang. Dr. George Under- 
wood Alley reported the speech, and Barr 
and Pratt foolishly published it. Had the speech 
been delivered in Kiama, they could have done 
so safely. As it was, every file of the "Exami- 
ner" was seized and destroyed, and the printing 
press carried away. 

The loss of the "Kiama Examiner" deprived 
the Kiama district of its newspaper information 
to a great extent until the founding of the 
"Kiama Independent," in 1563. 

The pleuro-pneumonia had been introduced 
into Kiama district by Cook Bros., who had a 
butchering business in Manning Street, and were 
leasing Marsden Hill for grazing and slaught- 
ering their beef cattle. It was a serious out- 
break, and quite upset the shows. 

At a meeting of the Society held on 22nd 
October, 1860, Mr. C. T. Smith was elected Pre- 
sident, ]Mr. Andrew Elliott, Treasurer, and Mr. 
John Biggar, Secretary. The following names 
were added to the previous Committee : Messrs. 
A. Elliott, R. J. Hales, D. Aitkin, W. P. Lloyd, 
James Hetherington, Henry J. Marr, Archie 
Beatson, George Hewlett, and James R. Cum- 
mins. Next show to be held on the last Tuesday 
in January, 1861. Mr. David Williamson Irving 
suggested to read an essay on "Agriculture" 
in connection with what was known then as 
the ' ' 'Connell Classics. ' ' A deadlock occurred 
owing to a technical error in the appointment 
of the show officials. Eventually there was a 
committee of management appointed to arrange 
a general meeting of the members on the 16th 
September 1861, at which was adopted 14 rules 
to regulate the Illawarra A. & H. Society. His 
Excellency the Governor, Patron; President, 
Mr. Robert Owen; Vice-President, Mr. J. H. 
Marr ; Treasurer, Alexander Elliott ; Hon. Sec- 
retary, James R. Cummins; Auditors, Messrs. 
S. D. Lott and D. Aitkin. The prize-list was 
gone through, and the same prizes were sug- 
gested as previous shows, viz. : Best draught 
stallion, £3; best blood stallion, £3; best bull, 
anv age, £3; best cow. £3; the other prizes 
being of lesser value, without any addition to 
the number of classes. Best draught stallion, 
Thomas Coughrane 1st prize; best blood stal- 
lion, Robert Martin 1st prize; best blood mare, 
Joseph Ritchie 1st prize; best draught two- 
year-old stallion, W. H. Swan 1st prize; best 
draught two-year-old filly, Thomas Coughrane 
1st prize; best blood two-year-old filly, Thomas 
^laher 1st prize. Cattle- ''^est bull, any age. 



Andrew McGill 1st prize; best bull, two-years- 
old, Andrew McGill 1st prize; best cow, Evan 
Evans 1st prize; best heifer, two-years-old, An- 
drew McGill 1st prize; best calf, John Geddes 
1st prize; best fat beast, Andrew McGill 1st 
prize. Swine: Best boar, Ben Marshall 1st 
prize, W. Brown 2nd prize; best sow, John 
Geddes 1st prize, Ben Marshall 2nd prize. 

The entries were as follows : — Thomas Maher, 
1 blood mare, 1 blood filly; John Rixon, 1 
draught filly, 2-year-old; Bernard MeCawley, 1 
draught mare; Joseph Ritchie, 1 draught mare, 

1 blood mare; John Maxwell, 1 draught mare; 
Andrew McNeil, 1 bull (aged), 1 2-year-old bull, 
3 cows, 1 fat cow, 2 heifers; Evan Evans, 1 2- 
year-old bull, 1 bull (aged), 1 draught stallion, 

2 cows, 1 2-year-old heifer, 1 fat cow; Robert 
Martin, 1 blood stallion, 1 draught stallion; W. 
Brown, 1 boar, 1 fat pig, 1 fat calf; "W. H. Swan, 
1 draught stallion, 2-year-old; Thomas Cough- 
rane, 1 draught stallion, 1 blood stallion; 1 
draught mare, 1 draught 2-year-old filly; Ben. 
Marshall, 1 boar, 1 sow; John Geddes, 1 calf, 
1 sow, 1 fat beast; James Hetherington, 1 blood 
2-year-old fillly. 

It will be seen that in aged bulls only one 
prize was awarded; yet provision was made for 
a second prize. The same applied in the case 
of the aged cow class, only one award was made. 
The judge's remarks were not considered of 
sufficient merit. 

Illawarra A. &. H. Society's, Show, 1862. 
Prize List: Best Draught Stallion, £3; Best 
Blood Stallion, £3 ; Best Daught Mare, £1 10s. ; 
Best Blood Mare, £1 10s.; Best Draught 2 
years old Stallion, £1 10s. ; Best Draught 2 years 
old Filly, £1 ; Best Blood Colt, £1 ; Best Blood 
Filly, £1 ; Best Bull, any age, £3 ; 2nd Best Bull, 
£1 ; Best Bull 2 years old, £1 10s. ; Best Cow, £3 ; 
2nd Best Cow, £1 10s. ; Best Heifer, 2 years old, 
£1 10s. ; 2nd Best Heifer, 2 years old, £1 ; Best 
Fat Beast, £1 ; Best Fat Calf, 10s. ; Best Boar. 
£2; 2nd Best Boar, £1; Best Sow, £2; 2nd Best 
Sow, £1 ; Best Pat Pig, £1. 

Prizewinners : Best Draught Stallion, Thomas 
Coughrane; Best Blood Stallion, Robert Mar- 
tin; Best Blood Mare, Joseph Ritchie; Best 
Draught 2 years old Stallion, W. H. Swan, Best 
Draught 2 years old Filly, Thomas Coughrane : 
Best Blood 2 years old Colt, no exhibit; Best 
Blood 2 years old Filly, Thomas Maher; Best 
Bull, anv age, Andrew McGill; 2nd Best Bull 
(no prize) ; Best Bull 2 years old, Andrew Mc- 
Gill ; Best Cow, Evan R. Evans ; 2nd Best Cow 
(no prize) ; Best Heifer 2 years old, Andrew 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



237 



AleGill; 2nd Best Heifer (no prize); Best Fat 
Beast, Andrew McGill ; Best Calf, John Geddes ; 
Best Boar, Benjamin Marshall; 2nd Best, Wil- 
liam Brown ; Best Sow, John Geddes ; 2nd Best, 
Benjamin Marshall; Best Fat Pig, William 
Brown. 

Exhibits: Thomas Maher, I blood Mare, 1 
Blood filly; John Rixon, 1 draught 2 years old 
filly; Bernard MeCauley, 1 draught mare; oJ- 
seph Ritchie, 1 draught mare, 1 blood mare; 
John ^Maxwell, 1 draught mare.; Andrew Me- 
Gill, 1 fat cow, 2 heifers, 1 aged bull, 1 2 years 
old bull, 3 cows ; Evan R. Evans, 1 draught stal- 
lion, 1 aged bull, 1 2 years old bull, 2 cows, 
1 2-years-old heifer, 1 fat cow, 1 blood colt, 
a draught stallion (exhibited by Robert Mar- 
tin) ; William Brown, 1 boar, 1 sow, 1 fat pig, 
1 fat calf ; William H. Swan, 1 draught stallion, 
1 2-years-old draught stallion; Thomas Cough- 
rane, 1 draught stallion, 1 blood stallion, 1 
draught mare, 1 draught 2-years-old 
filly; Benjamin Marshall, 1 boar, 1 
sow; John Geddes, 1 calf, 1 sow, 1 
fat beast ; James Hetherington, 1 blood 2 years 
old filly. 

Note. — The Judges were either exacting, or 
the stock generally were not up to the stand- 
ard in some instances. 

The Shoalhaven Estate A. and H. Society, 
which was composed only of the tenantry and 
a few others connected with the estate, was ini- 
tiated on 1st September, 1863, with Alexander 
Berry, Esq., Patron; Mr. David Berry, Presi- 
dent; Mr. Henry Gordon Morton, Vice-Presi- 
dent. Committees of Management (St. Vincent), 
Messrs. Robert Armstrong, Alexander Aberdeen, 
William Morrison and James Wallace ;(Bolong), 
Messrs. James McGuire, and Samuel Upton: 
(Coolangatta), Mr. James Houston; (Brough- 
ton Creek), Mr. James Wilson; (Gerringong). 
Messrs. Henry Lee and James Lang. Mr. James 
Lang was Treasurer, and Mr. John Bindon Sec- 
retary. Eleven rules were adopted, and a long 
list of subscribers was secured. It would ap- 
pear, however, that a good many of those who 
handed in their names to the Committee of 
Slanagement did not complete their obligations. 

List of members: St. Vincent — Alexander 
Aberdeen, Robert Aberdeen, Robert Armstrong, 
John James Armstrong, William Bellsham, 
Hugh Bates, Robert Burrdale, William Connolly, 
Thomas Condon, John Caffrey, Patrick Caffrey, 
Alexander Campbell, John Craig, Revd. Father 
D'Arcy, Charles Caine Dixon, Jeremiah Dono- 
hue, Davie Dwyer, Joseph Ephrins, Allen Flem- 



ing, Duncan Finlayson, William Gollan (jun), 
James Gollan, John Gollan, Ronald Gollan, 
Benjamin Hart, Matthew Hart, Daniel Harris, 
Isaac Hewitt, John Houston, John Irvine, Geo. 
Jamieson, Patrick Jullian, John Kennedy, 
Michael Kennedy, Peter Kelly, Thomas Kelly, 
Stephen Knapp, Donald Lamond, James Lang, 
Michael Lenehan, Robert Levlie, Robert Miller, 
William Cuthbert Morrison, Alexander Mcln- 
tyre, Alexander Mclnnes, Lachlan McKinnon, 
Frank Mordrain, Lachlan McTaggert, Michael 
Murphy, Christopher Murray, Christopher Mc- 
Lean, Andrew Madden, William Miller, Martin 
Morrison, Peter McLean, Henry Gordon Mor- 
ton, Revd. William Mitchell, Andrew Noble, 
Argus Noble, David O'Keefe, Angus O'Keefe. 
Cornelius O'Neil, Maurice O'Connor, Edward 
Pryee, Samuel Potter, Robert Pollock (snr.), 
Patrick Ryder, John Reid, James Ryan, Arthur 
Smith, Bernard Shannon, John Shannon, Wil- 
liam Truston, Francis Thompson, John Turner, 
Frederick Walters, James Wallace, David Wad- 
dell, John Watts, William Wood, Joseph Wil- 
liamson, William Anderson Wheatley, Revd. 
Richard W. Young (Coolangatta), William 
Berry, David Berry, Cornelius C. Brettell, Geo. 
Brook, Michael Courtney, Michael, Condon, 
John Connolly, William Dawes, James Davies, 
George Davies, Alexander Fraser, William 
Greenaway, James Houston, William Holden, 
Smith, Bernard Shannon, John Shannon, Wil- 
litt; Bolong— Peter Burke, John Bindon, John 
Collingwood, Henry Comerford (snr.), Henry 
Comerford (jnr.). 

Pleuro-pneumonia. — A committee was formed 
in Jamberoo, consisting of Messrs. D. Hartigan, 
George Wood (jnr.), Alexander Gordon, James 
English, William Wright, John Cole, Hugh Dud- 
geon, John Noble, George Tate (jnr.), Joseph 
Howard, George Watson, Denis McCarthy, John 
Black, Robert Young, Robert Knight, D. L. 
Dymock, John Dymock, John Tate (jnr.), Henry 
Young, William Graham, Walter Curry, Henry 
Frederick. The objective of this meeting held 
at Curry's Jamberoo Arms Hotel, 20th July, 
1863, was to give a Mr. Hall, who was present, 
an opportunity of demonstrating that which he 
claimed, to wit, cure cattle suffering from 
pleuro-pneumonia, without having to resort to 
inoculation. Needless to say, he failed to 
satisfy the committee. 

The Shoalhaven Estate A. and H. Society's 
show, held April 15th, 1864, List of prizes:— 
Best draught imported stallion, McLean 1st 
prize: best draught imported mare, Andre De 



238 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAKRA 



Mestre, 1st prize ; best blood imported stallion, 
Ette De Mestre, 1st prize; best colonial draught 
mare, John Elliott, 1st prize; best colonial-bred 
blood mare — James Thompson, 1st prize; best 2- 
year-old blood filly, CoUingwood, 1st prize; best 
blood gelding, James McGuire, 1st prize; best 
Ayrshire bull, Angus McKay, 1st prize ; best 
milch cow, William Gollan, 1st prize; best pair 
bullocks, — Knapp, 1st prize; best boar, Robert 
Armstrong, 1st prize ; best sow, John Gollan, 1st 
prize. 

The Shoalhaven Estate Ploughing Match, held 
in the blacksmith's paddock, Numbaa township, 
21st June, 1864 : — Class 1, horse teams, 1st prize, 
£5; 2nd prize, £4; 3rd prize, £2. Class 2, bul- 
lock teams, 1st prize, £5; 2nd prize, £4; 3rd 
prize, £2; Class 3, youths, under 18 years of 
age, bullock teams, 1st prize, £4 ; 2nd prize, £2 ; 
Mr. John Bindon, Secretary. 

Kiama A. and H. Society's Ploughing 
Matches, held in Howard's Flat, Jamberoo, 
known as the Hermitage Farm. Messrs John 
O'Meara and Walter Curry had the publican's 
booth on ground. 1st prize was won by James 
Black; 2nd prize was won by Thomas Healey; 
3rd prize was won by George Tate, jnr. (Mr. 
George Tate was then a blacksmith in Jambe- 
roo) ; 4th prize was won by John Murphy. 
Youths' Match: 1st prize was won by James 
Bucket ; 2nd prize was won by James Healey. A 
social evening was spent after the matches were 
over at Walter Curry's Jamberoo Arms Hotel. 

First annual meeting of the Shoalhaven Es- 
tate was held at the Royal Hotel, Numbaa on 
7th September, 1864. Mr. Henry Gordon Mor- 
ten in the chair, who stated that this society 
was established on 1st September, 1863. It had 
216 members enrolled, 121 had already paid 
their subscriptions. An exhibition of produce, 
implements, and live stock was held on 29th day 
of July, 1864. The following gentlemen gave 
donations : — Messrs. Andre De Mestre, A. A. 
Wheatley, of Shoalhaven; Messrs. Henry Whit- 
tingham, John Elliott, and George Ballen, of 
Kiama. The president (Mr. Morton) placed the 
report before the meeting, which was adopted, 
on motion by Messrs. William Gollan, jnr., and 
John Campbell. The balance-sheet showed, by 
subscriptions, £62; donations and entrance, £7 
3s. 6d. ; on debit side was printing, stationery, 
postage, £14 14s. lid. ; individual expenses, £4 
18s. 6d. ; cash to the society, £5; paid in prizes, 
£34 14s.; total, £59 18s. 6d. ; cash in hand. £9 
]6s. Id.; auditors, Messrs. A. A. Wheatley and 
C. C. Bretell; John Bindon, secretary. 



Second annual meeting of the Shoalhaven 
Estate A. and H. Society, held September 12th, 
1865. The following donations were received: 
—Messrs. Berry Bros., £10; the I.S.N. Co., £5; 
Messrs. Thomas McCaffery, Hazlett, and Ma- 
thews, of Sydney; Messrs. Henry Whittinghara, 
John Farraher, Henry Grey, John Williams, 
and Robert Miller, of Kiama; Andre De Mestre 
and John Monaghan, of Shoalhaven gave £1 
each. Receipts, £75 14s. 6d. Expenses, £75 12s. 
14d. Balance, 2/4^. 

Ploughing matches lapsed owing to the rav- 
ages of pleuro-pnevimonia among the herds. 

The pleuro-pueumonia in the dairy herd was 
playing havoc with the shows south of Dapto. 
Then the trouble of getting suitable judges 
sprung up suddenly. At a show held in an 
open yard, where the "Kiama Independent ' ' 
newspaper offices stand to-day, there was a fine 
display of cattle, in 1864. Mr. Charles McCaf- 
frey, of Jerrara, had some choice cattle bred 
from the imported stock of Mr. Henry Osborne. 
They were not valued by the judge. This caused 
Mr. McCaffrey to remark, "It is plain, judging 
cattle, like Kissing, goes by favour." Theie 
was also much carelessness practised by Secre- 
taries of these shows. The "Kiama Indepen- 
dent," of September the 14th, 1865, put mat- 
ters honestly before its readers as follows: — 
"The Agricultural Association which once exist- 
ed in Kiama, and held several successful shows, 
exhibitions that were highly creditable to the 
district, has apparently quite ceased to exist. 
Even the annual ploughing match, the last sur- 
viving portion of the proceedings, which has 
with something like regularity been held in 
Jamberoo during late years, was hardly men- 
tioned at the season when it should have taken 
place last year." No doubt, however, the 
pleuro-pneumonia was the chiefest cause. 

The Shoalhaven Estate Show was held 1st 
March, 1866. This show was held at Broughton 
Creek. The horse judges were Messrs. McGill. 
Waddington, and Thompson. 

Best colonial draught entire, William R 
Hindmarsh, 1st prize,; best colonial draught 
mare, Robert Miller, 1st prize; best colonial 
draught 2-year-old entire, Francis Grey, 1st 
prize; best colonial blood mare, John Smith, 1st 
prize; best colonial blood 2-year-old filly. D. F. 
McPherson, 1st prize; best colonial blood 2- 
year-old draught filly, Burradale, 1st prize; 
best coaching mare (colonial bred), Robert Mil- 
ler, 1st prize. 



239 



ALFRED W. DUNCAN, Berkeley, Unanderra. 




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THE HISTORY OF ILL AW AURA 



241 



Cattle — Judges, Messrs. Henry Grey, Robert 
lliller, Robert Armstrong, and A. Campbell. 

Prior to John Boxell going to Mudgee to buy 
the Lowe-bred bull, which figured at the Berry 
and Shoalhaveu shows, and sired George Yates' 
bull Boxer, he had a very excellent herd of dairy 
cattle of the old Longhorn type. Several of them 
had white dorsal streaks. They were roan and 
strawberry cows showing dark hairs throughout 
their body. From one of those old type cows 
which displayed the Longhorned Durham char- 
acter, he bred a red bull that was generally 
considered the best bull in the Berry district. 
He then put the Lowe-bred bull into the herd, 
and gradually lost the old type. Note. — My in- 
formant was a neighbour and a personal friend 
of John Boxell, a man who knew what he was 
talking about, and a man of much experience in 
tattle. 

Best colonial-bred bull, any age, John Boxell 
(bred by Lowe, Mudgee), 1st prize; best co- 
lonial-bred bull, 2-year-old, Thomas Black, 1st 
• prize; best colonial-bred cow, any age, Robert 
Tait, 1st prize; best pair of working bullocks, 
John Grey, 1st prize. 

Pigs — Judges, Messrs. Waddington, John Gol- 
lan, and Robert Armstrong. Best boar, James 
Robinson; best sow, William Stewart. 

Butter — Mrs. Christie Murray and Miss Ste- 
wart won all the prizes. 

The Shoalhaven Estate ploughing matches, 
held on 26th June, 1866. — 1st match — Horse 
teams, 1st prize, £5; 2nd prize, £2 10s.; 3rd 
prize, £1. 2nd match — Bullock teams, 1st prize, 
£5 ; 2nd prize, £2 10s. ; 3rd prize, £1. 3rd match 
— Youths under 18 years, 1st prize, £3; 2nd 
prize, £1 10s.; 3rd prize, £1. 

Ploughing matches at Jamberoo, under the 
auspices of the Kiama A. and H. Society — John 
O'Meara 1st prize; Edwin Vidler, jnr., 2nd 
prize; William Welch, 3rd prize. Youths' 
Match, under 18 years old, John Collins, jnr., 
1st prize; 210 second prize. 

Ploughing match at Whopindilly, Ulladulla, 
in Mr. Kendall's paddock. Match, bullock teams 
— 1st prize, £5, Thomas Smith; 2nd prize, £3, 
Stephen Knapp; 3rd prize, £1 10s., Thomas 
Gover. Judges, Messrs. McLean and Houston. 

Mr. John Black, Mayor of Kiama, called a 
meeting at the Court House, to arrange matters 
in connection with the Kiama A. and H. So- 
ciety, for the 20th September, 1866. At this 
meeting, Mr. John Black (Mayor) took the 
chair. Mr. John Marks proposed the first re- 
solution: "That in the opinion of this meeting, 



it is desirable to reorganise the Kiama 
Agricultural and Horticultural Association." 
This motion was seconded by Mr. Robert Miller, 
and carried unanimously. The second resolution 
was moved by Mr. John Black: "That the fol- 
lowing gentlemen form a committee for the pur- 
pose of making the necessary arrangements to 
secure the permanent standing and success, viz., 
Messrs. John Marks, James Robb, Michael Hind- 
marsh, James Colley, Robert Miller, jnr., Tho- 
mas Chapman, William Moles, John Black, 
James McGill, David Lindsay Dymock, Samuel 
Charles, Robert Stobo, George King Waldron, 
Nicholas Craig, George Adams, William Eng- 
lish, George Hindmarsh, James Blow, John Mc- 
Lelland, Henry Fredericks, James Harvison, 
Samuel Marks, George Gale, Joseph Pike, John 
Hukins, Walter Curry, John King, Joseph Wes- 
ton, Stephen Tobin, Henry Lee, George Grey, 
George Bullen, Thomas McCaffrey, Robert Ken- 
dall, William James, Henry Grey, Humphrey 
Dunster, with power to add to the number." 
This was seconded by James Harvison, and car- 
ried. Mr. Joseph Weston, Hon. Secretary. 

Meeting of the Kiama A. and H. Society on 
10th October, 1866. Present— Messrs. Robert 
Miller, jnr., John Black, James Harvison, Nicho- 
las Craig, John Geary, James Spinks, and the 
Secretary, Mr. Joseph Weston. Mr. John Marks 
was appointed President, Mr. Robert Miller, 
Vice-President, Mr. John King, Treasurer, and 
Messrs. John Black and Joseph Weston. Joint 
Secretaries. It was decided to hold a show in 
Kiama, on 27th February, 1867. 

The 4th annual meeting of the Shoalhaven Es- 
tate A. and H. Society was held on 6th of Feb- 
ruary, 1867, on the roadside, about two miles 
south of Gerringong. On the Berry Estate at 
chat time there were 400 tenants. The owners 
of the estate erected a building for the occa- 
sion, 50ft. long and 22ft. wide, of weatherboards 
and shingle-roof. It was intended for a school. 
There was also a long row of cattle pens erected. 
The horse judges were Messrs. Thomas, Thomp- 
son, and Sharpe. The prizes were awarded as 
follows : — 

Best blood stallion, £2, George K. Waldron. 
1st prize; best draught stallion, £2, Francis 
Grey, 1st prize; best coaching stallion, £1, John 
Farraher, 1st prize ; best 2-year-old draught colt. 
£1 10s., George Tate, 1st prize; best blood mare 
£1 10s., Joseph York's Nina, 1st prize; best 
draught mare, £1 10s., D. McLean, 1st prize; 
best coaching mare, £1 10s., Stephen Tobin, 1st 
prize; best blood colt, £1, Thomas Melntyre, 1st 



242 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAKliA 



prize ; best blood filly, £1, William Cunningiiaiifi. 
1st prize; best draught colt, £1, Francis Mcln- 
tyre,. 1st prize; best draught filly, £1, William 
Williams, 1st prize. 

Cattle. — Judges, Messrs. Thompson, Grey and 
Armstrong: — Best bull, any age, £2, George 
Tate, 1st prize; best bull, any age, £1, Henry 
Lee, 2nd prize; best cow, £2, Charles Wiley, 1st 
prize; best cow, £1, Robert Miller, 2nd prize. 

In pigs, Messrs. Thomas Black, Thomas Mc- 
Intyre and William won the prizes. 

1866-7. — "After a lapse of a few years," says 
the "Kiama Independent," "the A. & H. 
Society show, as recommended by the committee 
appointed in 1866, was held during February, 
1867." This show was a success, and the Show 
Committee that followed on afterwards aimed 
at success every year onward. John Black and 
Joseph Weston were the Joint Secretaries. The 
show of stock was held in the Market Square. 
Kiama. The horse judges were Neil Sharpe, 
Eobert Martin, and John Black. The cattle 
judges were Alexander Gordon, George Hind- 
marsh, William Brown, Thomas McKenzie, John 
Thorburn; Dairy and Farm Produce, James 
Bobb, jnr. ; Samuel Marks, and Humphrey 
Dunster. 

W. N. Hindmarsh had on exhibition a bull 
in 2-year-old class. The judges and the public 
considered he was over the age. Hindmarsh 
took a declaration that the bull was under 3 
years old, and it was accepted by the Committee. 

At this show, Henry Fredericks, of Clover 
Hill, Mount Brandon, had three cows bred by 
himself in charge of Thomas Alexander. Their 
respective names were: — "Beauty," color roan; 
"Stately," colour red; "Nancy," colour red. 
"Stately" won the 2nd prize. Her hip was out 
of place, but she possessed a perfect udder. 
They were of the Henry Osborne strain. 

The Committee of the Kiama A. and H. So- 
ciety for 1868 were: — Messrs. N. Craig, John 
Geary, William Robb, John Black, Joseph Wes- 
ton, George Bullen, John Marks (President), 
Eobert Miller (Vice-President). Working Com- 
mittee — John Marks, John Black, Joseph Wes- 
ton, N. Craig, George Bullen, William Robb, 
James Spinks, James Harvison, William Eng- 
lish, James Marks, C. D. Young, James Somer- 
ville, D. L. Dymoek, Samuel Charles, James 
McGill, Humphrey Dunster, William James, 
Thomas Black, Robert Miller, Joseph Redford, 
George Tate; Thomas McCaffrey, Hugh CoUey, 
Edward Parish, George Hindmarsh, John King, 
George Grey, William Grey, Francis Grey, 



James Colley, Dixon King. John King was ap- 
pointed Treasurer, and John Black and Joseph 
Weston, Joint Secretaries. 

The Committee decided to have but two classes 
of cattle at the forthcoming show, namely Dur- 
hams and Ayrshire. This was the beginning of 
pure Shorthorn, or, in other words, the beef- 
shorthorn craze. Arguments were frequent in 
all public places and at church meetings. It 
was held by many that as the best dairy cattle 
in the Illawarra district were a cross between 
the Durham and Ayrshire, it was plain that the 
purer these two breeds were kept the better it 
would be for the dairymen. Henry Fredericks 
had, at this time, four noted cows named ' ' Nelly 
Osborne," "Jane Osborne," "Nelly Beatson," 
and "Jane Beatson," which he could not en- 
ter, consequently, he had to either stand out 
or go into the inner circle, among the pedigreed. 
Note. — The writer has not been able to locate 
the prize-winner at the 1868 Show, held in 
Market Square, Kiama, for which the following 
prize list was advertised: — 

Horses : — Best draught stallion, £2/2 ; 2nd 
best, £1. Best blood stallion, £2/2; 2nd best, 
£1. Best draught mare, £1/10; 2nd best, £1. 
Best blood mare, £1/10; 2nd best, £1. Best 
draught 2-year-old colt, £1/10. Best draught 
2-year-old filly, £1. Best blood 2-year-old 
filly £1. 

Cattle.— Best Shorthorn bull, £2/10; 2nd best. 
£1/10. Best bull 2-year-old, £1. Best Short- 
horn cow, £2/10; 2nd best, £1/10. Best Ayr- 
shire bull- £2/10; 2nd best, £1/10. Best 
Ayrshire bull, 2-year-old, £1. Best Ayrshire 
cow, £2/10; 2nd best, £1/10. Best Ayrshire 
heifer, 2-year-old, £1. Best fat beast, £1/10; 
2nd best, £1. 

For the 1869 Show similar prizes were offered, 
when T. H. Lee won 1st prize for best Short- 
horn bull ; and Hugh Colley, of Muskfield, won 
1st prize for best Ayrshire bull. Colley 's bull 
was by James Robb's imported Ayrshire bull 
"The Marquis of Argyle," a very handsome 
bull, and equally good as a sire. He did much 
credit to his sire. 

Kiama Show, held in Market Square, Feb- 
ruary 20th, 1869. Over 2000 people present. 
John Marks, president; James Somerville, sec- 
retary. The Kiama Volunteer Fife and Drum 
Band played lively airs during the day. Stock 
judges :— James McGill, J. Turkinton, Evan R. 
Evans, and James Thompson (Burrie). Pro- 
duce judges: — Gelding, Morton, Morriee. and 
Allen. The following prizes were awarded: — 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



243 



Shorthorn cattle: — Best bull, Henry Lee, 1st 
prize; Thomas Reynolds, 2nd prize. Best bull, 
2 years, William Gordon, 1st prize. 

Ayrshire cattle : — Best bull, Hugh Colley, 1st 
prize. Best cow, Evan R. Evans, 1st prize. 
Best heifer, John Marks, 1st prize. 

Milton Show, held Francis McMahon's pad- 
dock, March 10th, 1869:— Best bull, Francis 
McMahon, 1st prize; W. W. Ewin, 2nd prize. 
Best cow, W. W. Ewin, 1st prize; H. Gtumley, 
2nd prize. Best 2-year-old heifer, Francis 
McMahon, 1st prize; Francis McMahon, 2nd 
prize. 

Note. — This was the dawn of a new era — the 
coming of the beef Shorthorns. 

James Spinks exhibited a medium-sized dairy 
bull, known to his neghbours as the "Clown 
bull. ' ' His dam 's name was " The Clown, ' ' and 
was purchased by James Spinks at Robert John- 
ston's sale, "Pbuntaindale." She had come 
down during the years from the Glenlee strain. 
Xo better cow could be seen at that time. The 
Clown bull was a dappled or mottled red and 
white bull. He was alright in a dairy herd, 
but nowhere in the show ring of the seventies, 
among the roans and reds. 

Kiama Show Committee for 1870 consisted of 
John Marks, James Colley, Samuel Charles, 
Robert Miller, William Moles, John Black, John 
Colley, Hugh Colley, William Colley, Joseph 
King, Samuel Marks, George Wood, Junr. 
(Jamberoo), George Wood (Springhill), Mat. 
E. Robson, D. L. Dymock, Henry Fredricks, 
James Spinks, Thomas Fredricks, Nicholas 
Craig, George BuUen, John Geary, James 
Somerville, George King Waldron, Joseph Wes- 
ton, William Budd, James Harvison, Robert 
Oscar Kendall, John Farraher, William Grey, 
William English, William Bailey, Senr., William 
Bailey, Junr., Alexander Emery, Thomas McCaf- 
frey, Thomas Black, James McGuire Smith, 
George Tate, James Wilson, Junr., James Camp- 
bell, Edward Parish, Thomas Blow, Thomas 
Brown, Hugh Mitchell, Alexander Boyd, Senr., 
Jfline^' ^IcGill. William James. Thomas Couffh- 
rane, Humphrey Dunster, William Fryer, John 
Cnllen, and Samuel Turner. 

At Kiama Show, held on 23rd February, 1870. 
in Market Square, Kiama, the judges of live 
stock were :— J. Turkinton, James Monaghan, 
J. Armstrong, Evan R. Evans, and James 
Thompson (Burrier). 

Best Shorthorn bull, £2/10, Henry Fredricks, 
1st prize ; £1/10, Mrs. Henry Lee, 2nd prize. 
Best Shorthorn heifer' £1/10, James Spinks, 



1st prize; £1, Thomas Black, 2nd prize. Best 
bull, 2 years (Shorthorn), £1, M. X. Hindmarsh. 
1st prize. Best Shorthorn cow, £2/10, Robert 
Miller, 1st prize; £1/10, Henry Fredricks, 2nd 
prize. Best Ayrshire bull, £2/10, Hugh Colley, 
1st prize ; £1/10, John Honey, 2nd prize. Best 
Ayrshire bull, 2 years, £1/10, Robert Hind- 
marsh, 1st prize ; £1, John Marks, 2nd prize. 
Best Ayrshire heifer, 2 years, £1/10, James 
Robb, 1st prize; £1, Robert Miller, 2nd prize. 

Sydney Exhibition stock. — By report dated 
8th Sepl ember, 1870, several prizes were won 
by Illawarra men; M. E. Robson, 1st prize for 
cow in milk; E. H. Weston won for best coach 
ing horse; E. H. Weston highly commended for 
1-year-old blood horse, "Greyskin"; John El- 
liott, 1st prize for draught mare. 

At Kiama Show held on 15th and 16th 
February 1871, in Market Square, Kiama: — 

Best bull, any age, £3, "Cornet," Robert 
Hindmarsh, 1st prize ; best bull, any age, £2/10. 
Henry Fredricks, 2nd prize ; best bull, any age, 
age, £1, Richard East, 4th prize ; best bull under 
2 vears old, £2, George Tate, 1st prize; best 
bull under 2 years old, £1/10, T. and F. Hind- 
marsh, 2nd prize; best bull, 2 years old, £1, 
John Russell, 3rd prize ; best bull, 2 years old, 
10/-, John Russell, 4th prize ; best cow, any age, 
£3, T. and F. Hindmarsh, 1st prize; best cow, 
any age, £2/10, David Lindsay, 2nd prize; 
best cow, any age, £1/10, Henry Fredricks, 
3rd prize ; best cow, any age, £1, David Lind- 
say, 4th prize ; best heifer under 2 years, £2/10, 
David Lindsay, 1st prize; best heifer under 2 
years, £1/10, George Tate, 2nd prize ; best hei- 
fer under 2 years, £1, George Tate, 3rd prize: 
best heifer under 2 years, 10/-, T. and F. Hind- 
marsh, 4th prize ; best fat beast, £1/10, William 
Grey, 1st prize ; best fat beast, £1, William Grey, 
2nd prize. 

Kiama ShoM', exhibits and prize-winners at 
Show, 1872. A primitive catalogue. 

Judges: — E. De Mestre, William Turkinton, 
John Badgery, J. Thompson. William Aherne, 
James Monaghan. W. H. Kerne. 

E. U. Weston, blood mare. 2nd prize; F,. H. 
Weston, blood filly, 2 years, 1st prize ; if. N. 
Hindma'sh. drars;lit riare. 2nrl nrize; William 
James, crossbred bull, 1st prize ; William James, 
crossbred heifer, 2 years, 1st prize ; Robert Mil- 
ler, crossbred cows. 1st prize ; Thomas Cough- 
rane, blood stallion, "Cossack," 2nd prize » 
Thomas Hindmarsh, Shorthorn bull, aged, 2nd 
prize ; Thomas Hindmarsh, Shorthorn cow. aged 
2nd prize; Tliomas Hindmarsh. Shorthorn hei- 



244 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAKKA 



I01-, 2 years. Ist prize ; Thomas Hindmars-li, 
Sliorthorn heifer, 2 years, 2nd prize; Thomas 
Hindmarsh, crossbred bull, aged; Thomas Hind- 
marsh, crossbred cow, aged ; George Tate, blood 
colt. "Self Reliance," 1st prize; George Tate, 
blood filly, "Levena"; George Tate, Shorthorn 
bull, "Napoleon," 2 years, 1st prize; Robert 
Hindmarsh, Shorthorn bull, aged, 1st prize; 
Robert Hindmarsh, crossbred bull, 2 years 
John Farraher, blood stallion, "Trump Card," 
1st prize ; John Farraher, blood mare. 1st nrv/.e : 
John Armstrong, crossbred bull, "Roan," 2nd 
prize: John Tate. Junr.. blood mare, "Villaae 
Maid ' ' ; Henry Fredrieks, crossbred bull ; 
George Tate Hackney, "Darkey"; George Lee, 
crossbred bull, 2 years, 1st prize ; James Fields ' 
crossbred cow, aged, 2nd prize; E. H. Weston, 
Shorthorn cow, 1st prize ; E. H. Weston, Short- 
horn bull, 2 years, 2nd prize ; John King, Hack- 
ney, "Hector"; Thomas Fredrieks, crossbred' 
bull; Robert Hindmarsh, Shorthorn heifer, 
point reserved as to age, 1st prize ; Thomas 
Black, dairy heifer, 1st prize. 

Kiama Show exhibits, 1873, and prize- 
winners : — 

Charles Totton, entire colt, 2 years, 1st 
prize; George Tate, blood colt, sire "Cossack," 

2 years, 1st prize ; George Tate, Shorthorn bull, 

3 years. 2nd prize ; George Tate, Shorthorn hei- 
fer, 13 months, 1st prize; Robert Miller, cow 
for dairy purposes ; M. N. Hindmarsh, cow for 
dairy purposes ; M. N. Hindmarsh, Hackney, 1st 
prize: Charles Price, blood filly, 2 years, 1st 
prize ; Thomas Black, Shorthorn heifer, 2 years, 
Ist prize; John Elliott, blood mare, 1st prize; 
Fred Hindmarsh, Shorthorn bull, 1 year 1st 
prize ; Fred Hindmarsh, Shorthorn cow, aged, 
1st prize ; Fred Hindmarsh, Shorthorn heifer, 2 
years, 1st prize ; Thomas Coughrane, cow, 1st 
prize ; David Lindsay, bull, dairy purposes , 1 
year, 2nd prize ; Robert Hindmarsh, Shorthorn 
bull, aged, 1st prize ; Robert Hindmarsh, cow for 
dairy purposes, aged, 2nd prize; Robert Hind- 
marsh, heifer for dairy purposes, 1 year, 2nd 
prize ; Robert Hindmarsh, blood colt, ' ' Alman- 
gor, " 1st prize; George Tate, Shorthorn bull, 
15 months, 1st prize; Henry Fredrieks, bull 
for dairy purposes, 1 year, 1st prize; Henry 
Fredrieks, heifer for dairy purposes, 2nd prize ; 
Henry Fredrieks heifer for dairy purposes' 2 
years, 1st prize ; George Lee, crossbred 
bull, 1st prize ; William James, bull for 
dairy purposes, aged, 1st prize; William 
James, heifer for dairy purposes 2 years, 
2nd prize ; John Farraher, blood stallion. 



"Trump Card," 2nd prize; John Farraher, 
blood mare, 1st prize ; George Wood, Jamberoo, 
blood horse, 1st prize; James Spinks, cross- 
bred bull, 2nd prize; George Wood, Spring 
Hill, bull for dairy purposes, 2 years, 1st prize 
Shorthorn; Henry Fredrieks, dairy class, hei- 
fer, 2 years, 2nd prize ; William Gordon, Hack- 
ney, "Lennox"; William Gordon, Hackney, 
"Emu"; E. H. Weston, blood mare, 2nd prize; 
E. H. Weston, bull for dairy purposes; E. H. 
Weston, Shorthorn cow, 2nd pi-ize; Peter 
Quinn, bull, dairy class, 2 years. 

Kiama Show exhibits for 1874, and prize- 
winners : — 

Charles Totton, 3-year-old entire, "Britton," 
sire " Britton 's Son"; George Tate, Shorthorn 
bull, aged, 2nd prize; George Tate, Shorthorn 
bull, 1 year, sire "Prodigal"; George Tate, 
dairy bull, 1 year, sire "Napoleon"; George 
Tate, dairy bull, 1 year, "Napoleon 5th"; 
George Tate, dairy bull, 1 year, "Conqueror"; 
George Tate, dairy bull, 1 year, "Napoleon 
5th ' ' ; George Tate, dairy heifer, 2 years ; John 
Haddon, bull for dairy purposes, aged ; William 
Tate, filly, 2 years, "Bessie Bell"; Joseph 
Dunster, bull for dairy purposes, 1 year ; Joseph 
Dunster, heifer for dairy purposes, 2 years, 3rd 
prize; Joseph Dunster, cow for dairy purposes. 
1st prize; William James, bull for dairy pur- 
poses, 3 years, 2nd prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, 
Shorthorn cow, 1st prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, 
Shorthorn bull' "Duke of Derrimutt 6th." 2 
years, 1st prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn 
bull, "Duke of Derrimutt 9th," 1 year, 1st 
prize; Robert Hindmarsh, Shorthorn bull, aged, 
1st prize ; Robert Hindmarsh, Shorthorn heifer, 
1 year, 1st prize ; Robert Hindmarsh, dairy cow, 
aged, 1st prize; Robert Hindmarsh, dairy cow, 
aged, 2nd prize; John Honey, dairy bull, 2 
years, 1st prize; John Johnston, Rose Valley, 
dairy bull, 1 year, 3rd prize; Mrs. Cole, dairy 
bull, aged; Fred Hindmarsh, Shorthorn bull, 
aged, 1st prize; George Wood, Spring Hill, 
dairy bull, 1st prize ; E. H. Weston, Shorthorn 
heifer, 2 years, 2nd prize; E. R. Evans, bull, 
aged, dairy purposes; E. R. Evans, cow, aged, 
dairy purposes; John Russell, heifer, 2 years; 
David Lindsay, bull for dairy purposes, 1 year, 
1st prize ; Robert Miller, dairy heifer, 1 year, 
2nd prize; James McGill, dairy bull, 2 years; 
James McGill, dairy heifer, 2 years, 1st prize; 
Robert Jenkins, Shorthorn heifer, 2 years, 1st 
prize; John Johnston, Rose Valley, Shorthorn 
bull, 1 year, 2nd prize ; Henry Fredrieks, dairy 



THE HISTORY OF ILL AW AURA 



245 



heifer, 1 year, 1st prize; Henry Fredricks, 
Shorthorn bull, 1 year, 2nd pri^o. 

Neil McGill won 1st prize at Dapto Show in 
1874 with a strawberry-roan cow named 
"Phoebe," sire "Lofty," dam "Old Phoebe." 
William Moles' bull, the winner of many prizes, 
was out of ' ' Phoebe. " "Old Phoebe ' ' was the 
choicest of Andrew McGill 's cows. For fur- 
ther information about "Old Phoebe" see note 
below. 

Wollongong Show. — At the Wollongong 
Show held in Market Square in 1860, Andrew 
McGill exhibited a 2-year-old bull, and a re- 
markably well-bred cow. She originally be- 
longed to Eodd, of Five Dock, Cumberland, 
and was said to have been by an imported bull, 
and out of an imported cow. The cow known 
in the early seventies as "Old Phoebe" was this 
Rodd cow. 

The Shoalhaven A. and H. Society of the 
present time was established on 6tli March, 
1874. James Aldcorn was the first president, 
and John McArtliur was its first secretary, 
James Monaghan was first treasurer. The 
formation of the Society was celebrated by a 
ploughing match on the Terrara Estate, on the 
1st July, 1874, and a dinner at night. First- 
class match. — John Watson, 1st prize: John 
Monaghan, 2nd prize. Second-class match.- - 
John McAnally, 1st prize ; Arthur Smith, 2nd 
prize. Youths ' Match. — John Bates, 1st prize ; 
Alfred Bartlett. 2nd prize. The dinner was 
held at Isaac's Royal Victoria Hotel. Henry 
G. Morton presided. 

Kiama Show exhibits 1875. Prize winners : — 
George Tate, blood filly, 2 years, sire "Sir 
Charles"; George Tate, Shorthorn bull, 1 year, 
sire "Napoleon"; W. R. Hindmarsh, Short- 
horn bull, "6th Duke of Derrimut," aged, 1st 
prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn bull, sire 
"6th Duke of Derrimut," 1 year, 1st prize; 
W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn cow, "Princess," 
aged ; W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn cow, ' ' Kate 
2nd"; W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn heifer, 
"Welcome Brunswick," calved 1/10/1872; 
W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn heifer, ' ' Queen of 
Trumps"; James W. Cole, Shorthorn heifer, 1 
year, 1st prize ; James W. Cole, dairy bull, 1 
year, 3rd prize ; Thomas Black, dairy cow, 2nd 
prize; Robert Black, dairy bull, 2 years. 2nd 
prize ; George Wood, Jamberoo, Hackney mare, 
"Nina"; John Moffitt, Shorthorn bull, 1 year, 
3rd prize ; William James, dairy bull, aged, 1st 
prize; M. N. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn heifer, 1 
year, 3rd prize ; E. H. Weston, Devon bull. 



"Victor," aged; Henry Fredricks, Shorthorn 
heifer, 1 year, 2nd prize; James Spinks, dairy 
heifer, 1 year, 3rd prize; James Spinks, dairy 
heifer, 1 year, 2nd prize ; John Farraher, blood 
stallion, "Trump Card"; John Farraher, blood 
stallion, "Python"; John Farraher, blood mare, 
"Maid of Erin"; John Farraher, blood colt, 
"Odd Trick," 2 years; William Bailey, Junr., 
dairy bull, 3rd prize; Fred Hindmarsh, Short- 
horn bull, 2 years, 1st prize; Fred Hindmarsh, 
Shorthorn cow, aged, 1st prize; Fred Hind- 
marsh, Shorthorn cow, aged, 2nd prize ; Fred 
Hindmarsh, Shorthorn cow, aged, 3rd prize; 
D. Robinson, Shorthorn bull, 2 years, 2nd prize ; 
Robert Hindmarsh, dairy cow, aged, 1st prize ; 
Robert Hindmarsh, dairy heifer, 2 years, 3rd 
prize ; Robert Hindmarsh, dairy heifer, 2 years, 
2nd prize; Robert Hindmarsh, dairy heifer, 2 
years, 1st prize ; Robert Hindmarsh, Shorthorn 
heifer, 2 years, 3rd prize; Robert Hindmarsh, 
Shorthorn heifer, 2 years, 2nd prize; Robert 
Hindmarsh, Shorthorn bull, 1 year, 2nd prize; 
Robert Hindmarsh, Shorthorn bull, 2 years, 
2nd prize ; John Honey, Shorthorn bull, 2 years. 
2nd prize ; Duncan McGill, dairy bull, 1 year, 
2nd prize; William Johnston, dairy bull, aged 
2 years, 1st prize; George Wood, Spring Hill, 
dairy bull, 2nd prize; George Wood, Spring 
Hill, dairy bull, 1 year, 1st prize ; James Monag- 
han, blood mare "Hannah'; James Monaghan, 
blood mare "Kate," 

Kiama Show exhibits, 1876. Prize-winners : — 
John Moffit, Shorthorn bull, 3rd prize; John 
Kell Tate, blood mare, "Evangeline"; John 
Kell Tate, blood stallion, "The Barb"; Michael 
Carberry, dairy bull, 1 year, 3rd prize ; Herbert 
Bartlett, Shorthorn heifer, 1 year, 3rd prize; 
George Buchanan, dairy cow, aged, 2nd prize; 
Robert Wilson, dairy bull, aged, 3rd prize; 
James W. Cole, Shorthorn heifer, 2 years, 2nd 
prize ; James W. Cole, Shorthorn heifer, 2 
years, 3rd prize; James W. Cole, Shorthorn 
heifer, 2 years, 1st prize ; James W. Cole, Short- 
horn heifer, 2 years, 2nd prize ; George Gilbert, 
Chestnut stallion, "Glencoe," 2nd prize; Wil- 
liam James, dairy bull, "Robin Hood," aged, 
1st prize ; William James, dairy bull, 2 years, 
1st prize; Henry Fredricks, dairy cow, aged, 
3rd prize ; Henry Fredricks, dairy heifer, 2 
years, 1st prize; Henry Fredricks, dairy heifer, 
1 year, 3rd prize; Henry Fredricks, dairy hei- 
fer, 1 year, 2nd prize; Henry Fredricks, dairy 
heifer, 1 year, 1st prize ; Henry Fredricks, dairy 
bull, 1 year, 2nd prize; M. N. Hindmarsh, 
Shorthorn bull, 2 years, 1st prize; Robert Mil- 



246 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAliRA 



ler, dairy cow, aged, 1st prize; Christopher 
Hetherington, blood mare, 1st prize ; John Far- 
raher, blood stallion, ' ' Trump Card, ' ' 1st prize ; 
T. J. Eoberts, blood stallion, "Terrara," 2ncl 
prize ; William Grey, Shorthorn bull, 3rd prize ; 
Duncan McGill, dairy bull, 1 year, 1st prize; 
W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn bull, "Duke of 
Derrimut," 1st prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, Short- 
horn eow, 3rd prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, Short- 
horn cow, 1st prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, Short- 
horn heifer, 1 year, 2nd prize ; W. R. Hind- 
marsh, Shorthorn heifer, 1 year, 1st prize ; 
W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn bull, 1 year, 1st 
prize ; W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn bull, 1 year, 
2nd prize; Fred Hindmarsh, Shorthorn bull, 
2nd prize ; Fred Hindmarsh, Shorthorn cow, 2nd 
prize ; Peter Quinn, dairy bull, 2nd prize ; Jas. 
W. Cole, dairy bull, 2 years, 2nd prize. 

Referring to the bull "Robin Hood," Mr. D. 
L. Dymock states: — "In 1876 I was offered 250 
guineas for him. Mr. James would not sell — - 
two or three years later he sold his hide for 
£1." Mr. James when spoken to about 
■'Robin Hood," said: — "It is true, in part. 
We were offered a big price for the bull, but 
wanted him for our own use; he died shortly 
after we went to Alne Bank, Gerringong. It 
was then discovered that two bulls had pre- 
viously died from tuberculosis in the stall we 
had housed "Robin Hood" in. That was about 
the year 1878." 

Illawarra Shorthorns at the opening of the 
International Exhibition in Sydney in 1876. 
Class 29, Durhams, aged bulls: — William War- 
ren Jenkins' "Gay Lad," 2nd prize; Henry 
Hill Osborne's "Alexander," 4th prize. Class 
31, Durhams, bulls, 1-year-old. The following 
animals were exhibited: — William J. Chap- 
man's "Royal Butterfly," (329 N.S.W.H.B.), 
bred by W. W. Ewin, Ulladulla; W. W. Ewin's 
"Duke of Brunswick 3rd"; W. W. Ewin's 
"Duke of Brunswick".; John Moffitt's "Duke," 
bred by William Rutter Hindmarsh ; W. W. Jen- 
kins' "Merry Monarch." In class 31, Richard 
Lewis Jenkins, M.D., of Nepean Towers, won 
1st prize with "Commodore." Class 32, bull. 
6 months old and under 1 year, W. W. Ewin's 
"Duke of Brunswick 5th"; W. W. Ewin's 
"Duke of Brunswick 4th"; W. R. Hindmarsh 's 
"2nd Duke of Derrimut of N.S.W."; W. E. 
Hindmarsh 's "4th Duke of Derrimut of 
N.S.W."; W. W. Jenkins' "Eschistina" ; W. 
AV. Jenkins' "Alonzo"; William Johnstone's 
"Duke of Erin." The prizes Avere won by 
Robert MeDougall's "Count Carisbrook, " and 



E. B. Woodhouse's "Royal Purple 10th." Class 

34, Heifers, 2 years: J. W. and J. T. Cole ex- 
hibited "Fairy Queen" and "Spring Blos- 
soms," bred by Henry Fredricks. The prizes 
were won by R. L. Jenkins' "April Flower," 
and W. C. Durham's "Village Rose." Class 

35, Heifer, 1 year : J. W. and J. T. Cole ex- 
hibited "Princess Matilda," bred by Henry 
Fredricks; Frank A. Thompson "Illawarra 
Lass"; W. R. Hindmarsh "Duchess of Derri- 
mut." The prizes were won by W. C. Went- 
worth's "Princess Purple," and Barnes and 
Smith's "Cherry Ripe." Farmers' class, 35, 
Cattle not necessarily pure-bred: Bull, 3 years, 
William Brown's (Dapto) "Grand Turk of 
Opeke 30th," 1st prize. Class 63, Cow, 3 
years, "Cherry Red," bred by Henry Fred- 
ricks, 1st prize. The "S.M. Herald," com- 
menting on the cattle at the exhibition, stated: 
■'The splendid show of Durhams and Short- 
horns, Mr. W. W. Ewin, of Ulladulla, who 
showed some good calves; and the Kiama dis- 
play was also good." * 

The breeding of beef cattle for exhibition 
and dispoisal at the metropolitan shows was 
very good business for those who could afford 
the time and money to carry it out. The 
farmers' classes were a safety valve for those 
breeders who kept herds of dairy cows to sup- 
ply milk for the young pedigreed animals. 
Young bulls and heifers often got the milk of 
two dairy cows, and there are a number of in- 
stances on record where four cows' milk was 
consumed by a young bull. Those dairy cows 
of mixed Ayrshire and Devon breeding were 
served by pedigreed bulls, and the progeny 
sold to dairymen. 
Kiama Show exhibits for 1877 : — 
Hugh Colley, roan bull, 2 years; George Tate, 
dairy bull, aged, 2nd prize ; George Tate, dairy 
bull, 1 year, 2nd prize; M. N. Hindmarsh. 
Shorthorn cow, 3rd prize ; M. N. Hindmarsh, 
dairy cow, 3rd prize; Peter Quinn, dairy bull, 
aged, 3rd prize ; James Johnston, dairy bull, 
3 years, no prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn 
bull, aged, 1st prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, Short- 
horn bull, 2 years, 1st prize ; W. R. Hindmarsh, 
Shorthorn bull, 1 year, 1st prize ; W. R. Hind- 
marsh, Shorthorn bull, 1 year, 3rd prize ; W. 
R. Hindmarsh, dairy bull, 1 year, no prize; 
David Johnston, dairy cow, 3rd prize; Robert 
Miller, dairy cow, 2nd prize; William James, 
dairy bull, aged, 1st prize; Michael Carberry, 
dairy bull, 2 years, 2nd prize ; William Grey, 
dairy bull, 1 year, 2nd prize ; Henry Fredricks, 



THE HISTORY OF ILL AW ANN A 



2i7 



dairy bull, aged, no prize; Henry Predricks, 
dairy heifer, 2 years, 1st prize; Henry Pred- 
ricks, dairy heifer, 1 year, 2nd prize; Henry 
Predricks, dairy heifer, 1 year, 1st prize ; Henry 
Predricks, dairy heifer, 1 year, 2nd prize; 
Henry Predricks, dairy heifer, 1 year, 3rd 
prize; Pred Hindmarsh, Shorthorn bull, aged, 
2nd prize; Pred Hindmarsh, Shorthorn cow, 
aged, 2nd prize; Evan R. Evans, dairy bull, 1 
year, 1st prize ; Evan R. Evans, dairy bull, aged, 
no prize; Duncan McGill, dairy bull, 2 years. 
1st prize. 

Kiama Show exhibits for 1878: — 

William James, dairy bull, "Robin Hood," 
1st prize ; William James, dairy cow, 2nd prize ; 
William James, dairy bull, 1 year, 2nd prize; 
William James, dairy heifer, 2 years, 1st prize ; 
William James, dairy heifer, 1 year, 2nd prize ; 
George Tate, dairy bull, "Major," 2nd prize; 
George Tate, dairy bull, "Prodigal," 2 1-3 
j:ears, 2nd prize ; George Tate, dairy heifer, 2% 
years, 3rd prize; Henry Predricks, 6 dairy 
heifers, 1st prize and special ; No. 10 W. James, 
h.c. ; No. 12, G. Tate, h.c. ; John Sproule, dairy 
bull, 2 years' 1st prize ; M. N. Hindmarsh Short- 
berry, dairy bull, 1 year, 3rd prize; Peter 
Quinn, dairy bull, 3rd prize ; John Honey, dairy 
bull, 2 years, 1st prize ; M. N. Hindmarsh, Short- 
horn cow, 1st prize ; M. N. Hindmarsh, Short- 
horn heifer, 2nd prize ; M. N. Hindmarsh. dairy 
cow, 3rd prize; John Nethery, dairy bull, 1 
year, 1st prize; Jas. W. Cole, Shorthorn cow, 
3rd prize; Jas. W. Cole, dairy heifer, 1 year, 
1st prize; Jas. W. Cole, dairy heifer, 1 year, 
h.c. brand; Henry Predricks, dairy heifer, 2 
years, 2nd prize ; Henry Predricks, dairy heifer. 
1 year 3rd prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn 
bull, 1st prize: W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn 
cow, 2nd prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn 
heifer, 1st prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn 
bull, 1 year, 1st prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, 
Shorthorn bull, 1 year, 2nd prize; W. R. Hind- 
marsh, Shorthorn bull, 1 year, 3rd prize; W. 
R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn heifer, 1 year, 1st 
prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn heifer, 1 
year, 3rd prize ; W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn 
heifer, 1 year, 2nd prize; W. E. Hindmarsh, 
dairy cow, 1st prize. 

Kiama Show exhibits, 1879: — 

M. N. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn heifer, 1 year, 
1st prize; Cole Bros., Shorthorn bull, aged, 
no prize; Cole Bros., Shorthorn cow, aged, no 
prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, Durham bull, aged, 
1st prize ; W. R. Hindmarsh, Durham bull, aged, 
2nd prize; W. R. Hindmarsh. Durham bull, 2 



years, 2nd prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, Durham 
bull, 2 years, 1st prize ; W. R. Hindmarsh, Dur- 
ham cow, aged, 1st prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, 
Durham cow, aged, 2nd prize; W. R. Hind- 
marsh, Durham heifer, 2 years, 1st prize; W. 
R. Hindmarsh, Durham heifer, 2 years, 2nd 
prize ; W. R. Hindmarsh, Durham heifer, 1 
year, 2nd prize; Robert Jenkins, Durham cow, 
7 years, no prize. 

Kiama Show, 1879. At this show, William 
R. Hindmarsh won almost all the prizes for 
Shorthorn cattle, his brother, M. N. Hindmarsh, 
securing one prize only. This may be said to 
be the beginning of the end of Shorthorn prizes 
at the Kiama Shows. 

In cattle for dairy purposes: — Best 6 dairy 
heifers, Henry Predricks, 1st prize; best 6 
dairy heifers, Cole Bros., 2nd prize; best dai' 
bull, George Tate's "Major," 1st prize; best 
dairy bull, Peter Quinn 's "The Major," 2nd 
prize; best dairy bull, 2 years old, William 
James, 1st prize; best dairy bull, 2 years old, 
William James, 2nd prize; best dairy bull, 2 
years old, George AVood (Springhill), 3rd 
prize; best dairy bull, 1 year old, Henry Pred- 
ricks, 1st prize; best dairy bull, 1 year old, W. 
R. Hindmarsh, 2nd prize ; best dairy bull, 1 year 
old, John Honey, 3rd prize; best dairy cow, 
Henry Predricks, 1st prize; best dairy cow, 
W. R. Hindmarsh, 2nd prize; best dairy cow, 
Craig and Son, 3rd prize; best dairy heifer, 2 
years old, Henry Predricks, 1st prize ; best 
dairy heifer, 2 years old, Robert Miller, 2nd 
prize ; best dairy heifer, 1 year old, Henry 
Predricks, 1st prize; best dairy heifer, 1 year 
old, Henry Predricks, 2nd prize. 

1879, at the Shoalhaven A. and H. Society's 
Show on 28th Pebruary, 1879:— Best Durham 
bull, W. R. Hindmarsh, 1st prize ; John Green, 
2nd prize; best Hereford bull, Ettie De Mestre, 
1st prize; J. W. Lee, highly commended; best 
Devon bull, Ettie De Mestre, 1st prize ; best 
Ayrshire cow, Thomas Connolly, 1st prize; J. 
Houston, 2nd prize ; best dairy bull, George 
Tate, 1st prize ; John Monaghan, 2nd prize ; 
best dairy cow, James Wilson, 1st prize; best 
dairy heifer, James Monaghan, 1st prize. 

The Ulladulla Show, 1879:— Best Shorthorn 
bull. John Miller, 1st prize; W. J. Chapman, 
2iid prize; best Shorthorn cow, W. J. Chapman, 
Isf prize ; David Warden, 2nd prize ; Best Short- 
horn heifer, 2 years old, Praneis McMahon, 1st 
and 2nd prizes; best Shorthorn heifer. 1 year 
old, W. H. Wilford, 1st prize; Praneis McMa- 
hon, 2nd prize ; Champion bull, W. J. Chapman ; 



248 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



Champion cow, W. J. Chapman; best dairy bull, 
Donald Kennedy, 1st prize ; John Evans 2nd 
prize; best dairy bull, 2 years old, Donald 
Kennedy, 1st prize; best dairy cow, John Mil- 
ler, 1st prize; John Evans, 2nd prize. 

Note. — Donald Kennedy's cattle were Ayr- 
shires. John Evans was a brother of E. R. 
Evans, of "Penrose," Dapto. 

About 1879 a movement was set on foot to 
do away with prizes for Shorthorn cattle, owing 
in great measure to several exhibitors, who 
were poor supporters of the Kiama Shows, 
from a financial standpoint, winning the giant 
share of the prize money. In 1881 Robert 
Miller and Edward Johnston moved to have 
the Shorthorn classes expunged from the prize 
list of Kiama Shows. George Somerville and 
Thomas Fredericks moved an amendment, 
"That the prizes be continued." William 
Graham and Edward Johnston wanted to have 
the cattle divided into two classes. The 
original motion was lost. 

Between 1879 and 1881 a few good Ayrshire 
bulls found their way into the forefront of the 
Illawarra Shows. John Lindsay purchased 
"Earl of Beaconsfield," Henry Hill Osborne 
purchased "Mokoia," a New Zealand-bred 
bull; G. K. Waldron was busy introducing J. 
M. Antill's bull, the champion of champions, 
"Dunlop." Later other dairymen began to 
cast round for something better than beef 
Shorthorns for the dairy, and this caused a re- 
turn to Devon bulls. 

Kiama Show exhibits 1880. Prize-winners: 
Tate and Coy., Shorthorn cow, "Fairy 
Queen," 1st prize; Cole Bros., Shorthorn heifer, 

1 year, 1st prize. 

Kiama Show exhibits for 1881 : — 
W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn bull, any age, 
1st prize ; W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn cow, 
any age, 1st prize; W. R. Hindmarsh, Short- 
horn bull, any age, 2nd prize ; W. R. Hindmarsh, 
Shorthorn cow, any age, 2nd prize ; W. R. 
Hindmarsh, Shorthorn bull, 1 year, 1st prize; 
W. R. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn heifer, 1 year, 
2nd prize ; M. N. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn heifer, 

2 vears, 1st prize; M. N. Hindmarsh, Shorthorn 
heifer 1 year, 1st prize ; Craig and Son, Short- 
horn bull, 1 year, 2nd prize. 

At Kiama Show, in 1881, J. M. Antill 's Ayr- 
shire bull "Dunlop" won chief prize as best 
Champion bull; 1st as best dairy bull; and the 
Champion prize as the best bull on the ground. 
In this latter prize contest he defeated the best 
bulls of every breed on the ground. 



1881. Dr. J. H. Caird's draught stallion 
"Highlander" and hunting horse "Reuben," 
buggy horses "Highland Lassie" and "Alma." 
Denis Kelleher's blood stallion "King of the 
West," Frank McMahon's hunter "Victor," 
E. H. Weston's draught stallion "General 
Clancy," Henry Fredrick's coaching stallion, 
2 years, J. G. Lamond's blood stallion "Al- 
bury, " G. J. Hindmarsh 's coaching stallion 
"Duke of Cleveland," and draught ditto 
"Young Defiance," M. N. Hindmarsh 's blood 
stallion, aged, Thomas Coughrane's blood stal- 
lion, "Sterling," Tate Bros.' hackney "Gay 
Lad." 

Dapto A. and H. Society's Show, 19th Janu- 
ary, 1881 :— 

Horses. — Best draught stallion, E. H. Wes- 
ton; best blood stallion, Thomas Coughrane; 
2nd, best blood stallion, R. T. Jenkins; best 
draught mare, John Ellliott; 2nd., best draught 
mare, William Kelleher; best blood mare. Cole 
Bros.; 2nd., best blood mare, Joseph Burgess; 
best draught 2-year-old stallion. Dr. J. IT. 
Caird; 2nd., best draught 2-year-old stallion, 
J. F. Griffin ; best draught 2-year-old filly, John 
Elliott; 2nd., best draught 2-year-old filly, E 
H. Weston; best blood 2-year-old stallion, 
James McGill; 2nd., best blood 2-year-old stal- 
lion, E. H. Weston; best blood 2-year-old filly. 
John Shannon; 2nd, best blood 2-j'ear-old filly. 
A. Staff. 

Cattle : — Best bull for dairy purposes, any 
age, Charles Hore ; 2nd., best bull for dairy 
purposes, any age, James McGill; best bull for 
dairy purposes, 2-year-old and under 3 years, 
Cole Bros. ; best bull for dairy purposes, 1 year 
and under 2 years. Cole Bros. ; best dairy cow, 
David Manson; 2nd, best dairy cow, William 
Piper (Mount Nebo) ; best heifer, 2 years and 
under 3 years, David Manson; 2nd, best heifer, 
2 years and under 3 yearsj William Brown ; 
best heifer, 1 year and under 2 years. Cole 
Bros. 

Jerseys or Alderneys: — William Brown and 
John Lindsay took all the prizes. 

Ayrshire cattle : — William Brown, John Lind- 
say and E. R. Evans took all the prizes. 

At a meeting held in Kiama, August 11, 1882, 
when dealing with section 4, Shorthorns- J. T. 
Cole moved, and Henry Fredricks seconded, 
"That this section be struck out of the prize 
list.'" George Somerville and W. R. Hind- 
marsh moved an amendment, "That section 4 
be retained.'" After a lengthy debate the 
amendment was carried. 



249 



JOHNSTON BROS., Marksville, Albion Park, Illawarra. 



hmM'i 



DAIRYMAID'S PRINCE OF MARKSVILLE. 




FANNY OF MARKSVILLE. 





DAIRY MAID OF M.\RKSVILLE. 



ROSEBUD OF MARKSVILLE. 
(No. 1046, I.D.C.H.B.) 





FAVOl'RITE Snd OF MARKSVILLE. 
(Xo. 1036, I.D.C.H.B.) 



MILKMAID OF M.\RKSVILLE. 



THE IJISTONY OF ILLAWAEBA 



251 



At a meeting held loth June, 1883, section 5, 
Shorthorns, J. T. Cole moved the omission of 
this section. This was seconded by Joseph 
Weston. Dr. John Hay Caird and George 
Somerville moved to retain section 5. After 
some discussion the amendment ^^•as with- 
drawn, and the motion carried. Xo more was 
heard of the beef Shorthorns at the Kiama 
Shows. Dairj' cattle, or cattle for dairy pur- 
poses were in one form or other substituted. 

It has been said: "No evil can be removed 
witJiout opening a door for another evil!" 
Such was the case in the show business — once 
pedigreed animals were out of the running' 
all sorts and conditions of false pedigreeing 
crept in among the lucky prize-winners. 

Best dairy bull, Hugh Dudgeon, 1st prize; 
best dairy bull, J. W. Cole, 2nd prize ; best dairy 
coAv, William James, 1st prize; best dairy cow, 
William Swan, 2nd prize. 

THE FOUNDING OF THE BERRY SOCIETY. 

(Originally Broughton Creek.) 

At a meeting held in the Court-house, Brough- 
ton Creek, on 16th October, 1883, there were 
present James Wilson, Dr. Lewers, J. McKcn- 
zie. J. W. Sproule, Jas. Stewai-t, S. Gall, J. 
Francis, C. E. Butler, R. E. Walker, A, J. Col- 
ley, J. Wiley. J. F. Hooper, and Jas, Boyd. 
Dr. Lewers moved as follows: — "That this 
meetiiip; is of opinion that a Horticultural So- 
ciety should be formed in Broughton Creek to 
promote the culture of flowers, fruits, and vege- 
tables, and the holding of a periodical show of 
the same." Jas Stewart seconded, and C. E. 
Butler supported the motion, which was car- 
ried. 

Lewis ilclntyre ^^■as appointed president, 
Dr. Le-wers treasurer, and A, J, CoUey secre- 
tai'v. John Grey and John Stewart were ap- 
pointed vice-presidents. Later on David 
Berry, Esq,, became the patron of the Society. 
He generously gave the land, and stumped and 
cleared it free of cost. Then he fenced it, 
and erected suitable buildings on it. His rep- 
resentative, Alexander Frazer, took an active 
interest in the affairs of the Society, and any- 
1hing he (Frazer) suggested to David Bei-ry 
\vas quickly cari'ied out. Rules and Regula- 
tions were framed, and dul.v adopted by the 
Committee, and the Society became a living 
atTair in the midst of a rich pastoral, farming, 
and horticultural locality. 

The Society did not remain as an Horticul- 
tural Society for many months. The support 



given to the movement by the Patron soon 
stimulated the Committee to spread itself out 
into sections presided over by willing workers, 
viz. ; — Horses : Bragg, Knox, Frazer, Martin, 
and Gall. Cattle: John Stewart, H. Graham, 
R. \', Boyd, John Grey, and Hanlon. Other 
animals: H. Boyd, T. Burke. Priddlc, Mclntyre. 
Farm Produce: Robinson, Graham, English 
and Knox. Garden Produce: Jas. Stewart, Dr. 
Lavers, English, Colley and Rolnnson, Daiiy 
Produce: Grey, Boxell, H. Boyd. Hanlon and 
ilartin. Implements: Gall, Bragg. Frazer, Binkg 
and ilclntyrc. Manufactures : Lavers, Robin- 
son. Boxell. Jas. Stewart, Grey and John 
StcAvart. 

A special prize of .€3 was offered by Majtiii 
for best Ayrshire bull. Dr. Lavers presented 
his financial report, and an application was 
made to Go^'ernment for a subsidy from +he 
Agricultural Show Fund. It was decided' on 
motion to hold the first show in connection with 
the Society on 7th and 8th February, 1884. The 
Patron's ne^' steamer was applied for to lie at 
Berry wharf all night. A. Campbell, of Shoal- 
haven Heads, gave H'y as a donation to the show. 
The Treasurer's report, read at meeting held 
loth February, 1884, showed a credit balance 
of .-£160, It was announced that in the horse 
and cattle sections the sum of £60 and £42 was 
paid in prizes, A conference of the A, and H,. 
Societies in Kiama, 30th May. 1884. First 
ploughing matches meeting. 14th April, 1884. 
D. L. Dymock consenting to deliver a lecture 
before Berry Society, April. 1884. 

A Ground Committee, consisting of Biagg, 
C. Robinson, John Stewart and Alex. Frazer. 
The question of giving prizes for dairy cattle 
came before the Committee in 1884, and prizes 
were set apart for that class of animal in 1885 
schedule. 

On 10th February, 1884, ^Ir, William G. 
Thompson, of Belsley Vale, Dapto. who was at 
the time President of the Dapto Society, deliver- 
ed an address on dairy cattle breeding, during 
which he displayed a strong leaning to the pure 
Shorthorn. As this address was open to frieml- 
ly ci'iticism, ilr, John Lindsa>'. of Kembla Park, 
said: ilr. James ]\IcGill, a good- authority, al- 
ways contended that Mr, Macarthur's dairy 
hei'd at Camden was the best dairy herd in N.S. 
Wales; the Glenlee herd came next in merit, 
and that both herds were full of Ayi'shire blood. 
Mr, William Cook, of West Dapto. stated that 
the old type dairy cattle had disappeared from 
Tllawarra twenty years ago. He also favored 
an infusion of Avrshire blood. Mr. Evan R. 



252 



THE HISTOEY OF ILL AW ABB A 



Evans, of Penrose Villa, disagreed with the 
President's views, as all the best herds in the 
colony had Ayrshire blood in them. Both the 
Glenlee and Camden herds had Ayrshire blood 
hi them, and other noted herds were the same, 
and he had no doubt but what all our best 
herds could be traced to an Ayrshire source. 
The late Mr. Henry Osborne many years ago 
impoi'ted some Durhams, but they appeared to 
be of a better milking strain than the breed 
usually is. Durhams are better adapted where 
feed is plentiful. More than this, he consider- 
ed them less hardy than other breeds. Mr. 
George MePhail, West Dapto, spoke in a similar 
strain, and held that it was beyond doubt that 
the introduction of Durhams into the district 
caused 25 per cent, of the present degeneracy 
in our cattle. Mr. C. J. CuUen briefly supported 
the President's views. Messrs. David Manson, 
George Lindsay and John Brown also spoke. 
The latter advocated an infusion of Devon blood 
to give constitution. (For full particulars see 
Illawarra "Mercury" of 12th February, 1884.) 

"^The writer, on November 25th, 1903, wrote 
Mr. Evan R. Evans, of Dapto, for his views on 
the origin of his late father's dairy herd. Mr. 
Evans did not reply but came to Kiama to see 
me. We had a general chat of a more 
or less private nature, which need not be 
published. He (Mr. Evans) had in the mean- 
time written to Mr. John Brown, of Brownville, 
Dapto, on the subject. The following is a copy 
of Mr. Brown's reply to Mr. Evans, dated 3rd 
December, 1903: — "Dear Sir, — In reply to 
yours of this date, re the early herds of cattle 
introduced into this district, I beg to state that, 
as far as I have heard and believe, Dr. Throsby 
was the first person to bring a mob of cattle 
into this district, and many others soon follow- 
ed. The great drought sent them here. I 
don't know what breed they were, but the 
cattle of the colony at that time must have been 
a very mixed breed, brought principally from 
the Cape of Good Hope. My father brought a 
good many cattle into the district between 1824 
and 1834, and these were mostly small cattle 
w^ith'long thin horns, of different colours, most- 
ly brown, brindle, light roan, and white. There 
were a few red and white and a few black, and 
these were about the general run of the cattle 
that were first brought into Illawarra. Mr. 
John WvUie, who obtained a grant of 2000 
acres on the north bank of Mullet Creek, which 
now forms the Canterbury, Newton and Kembla 
Grange properties, imported two Ayrshire bulls 
and some cows, and brougbt them into the dis- 



trict, and these, I believe, were the first pure 
blood or pure breed of cattle that were brought 
into Illawarra. My father had the greater por- 
tion of the Wyllie estate as a cattle run, and 
his stock were much improved by the cross of 
the Wyllie Ayrshires. When Mr. Wyllie left 
the district my father purchased one of the 
the bulls from him. Mr. Alexander Berry pur- 
chased the other bull and the cows, and they 
went to Coolangatta. In 1843 my father pur- 
chased a station and cattle at Kydra, Monaro, 
and sent the whole of his Illawarra cattle there 
as improved by the Ayrshire bull. In 1845 
Mr. Lomax had some fine red Durham cattle of 
the milking breed, and a very fine imported 
roan bull. His herd cows and bulls numbered 
60 head. He settled on the Lakelands Estate on 
Goondarans Creek, where he carried on dairy- 
ing and cattle breeding. Mr. Lomax must 
have sold a good many young bulls. My father 
purchased 10 young bulls and sent them to 
Monaro. When Mr. Gerard Gerard began 
dairying he got his cows from Mr. Berry, of 
S'hoalhaven. They were no doubt Ayrshires, 
and from the original stock imported by Mr. 
Wyllie. In 1847 my father bpught the Glenbog 
Station, Monaro, with all the cattle. These 
cattle were most carefully bred from imported 
stock of the Durham breed, and included a fine 
imported bull of the same breed. The bull, 
however, died, and six of the young Lomax 
bulls were then taken from Kvdra to Glenbog, 
with the result .that all, or nearly all, the in- 
creases from them were red of a milky qualitv. 
About 450 head of these cattle were brought 
down and sold to the Illawarra farmers in the 
early fifties. Therefore, Wyllie. Lomax and 
Brown played a part in founding the Illawarra 
herds. — ^Yours, etc., John Bro'WTi." 

Note. — According to Mr. Evan R. Evans the 
Lomax red cattle had much Devon blood in 
them, his late father having used them in his 
herd. 

Meeting held 5th June, 1885. Cow-testing 
was introduced. The following Herd Book re- 
gulations were placed on record: — 1st. Parties 
requiring a test must apply in writing to the 
Secretary, enclosing fee of 10s for each cow, 
and a test will be conducted at the owner's 
residence within 14 days (both inclusive) from 
receipt of notice to Secretary. 2nd. No cow 
■shall be entitled to a place in the Herd Book 
^vhich shall not have 661bs. weight of milk in 
milkings (consecutive) two mornings and one 
evening. 3rd. The tester or testers will be sup- 
plied with a book, in which shall be entered a 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAKHA 



253 



full and clear description of every cow that 
shall ha*'e given the standard weight of milk, 
to include age, name, color, brand and pedigree 
if possible. The weight of milk for each milk- 
ing and the total will be entered in duplicate 
and signed by tester and owner, one of which 
shall be retained by the Society as a record 
and the other held by the owner, and each leaf 
of the testing book shall be stamped with the 
Society's stamp. 4th. The testing will be con- 
ducted during the whole year, with the excep- 
tion of 14 dajs prior to each show. 5th. There 
shall be five prizes given to the five cqws yield- 
ing the heaviest weight of milk — 1st prize £5, 
2nd £4, 3rd £3, 4th £2, 5th £1 ; the owners of 
prize takers shall exhibit same at annual show 
on. the first day, and the Secretary will notify 
owners to that effect at least six days prior to 
show; every cow will be distinguished on the 
ground by ribbons suitably arranged. 7th. 
The competition shall be confined to members 
of the Association, animals to be the property 
of member entering at least one month previous 
to show. 8th. Any bull, three of whose pro- 
geny are placed on the Herd Book, will be en- 
titled to a place in the Herd Book, also his 
pedigree (if known), name, age, and other par- 
ticulars that may be deemed necessary being 
registered at same time. 9th. Any infringe- 
ment of any of the above rules will disqualify 
any beast from obtaining either a prize or a 
place in the Herd Book. 

A. J. COLLEY, Secretary. 

LEWIS McTNTYRE. President. 
1886.— At the Berry Show, 1886, Daniel Boyd 
won James Martin and Coy.'s gold niedal for 
having won the largest number of prizes at 
the show. 

BROUGHTON CREEK SHOW, 24th FEB- 
RUARY, 1886. 

Dairy Cattle. — Judges: Francis McMahon, 
Donald Kennedy and Henry Fredricks. Best 
bull— Cole Bros 1st, Charles McCabe 2nd, 
E',obert Hiiidmarsh 3rd. BviU, 2 years — Daniel 
Boyd 1st, William Rutledge 2nd and 3rd. Bull, 
1 year — Daniel Boyd 1st, James Bros. 2nd. 
Bull calf — David Tho^burn 1st, Daniel Boyd 
2nd. Best cow in milk — John Grey 1st, James 
Bros. 2nd, John Grey 3rd. Best cow (dry) — 
Daniel Boyd 1st, Daniel Boyd 2nd, William 
Elliott 3rd, Cole Bros 4th. Heifer, 2 years- 
John Grey 1st, Daniel Boyd 2nd. Heifer, 1 
year — Cole Bros. 1st, Daniel Boyd 2nd. Pen of 
4 cows — -James Bros. 1st, Cole Bros. 2nd, Daniel 
Boyd 3rd. Pen of 5 3-year-old heifers — Daniel 



Boyd 1st, Cole Bros 2nd, James Brown 3rd. 
Pen of 5 2-year-old heifers — Daniel Boyd 1st, 
Cole Bros. 2nd, John Boxell 3rd. Pen of 5 1- 
year-old heifers — John Grey 1st, Patrick De- 
very 2nd, Daniel Boyd 3rd. Pen of 5 calves 
(females) — Daniel Boyd 1st, Thomas Gall 2nd, 
Daniel Boyd 3rd. Champion cow on ground — 
James Bros. (Ayrshire). Champion bull on 
ground — John B. Taylor (Ayrshire). 

Pedigree Cattle. — Judges : Evan E. Evans; J. 
P. Dowling and James Monaghan. 

Jerseys — Best bull — John Stewart 1st. Best 
bull, 2 years old — Thomas H. Lees, 1st. Best 
bull, 1 year — William James 1st, Albert Taylor 
2nd. Best cow — William James 1st, John 
Stewart 2nd. Best heifer — William James. 

Ayrshires — Best imported bull — John B. Tay- 
lor. Best colonial bred bull — Robert Graham 
1st, George H. Grey 2nd. Best 2-year-old bull 
—Michael Kenny 1st, Z. Bice 2nd. Best bull, 
1 year — Thomas Binks 1st, James Daly 2nd. 
Best cow — James Bros. 1st, John Grey 2nd. 
Best 2-year-old heifer — John B. Taylor 1st, 
John Grey 2nd. Best 1-year-old heifer — Robert 
Watson 1st, John Grey 2nd. 

Devons. — Best Devon cow — Henry Graham 
1st and 2nd. 

Herefords. — Best bull and cow — David Berry. 

Durhams. — Best bull — David Berry. Best 
cow — Henry Fredricks 1st, James Bros. 2nd. 
Best heifer, 2 years — George Chapman 1st. 
Best heifer, 1 year — George Chapman. 

Cow giving greatest quantity of milk, three 
milkings — D. Boyd 1st, H. Fredricks 2nd, 
James Bros. 3rd. The winning animal gave 
911bs. of milk. 

Broughton. — The Society was reorganised in 
1888. The name : The Association shall be 
called the Broughton Creek Agricultural and 
Horticultural Association. The objects: The 
objects of the Association shall be the manage- 
ment, encouragement and development of agri- 
culture, horticulture, dairying and other indus- 
tries, the improvement of live stock, and the 
introduction into the district of implements and 
machinery for agriculture, dairying and other 
purposes. Then followed a series of means and 
ways by which the above ideals could be effect- 
ed. In 1888 the new show ground was com- 
pleted, and a committee, consisting of John 
Grey, P. H. Morton, Chas. Robinson, John 
Stewart and J'^s. Wilson, was appointed to wait 
on Mr. Berry's renresentative, H. G. Morton, 
regarding the handing over of the ground to 
the Society. John Boxell, President, 1888. 
Three days' show in 1889. Ploughing matches 



254 



TEE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



same year, 28th June. John Hay became 
Patron of the Society, November, 1889. 
John Boxell elected President 1890. Love- 
grove Treasurer. Dr. Lewers, Secretary in the 
absence of A. J. CoUey. Mr. Lovegrove point- 
ed out that in 1888 members' subscriptions 
amounted to £175. The year 1889 reduced the 
amount to £169. The year 1900 reduced the 
amount to £148. Donations fell from £94 in 
1888 to £50 in 1889, and to £49 in 1890. By way 
of endowment the Society received in 1888 
£103, in 1889 £335, in 1890 £106, whilst the 
prizes had been steadily on the increase. In 
horses old Piscator and Lottery had been cham- 
pions for years. At Kiama five members car- 
ried off £120 in prizes, and of these three only 
contributed 15/6 a year to the funds. Confer- 
ence of A. and H. Society delegates at Kiama 
9th August, 1893. National prizes, four cows 
in milk, £6 and £4, August, 1892. Special prizes 



of £7 7s and £3 3s by Mr. Alex. Hay for the five 
cows (all the bona fide property of the exhibi- 
tor) giving the largest yield in one day of milk 
and butter. Only members of the Berry Agricul- 
tural Association residing between the north 
boundary of the Gerringong municipality and 
the Shoalhaven River and the Barrengarry 
Range can compete. Entries to close 31st De- 
cember, 1895. John Stewart was President. 
D. Boyd won several awards. Cole Bros., D. 
Thorbum, John Grey, and James Bros, cham- 
pion for dairy cow. Henry Graham and David 
Berry exhibited Devons. Shorthorns were not 
numerous. H. Fredericks and George Chapman 
took the honors. 

The Berry Champion National Prize of £25 
for best five cows tested at exhibition ground 
in 1896. The product of each cow for one 
milking to be computed at commercial butter 
9d per lb. and skim milk at Ysd per gallon. 



Breed. 


[ Lbs. of 
Owner. - Milk. 


Butter 
Fat. 


Com. 
Butter 


Skimmed 
Milk. 


Total 
Value. 


Remarks. 


Illawarra . . 
Half-bred Jersey 
Illawarra . . 


C. W. Craig 

D. Hyam & Son 

Wm. Sharpe 


120i 
97| 


4.50 
4.30 
3.60 


6.06 
4.05 
3.89 


116 
80 
94 


s. d. 
5 OJ 
3 4J 
3 3i 


1st prize 
2nd prize 
3rd prize 





Prize of £20 for Single Cow — same conditions as 


before mentioned. 










Lbs. of 


Butter 


Com. Skimmed 


Total 




Breed. 


1 Owner. 


Milk. 


Fat. 


Butter, i Milk. 


Value. 


Remarks. 


Illawarra . . 


. ' M. F. Morton 


28J 


4.50 


t 
1.44 ! 24 


s. d. 
1 2 


1st prize 


|-bred Jersey 


C. Waldron 


21i 


4.10 


.96 


17 


9i 


2nd prize 


Illawarra. . 


— Wilson ' 19i 


3.70 


.81 


16 


, 8 


3rd prize 


Jersey 


C. Price 1 14i 


4.60 


.75 


10 


7 


— 


Illawarra . . 


A. Fraser 1 21J 


2.60 


.60 


19 


6; 


— 


Jersey 


E. Goody 16J 


3.30 


.60 


13 


6i 


— 


Illawarra . . 


. i H. Higgins ll| 


4.60 


.59 


7 


5i 


— 


Jersey 


. \ H. Taylor 11 


4.20 


.52 


7 


5 


— 



See page 202— Dlustiationof C. W. Ciaig's Five Test Cows 



Kangaroo Valley Show, 16th March, 1886. 
Cattle for dairy purposes. 

Ayrshire bull, any age — John Randall 1st 
prize, Alexander Osborne 2nd prize, James 
McLelland 3rd prize. Ayrshire bull, 2 years — 
Michael Kenny 1st prize, George Tate, ,iun., 2nd 
prize. Ayrshire bull, 1 year — John Randall 1st 
prize, Thomas Somerville 2nd prize. Ayrshire 
cow, any age — John Randall 1st prize, Hugh 
Hanlon 2nd prize. Ayrshire heifer, 2 years — 
Thomas Somerville 1st prize, George Tate, jun., 
2nd prize. Channel Island bull, any age — 
Alexander Osborne 1st prize. Channel Island 
cow, any age — Alexander Osborne, 1st prize, 
Wesley Vance 2nd prize. 



Dairy Division. — ^Bull, any age — Charles 
McCabe 1st prize, Henry Timbs 2nd prize. 
Bull, 2 years — Alexander Morrison 1st prize, 
James Trimble 2nd prize. Dairy cow, any age 
— William Black 1st prize, William Kelleher 
2nd prize, Charles Graham 3rd prize. Dairy 
heifer, 2 years — David C. Pryce 1st prize, Tate 
and Sullivan 2nd prize. Dairy heifer, 1 year— 
Tate and Sullivan 1st and 2nd prizes. Pen of 
5 heifers, 2 years and under 3 years (the pro- 
perty of the owners) — Tate and Sullivan 1st 
prize, F. Nelson 2nd prize. Pen of 5 heifers, 
^nder 2 years (the property of one owner), 
special prize by Alexainder Campbell — ^F. Nel- 
son 1st prize, Robert Martin 2nd prize. Pen of 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAERA 



255 



4 dairy cows (the property of one owner-), spe- 
cial by John Stewart — 1st prize. A special by 
Elliott and Clarke for 4 best dairy cows — 
George Tate, jun., 1st prize, W. Clarke 2nd 
prize. A special by John Bailey for best dairy 
bull — John Kandall 1st prize, Alexander Mor- 
rison 2nd prize. 

MILKING TESTS, 1885-6— F.F. & I. CO.'S PRIZE MILE 
COW. For Kiama Show, 1886. 



Mr. Henry Frederick Noble's Prize Heifers, under 3 years. 



Date of 


Date of 






Notice. 


Test. 


Name of Owner 


Produce 


1885 


1885 




lbs. oz. 


Aug. 1 


Aug. 9 


Hugh Dudgeon 


47.4 


Sept. 15 


Oct. 6 


Henry Fredericks 


53 


Sept. 22 


Oct. .30 


Hugh CoUev, jun. 


51.8 


Sept. 29 


Oct. 30 


Jas. W. Cole 


44.8 


Oct. 14 


Oct. 30 


Hugh CoUey, iun. 


46.12 


Nov. 10 


Nov. 20 


James Bros. . . 


49.8 
48.12 


Nov. 18 


Nov. 24 


Henry Spinka 


49.4 


Dec. 22 


Dec. 30 


John Lindsay 


49.8 
46.12 

44 


1886 


1886 






Jan. 1 


Jan. 8 


John Lindsay 


51.8 
44.4 
44 



Date of 


Date of 






Notice. 


Test. 


Owner's Name. 


Produce 


1885 


J 88.5 






Sept.— 


Sept 17 


Cole Bros. 


2G.0 




,, 


,, ,, 


35.4 


Oct. 1 


Oct. 7 


Henrv Fredericks 


31.8 


Oct. 22 


Oct. 30 


James W. Cole 


44.8 


Nov. 10 


Nov. 20 


Henry Fredericks 


39.8 


1886 


1886 






Jan. 23 


Jan. 30 


Hugh Dudgeon 


53.0 



RESULT OF COMPETITION FOR SPECIAL MILE 
PRIZES OFFERED BY EIAMA AGRICULTURAL 
SOCIETY'S SHOW OF 1886. 



Henry Frederick's cow 
Hugh Dudgeon's cow 
Hugh Colley, junr., oowf 
John Lindsay's cow* 
James Brotheral cow 



53 lbs. milk in two miikings. 

53 lbs. 

51ilbs. 

5141bs. 

49Jlbs. 



fNo mention of winner. 

* Cow's name, Susan — Jenkins' breed. 



COW TESTS OF EIAMA AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 1886. 



Nos. 


Name of Owner. 


Color of Cow. 


Age. 


Milk Test. 


Date of Test and Breeding. 


I 


Jas. W. Cole 








44i lbs. 




2 


Henry Fredericks 


— 


— 


32| „ 




3 


Hugh Colley, junr. 


Light roan 


— 


35 „ 


27th November, 1886. 


4 


Robert Miller . . 


Light roan 


— 


36^ „ 


29th October, 1886 


5 


Thomas Brown . . 


Red . . 


— 


38 „ 


25th March, 1887. 


6 


Hugh Dudgeon . . 


Red . . 


— 


35 „ 




7 


Hugh Dudgeon . . 


Red roan 


— 


36 „ 




8 


John Hayter 


Dark roan 


— 


42 „ 


Supposed to be old milking Durham. 


9 


Hugh Dungeon . . 


Red and white 


Under 3 years 


37i „ 


Major strain 


10 


Hugh Dudgeon . . 


Red and white 


,, t» 


37 „ 


Major strain. 


11 


Jas. W. Cole 


— . 


,, 


47 „ 


8th October, 1887. 


12 


Cole Bros. 


1 — 


— 


38i „ 




13 


Cole Bros. 


' — 


— 


— 




14 


C. W. Craig 


Red and white 


Under 3 years 


42 „ 




15 


C. W. Craig 


Roan . . 


,, ,, 


411 „ 




16 


Stewart Bros 


— , 


— 


46 „ 


30th November, 1887. 


17 


George Couch 


— 


— 


42J „ 


30th November, 1887. 


18 


Daniel Murphy . . 


Red and white 


— 


48| „ 


23rd October, 1889.. 


19 


Edward E. Bigg . . 


— 


3 years 


35 „ 


Ayrshire. 


20 


Mrs. Jane Armstrong . . 


Brindle 


3 years 


46 „ 


29th October, 1890. f Jersey. 


21 


James Spinks 


Red and white 


2 years 


39J „ 


5th January, 1892. 


22 


Spinks Bros 


Red and white 


Under 3 years 


39i „ 


nth June, 1892. 


23 


John F. Spinks . . 


Dark spotted 


Under 2 years 


37* „ 


Nov., 1892. Bred from Major strain 


24 


James Bros. 


Roan . . 


Under 3 years 


43 „ 


10th January, 1893. 


25 


T. R. M. Moffitt - . . 


Red . . 


Under 3 years 


37J „ 


18th April, 1893. 


26 


C. W. Craig 


Roan . . 


Under 2 years 


38} „ 


3rd August, 1893. Major strain 


27 


C. W. Craig 


Roan 


2 years 


35i „ 


3rd August, 1893. Major strain. 


28 


Hugh Dudgeon . . 


Red . . 


Under 3 years 


43 „ 


1st Nov., 1893. Major straim 


29 


James Bros 


Red with white 


Under 3 years 


43i „ 


1st June, 1894. lUawarra strain 






spot 






(Prince Charlie). 


30 


C. W. Craig 


Black .. 


Under 3 years 


49| „ 


29th September, 1894. 


31 


John T. Young . . 


Red and white 


Under 3 years 


42J „ 





256 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARKA 





MttKING COW TESTS IN CONNECTION WITH KIAMA AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 


Nos. 


Name of Owner. 


Color of Cow. 


Age. 


Milk Test 


Date of Test. 


Pedigree. 


1 


John Lindsay 


Red (Susan) . . 





5Ulb8. 


1st Jan., 1886 


District breed 


2 


John Lindsay 


Light roan 





44i „ 


9th Jan., 1886 


District breed 


3 


John Lindsay 


Dark red 


— 


42 „ 


9th Jan., 1886 


District breed 


4 


Daniel Boyd 


Roan . . 


— 


58J „ 


5th May, 1886 




5 


Robert Miller . . 


Red . . 


7 years 


55' „ 


2nd Oct., 1886 




6 


Daniel Boyd 


. Red .. 


4 years 


49 „ 


9th June, 1886 




7 


Henry Fredericks 


.Red 


— 


52J „ 


22nd Oct., 1886 




8 


James Sharpe 


Roan . . 


— 


52| „ 


23rd Nov., 1886 




9 


James Sharpe 


Red and white 


— 


54i „ 


30th Dec, 1886 




10 


James W. Cole . . 


Light roan 


— 


59| „ 


28th Jan., 1887 


Durham 


11 


John Curtis 


— 


— 


62i „ 


12th Mar., 1887 




12 


Daniel Boyd 


Roan . . 


5 years 


62 „ 


4th May, 1887 




13 


Michael O'Gorman 


. Red .. 


— 


49 „ 


— 




14 


John Lindsay 


Red and white 


— 


59i „ 


3rd Nov., 1888 


J Ayrshire 


15 


John Lindsay 


Red and white 


— 


62i „ 


14th Nov., 1888 


1 Ayrshire 


16 


John Lindsay 


Red, white face 


5 years 


68 „ 


12th Dec, 1888 


J Ayrshire 


17 


Daniel Boyd 


Light roan 


6 years 


69 „ 


29th Jan., 1889 




18 


James W. Cole . . 


Light roan 


6 years 


69 „ 


January, 1889 


By Commodore 


19 


James W. Cole . . 


Light spots . . 


— 


65 „ 


31st May, 1888 




20 


J. T. and E. Cole 


— 


— 


60 „ 


1st Dec, 1887 




21 


Roger Murphy . . 


Light roan 


— 


60 „ 


— 




22 


Roger Murphy . . 


. Spotted 


— 


51i „ 


— 




23 


W. Sharpe 


Roan . . 


7 years 


56J „ 


21st October, 




24 


Daniel Boyd 


Red and white 


7 years 


58i „ 


26th Oct., 1887 




25 


Daniel Boyd 


. Yellow.. 


6 years 


54" „ 


30th Sept., 1887 


Sire, Comet 


26 


John Lindsay 


Red and white 


— 


68 „ 


5th Dec, 1889 




27 


John Lindsay 


Red and white 


6 years 


69i „ 


5th Dec, 1889 




28 


James Bros. 


Roan . . 


n yrs- 


60 J „ 


23rd Aug., 1889 




29 


James Bros. 


Dark roan 




TOi „ 


23rd Oct., 1889 




30 


James W. Cole . . 


Light roan 


— 


77i ,. 


10th Jan., 1890 


Commodore 


30^ 


J. T. Hayter 


Red and white 


12 years 


59i „ 


2nd Dec, 1920 


Some Antill blood 


31 


Jas. W. Cole 


Light roan 


— 


68 „ 


2nd Jan., 1891 


Major strain 


32 


Jas. W. Cole 


Light roan 


— 


57 „ 


24th Jan., 1891 


Commodore 


33 


Hugh Dudgeon . . 


Red . . 


8 years 


54J „ 


24th Jan., 1891 


Major strain 


34 


John Lindsay 


Yellow with 














white back . . 


— 


m „ 


10th June, 1891 


Half-bred Ayrshire 


35 


James Bros. 


Red and white 


6 years 


70J „ 


12th Dec, 1891 


Major strain 


-36 


Hugh Dudgeon . . 


Light roan 


5 years 


61 „ 


19th Jan., 1892 


Major strain 


37 


James W. Cole . . 


— 


— 


65i „ 


23rd Jan., 1892 




38 


John Lindsay 


Red and white 


9 years 


^^ „ 


26th Nov., 1892 


Ayrshire bull, D'ham cow 


39 


James Bros. 


Brown 


7 years 


59* „ 


10th Jan., 1893 


E. R. Williams' breed 


40 


Hugh Dudgeon . . 


Red . . 


6 years 


64i „ 


17th Jan., 1893 


Major strain 


41 


Hugh Dudgeon . . 


Light roan 


6 years 


60' „ 


17th Jan., 1893 


Major strain 


42 ' 


C. W. Craig 


Roan . . 


8 years 


68| „ 


3rd Aug., 1893 


Major strain 


43 


C. W. Craig 


Roan . . 


10 years 


53i „ 


20th Oct., 1893 


Major strain 


44 


C. W. Craig 


Roan . . 


6 years 


56i „ 


20th Oct., 1893 


Major strain 


45 


Hugh Dudgeon . . 


Spotted 


10 years 


62 „ 


1st Dec, 1893 


District breed 


46 


Hugh Dudgeon . . 


Light roan 


7 years 


62f „ 


12th June, 1894 


Major strain 


47 


Hugh Dudgeon . . 


Dark red 


7 years 


56i „ 


12th Jan., 1894 


Major strain 


48 


C. W. Craig 


Roan . . 


6 years 


64 „ 


8th Nov., 1894 


Major strain 


49 


John T. Young . . 


Red and white 


aged 


64 „ 


22nd Aug., 1895 




50 


Hugh Dudgeon . . 


Spotted 


9 years 


65J „ 


17th Sept., 1895 


Major strain 


51 


Hugh Dudgeon . . 


Red . . 


5 years 


63 „ 


26th Oct., 1895. 


Major strain 



Owner s Name. 


Color of Cow. 


Age. . 


Date of Test. 


Milk. 


Butter. 


Pedigree. 










lbs. 


lbs. ozs. 




Hugh Dudgeon . . 


Red, white flank 


2 years 


19th Jan., 1907 


34.8 




lUawarra Durham 


Hugh Dudgeon . . 


Red .... 


2 years 


16th Oct., 1906 


41.8 


— 


Sire, Gordon Brook bull 


Charles Sharpe . . 


Red roan 


9 years 


28th July, 1906 


65.8 


13 10 


Shorthorn 


Bailey Bros. 


Red and white . . 


5 years 


21st Nov., 1906 


50 


— 


lUawarra breed 


M. J. Hindmarsh 


Yellow .. 


5 years 


7th Dec, 1906 


51 


— 


Grade Guernsey 


Thomas James . . 


Light red 


6 years 


2l8tJune, 1905 


51 


13 9 


Jersey-Durham cross 


Thomas James . . 


Roan (Rossonus) 


11 years 


21st June, 1905 


43 


12 7i 


Milking Shorthorn 


George Grey 


Black and white 


4 years 


5th Oct., 1905 


57 


— 


Holstein cross 


Daniel Murphy . . 


Red 


5 years 


18th Nov., 1905 


53.4 


12 4 


Milking Shorthorn 


W. H. Sharpe .. 


1 L't roan & white 


7 years 


23rd Dec, 1905 


50.8 


12 4 


Ayrshire Shorthorn cross 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



257 



The difficulty of getting hold of reliable 
pedigrees has been a trouble in lUawarra for 
years past; to carry cattle pedigrees about in 
one 's head is a gift bestowed on but few. Yet, 
hundreds profess to know, first hand, every- 
thing. Take Edward Gibson's eow, "Hand- 
some." She was calved on Gibson's farm at 
Figtree, near WoUongong on September 30th, 
1884. Colour roan and white. She was then 
described as being descended from the old 
Illawarra and the Glenlee cattle, a strain of 
cattle much admired for the dairy. She won 
her first prize in class 1 year and under 2 
years in 1886 ; her second 1st prize in class 2 
years, and under 3 years in 1887. First prize 
as a dairy cow at Albion Park in 1888; also 
1st prize in dairy eow class at Dapto, same 
year. She won 1st prize at WoUongong Show 
in 1889. IJer breeding was then given as fol- 
lows: — "Out of a pure Durham cow, her sire 
an Ayrshire-Durham, bred by Lindsay Bros." 
According to Lindsay Bros, the bull in ques- 
tion was "bred by John Lindsay of Kembla 
Park, Munderra, sire Earl of Beaconsfield, dam 
an Illawarra cow." Handsome tested gave 50 
lbs. of milk per day, averaging 14 lbs. of 
butter per week. 

CATTLE FOR DAIRY PURPOSES. 
ILLAWARRA BREED. 

Best bull, 3 years and over. — 1st prize (£3 or medal), Thomas 

Love; 2nd prize (£2), Frederick Beggs; 3rdprize(£l 10s.), 

Robert Jones; 4th prize (£1), John F. Spinks. 
Best bull, 2 years and under 3 years). — 1st prize (£2), Hugh 

Thompson; 2nd prize (£1 10s.), John Carberry ; 3rd 

prize (£1), Richard Keevers. 
Best bull, 1 and under 2 years. — 1st prize (£1 10s.), James 

MofStt, jun. ; 2nd prize (£1), George Chapman. 
Best milking oow. — 1st prize (£3 or medal), Thomas Fredericks; 

2nd prize (£2), Cole Bros. ; 3rd prize (£1 10s.), Craig and 

Son; 4th prize (£1), Cole Bros. 
Best dry cow. — 1st prize (£3 or medal), John Curtis ; 2nd 

prize (£2), W. C. Dunster ; 3rd prize (£1 10s.), Thomas 

Love; 4th prize (£1), William Graham. 
Best heifer, 2 and under 3 years. — 1st prize (£2), Richard 

Keevers ; 2nd prize (£1 10s.), William James ; 3rd prize, 

(£1), Thomas Brown. 
Best pen of 4 heifers, under 3 years. — 1st prize (£2), J. W. 

Cole; 2nd prize (£1), Daniel Boyd. 
Best pen of 4 dairy cows, any breed. — 1st prize (£2 2s.), Cole 

Bros. ; 2nd prize (£1 Is.), J. W. Cole. 
Best pen of 4 dairy cows, under 4 years. — 1st prize (£2 2s.), 

Cole Bros. 
Best pen of 6 heifers, under 3 years. — 1st price (£2 lOs.), 

Daniel Boyd. 
Best male animal for dairy purposes, any breed. — 1st prize 

(£5 5s ), Thomas Love's " King Cole," ; 2nd prize (£5 5s.). 

Craig & Son's " Louie." 
Best bull and his progeny (females), 6 in number. — Thomas 

Brown (sire by "Dunlop"). 

AYRSHIRE DAIRY CATTLE. 

Best Ayrshire bull, 3 years and over. — 1st prize (£2 5s.), John 
B. Taylor ; 2nd prize (£1 5s.), Thomas Brown. 



Best Ayrshire bull, 1 year and under 2 years. — 1st prize 
(£1 5s.), W. C. Dunster; 2nd prize (£1), James Sharpe. 

Best Ayrshire oow, 3 years and over — 1st prize (£2 58.) or 
medal), Robert Wilson ; 2nd prize (£1 5s.), Irvine Martin. 

Best Ayrshire heifer, 2 years and under 3 years. — 1st prize 
(£1 15s.), William James; 2nd prize (£1 5s.), Thomas 
Brown. 

Best dairy bull, any age (Special). — 1st prize (£4 5s.), John 
Lindsay ; 2nd prize (£1), W. C. Dunster. 

In Jersey and Alderney Classes — Edwin Vidler, Alex. Camp-, 
bell, William James, William Emery, and Con. Heninger 
were the principal winners. 

The Kiama " Challenge Prize " of 1887 for cows of any of the 
foregoing breeds and of any age. — 1st prize, Cole Bros ; 
2nd prize, J. W. Cole. 

Show Test. — Cow giving largest quantity of milk in 24 hours 
—1st prize (£10), J. W. Cole's " Violet," 59J lbs. ; 2nd 
.prize (£9 9s.), Daniel Boyd, 58i lbs. ; 3rd prize (£5), 
Robert Miller, 55 lbs. ; 4th prize (£2 2s.), James Sharpe. 
54f lbs. ; 5th prize (£1 Is.), James Sharpe, 52 J lbs. 

Cow giving the largest quantity of butter in teat for qualifica- 
tion for Herd-book, during the year 1886. — 1st prize 
(£5 5s.), Spinks Bros., 14J lbs. ; 2nd prize, (£3 3s.), Cole 
Bros., 12| lbs. ; 3rd prize (£2 28.), Hugh Dudgeon, 12 lbs. ; 
4th prize (£1 10s.), Hugh Dudgeon, 74 lbs. Note.— This 
4th prize cow was " Charmer." She had been milking 
9 months, and was at time of test due to calve within 
two months. 

Test for cow, under 3 years old. — 1st prize (£2 2s.), Robert 
Miller, 36^ lbs. ; 2nd prize (£1 Is.), Hugh CoUey, jun., 
35 lbs. 

Section I.— Albion Park Show, 1888. 
Class 1 — James McGill (The Bass), 1st prize ; E. H. Weston 

(Thunderbolt), 2nd prize ; George Couch (Emperor), 
. 3rd prize. 
Class 2 — Henry Allison, John H. Wright, Thomas Charlton, 

1st prize ; Gabriel Timbs, junr., Charles Weston. 
Class 3 — Thomas Charlton, George Faulks, Charles Weston, 

2nd prize ; Charles Weston, 1st prize ; Marceau Bros. 
Class 4 — 20 entries — P. FUtoroft, 1st prize ; John Saunders, 

2nd prize. 
Class 5 — 11 entries — Michael O'Gorman, 1st prize; David 

Manson, 2nd prize. 
Class 6 — 9 entries — James MoGill, 1st prize ; P. Flitcroft, 

2nd prize. 
Class 6a — 8 entries — P. Flitcroft, 1st prize. 
Class 7- — 2 entries — Hindmarsh Bros., 1st and 2nd prizes. 
Class 8 — -2 entries — Hindmarsh Bros, 1st prize ; Gabriel 

Timbs, 2nd prize. 
Class 9 — 2 entries — Denis Kelleher, 1st prize. 
Class 10 — 6 entries — Hindmarsh Bros., 1st prize ; David 

Manson, 2nd prize. 
Class 11 — 5 entries — Hindmarsh Bros., 1st prize; Dunster 

Bros., 2nd prize. 
Class 12 — 2 entries — Hindmarsh Bros., 1st prize ; Gabriel 

Timbs, 2nd prize. 
Class 13 — 2 entries — Marceau Bros., 1st prize ; Gabriel 

Timbs, 2nd prize. 
Class 14 — 4 entries — Hindmarsh Bros., 1st and 2nd prizes.; 

Cornelius Heinenger, highly commended 
Class 15 — 2 entries — Hindmarsh Bros., 1st prize. 
Class 16 — 6 entries — George Geer, 1st prize. J. Chie, 2nd prize. 
Class 17 — 7 entries — Hindmarsh Bros., 1st prize ; James 

Condon, 2nd prize. 
Class 18^3 entries — James Sharpe, 1st prize ; J H.- Wright, 

2nd prize. 
Class 19 — 2 entries — Alexander Eraser, 1st prize. 
Class 20 — 8 entries — John Eraser, 1st prize ; Thos. Charlton, 

2nd prize. 



258 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABKA 



Section n. 

Class 21 — 14 entries— Tno!-. Charlton, 1st prize; George 

Clinch, 2ncl prize. 
Class 22 — 17 entries — Charl y Weston, 1st prize; John 

McGlinchy, 2nd prize ; — Campbell, highly commended. 
Class 23 — 7 entries — F. Bigts, 1st prize ; Charles Barnes, 

2nd prize ; James Sharpe, 3rd prize. 
Class 24 — 11 entries — Edwin Vidler, junr., 1st prize ; Michael 

Carberry, 2nd prize. 
Class 25 — 12 entries— Dr. Asche, 1st prize; — Booth, 2nd 

prize ; Alex Fraser, 3rd prize. 
Class 26 — 11 entries — Caleb Davies, 1st prize; David Manson, 

2nd prize. 
Class 27 — 12 entries — P. Malone, Ist prize ; George Geer, 

2nd prize. 
Class 29 — 9 entries — Charles Weston, 1st prize ; Robert 

Gordon, 2ud prize. 
Class 30 — 12 entries — C. Braddock, 1st prize ; Robt. Osborne, 

2nd prize ; James Condon, highly commended. 
Class 31 — 12 entries — Robert Jones, 1st prize; Edward 

Swan, 2nd prize. 
Class 32 — 11 entries — Robert J. Marshall, 1st prize; C 

Hukins (Dr. Avondale), 2nd prize ; A. B. Staff (Duchess)* 

3rd prize. > 

Class 33 — 6 entries — Edward Swan, 1st prize ; Michael 

Carberry, 2nd prize. 

Section ni. 

Class 1 — Bulls — Evan R. Evans, 1st prize ; F. Biggs, 2nd 

prize. 
Class 2 — Duncan McGill, 1st prize; Duncan McGill, 2nd 

prize. 
Class 3 — 10 entries — W. Mathie, 1st prize ; Edward Gibson, 

2nd prize. 
Class i-r-29 entrie — (Cows in Milk) Edward Gibson, 1st 

prize ; John Dudgeon, 2nd prize. 
Class 5 — 21 entries — (Dry Cows) Dunster Bros., 1st prize; 

John Dudgeon, 2nd prize. 
Class 6 — 28 entries — James Bros., 1st prize; James Bros., 

2nd prize ; John Brownlee, highly commended. 
Class 7-^37 entries — J. H. Swan, Ist prize ; James Musgrave, 

2nd prize ; Evan R. Evans, highly commended. 
Class 8 — 14 entries — E. Gibson*, 1st prize ; John Dudgeon, 

2nd prize. 
* Mr. Edward Gibson's lUawarra cow, " Handsome," bred 
by owner, calved September 30th, ISS-I ; color, roan and 
white, was described by Mr. Gibson to the Illawarra Mercury 
representatives as having descended from the old Illawarra 
and Glenlee strains. She won 1st prize at Albion Park Show 
in 1888 and 1st prize at Dapto Show same year in dairy cow. 
Mr. Gibson then said; — " She is out of a pure-bred Durham 
cow by an .Ayrshire Durham bull, bred by Lindsay Bros. 
" Handsome " was a show cow of note in her day, and when 
officially tested gave 50 lbs. of milk in 24 hours, and 14 lbs. of 
butter per week. This test was carried out by means of 
separator and churn, the official system of testing cows at 
that period. She was full of Devon blood. 



Class 9 — 30 entries — James Musgrave, 1st prize ; E. H. 

Weston, 2nd prize ; Dunster Bros., highly commended. 
Class 10 — 20 entries — George Timbs, 1st prize; Michael 

O'Gorman, 2nd prize. 
Class 11 — 8 entries — Michael O'Gorman (3 cows), Ist prize; 

John Lindsay (3 cows), 2nd prize. 
Class 12— Nil. 

Class 13 — Con. Heinenger, Ist prize. 

Class 14 — 6 entries — Con. Heinenger, 1st and 2nd prizes. 
Class 15 — 7 entries — Con. Heinenger, 1st and 2nd prizes. 
Class 16 — 5 — entries — D. Lindsay, 1st and 2nd prizes. 
Class 17 — 2 entries — D. Lindsay, Ist prize. 
Class 18 — 4 entries — Marceau Bros., 1st prize Henry 

Kteevers, 2nd prize. 



Class 19 — 6 entries — John Lindsay, 1st prize; George Couch, 

2nd prize. 
Class 20—6 entries — John Lindsay, 1st prize; Edward 

Gibson, 2nd prize and highly commended. 
Class 21 — 5 entries — Bulls — Iryihe Martin, Ist prize ; John 

Lindsay, 2nd prize. 
Class 22 — 7 entries — Cows — Evan R. Evans, 1st prize ; Jolin 

Lindsay, 2nd prize ; Irvine Martin, highly comnr.ended. 
Class 23 — 5 entries — John Lindsay, 1st and 2nd prizes. 
Class 24 — 6 entries — John Lindsay, Ist and 2nd prizes. 
Class 25 — 9 entries — Edward Gibson, Ist prize. 
Class 26 — 7 entries — Tests: John Lindsay's cow, 371bs. 6ozs., 

Ist prize ; Charles Gower's cow, 281bs. 2 ozs., 2nd pri'ze ; 

David Manson's, cow "Bally," 281bs of milk, highly 

commended. 
Class 27a — 13 entries — John Dudgeon (3 cows milking), 1st 

prize ; Michael O'Gorman (3 cows milking), 2nd prize. 
Class 27 — 13 entries — David Manson (2 cows), 1st prize. 
Class 28 — 3 entries — David Manson exhibited "Gaylad" ; no 

awards. 
Class 30 — I entry — David Manson's "Queen." No award. 
Class 32 — 8 entries — J. H. Swan, Ist prize. 
Class 33 — 9 entries — Mick Crowley, 1st prize. 
Class 34 — 5 entries — Mick Crowley, Ist prize ; J. Thomas, 

2nd prize. 
Class 35 — 10 entries — Evan R. Evans, 1st and 2nd prizes. 
Class 36 — 8 entries — J. Chie, 1st prize ; D. Manson, 2nd 

prize. 

Section m. — Cattle for Dairy Purposes. 

Class 1 — Bull, any age — 13 entries — Evan R. Evans, Ist 

prize ; Robert Jones, 2nd prize. 
Class 2 — Bull, 2 years — 4 entries — Edward Gibson, 1st prize ; 

W Mathie, 2nd prize. 
Class 3 — Bull, I year — 13 entries — H. Dudgeon, 1st prize; 

Fred Timbs, 2nd prize.- 
Class 4 — Cow in Milk — 13 entries — John Dudgeon, 1st prize ; 

Edward Gibson, 2nd prize ; Hugh Dudgeon, highly 

commended 
Class 5 — Dry Cow — 20 e.itries — Dunster Bros., 1st prize; 

Hugh Dulgeon, 2nd prize. 
Cla^s 6 — Heifer, 2 years — 25 entries- William Moles, 1st prize-; 

David Manson, 2nd prize ; Edward Gibson, highly 

commended. 
Class 7 — Heifer, 1 year — 33 entries — Frank Downes, 1st 

prize ; J. Chie, 2nd prize. 
Class 8 — Bull Calf, 6 months old — 8 entries — Charles Barnes, 

, 1st prize ; Edward Gibson, 2nd prize. 
Class 9 — Heifer Calf 6 months old — 25 entries- John Dudgeon, 

Ist prize ; Charles Faulks, 2nd prize. 
Class 10 — 4 heifers, 1 and 2 years old — 19 entries — James 

Bros., 1st prize , Edward Gibson, 2nd prize. 
Class II — 6 Heifers, 2 years old — 5 entries — William 'Moles, 

1st prize : Edward Gibson, 2nd prize. 
Class 12 — 3 Dairy Cows (Special, J. Marks) — 10 entries — 

Edward Gibson, 1 st prize ; Alex. Fraser, 2nd prize. 

Michael O'Gorman and John Dudgeon, highly com- 
mended. 
Class 13 — Champion Cow — John Dudgeon, 1st prize ; Edward 

Gibson, 2nd prize. As no tests given, prizes were not 

awarded. 
Class 14 — Cowi 1 Milk — 5 entries — David Manson, 1st prize; 

and 2nd prize. 
Class 15 — Two Heifers, 1 and 2 years old — II entries — F. 

Downs, 1st prize ; Dunster Bros., 2nd prize. 
Class 16 — Jerseys and Aldemeya : Bull 3 years — 3 entries — 

J. Heinenger, 1st prize ; C. Heinenger. 2nd prize. 
Class 17 — Bull, 2 years — 3 entries — C. Heinenger, 1st prize. 
Class 18 — Best Cow, any awe — 8 entries — Thomas James, Ist 

prize ; David Lindsay, 2nd prize. 
Class 19 — Ayrshire Bull, 3 years — James Couch, 1st prize. 

Edward Gibson, 2nd prize. 



HENRY CHITTICK & SONS' STUD, Alne Bank, Gerringong, Illawarra. 





PET II OF ALNE BANK. 
(No. 409, A.R., I.D.C.H.B.) 



BrTTEHCII' 111 Ol' AI-NK BANK. 

(Nil. L'i8, .\.ii.. i.ii.c.ji.n. - 




FISSV OF ALNE BANK. 



COChll- III \l NL I. \NK. 

(ISii. '.II.. l.li.r.ll.b. - 





LINDA and OF ALNE BANK. 
(No. MO, A.R., I.D.C.H.B.) 



BUTTEUr.Ul' II. 
(No. \.>IS. A.R., I.li.D.lLB.) 



TEE HISTOBY OF ILLAWABBA 



261 



Class 20 — RuU, 2 years — 1 entry — Irvine Martin, 1st prize. 
Class 21 — Bull, 1 year — 1 entry — Gabriel Timbs, 1st prize. 
Class 22 — Cow, any age — 6 entries — Evan R. Evans, 1 stand 

2nd prizes. 
Class 23 — Heifer, 2 years — 6 entries — JaJnes Bros., 1st prize. 
Class 24 — 5 entries — No awards. 

Class 25 — Challenge Prize — Evan R. Evans, 1st prize. 
Class 26 — Bull, under 3 years — Irvine Martinj 1st prize. 
Class 31 — Shorthorn Bull — 4 entries — D. Manson, 1st prize ; 

J. Chic, 2nd prize. 
Special — 6 Dairy Cows (F.F. & I. Co.) — 5 entries — Edward 

Gibson, 1st prize ; Michael 0' Gorman 2nd prize. 

Kiama Show on 9th and 10th February, 1887, 
on new show ground, Longbrush Road; 1000 
entries. Jas. W. Cole won with Violet, aged 4 
years, on 2nd calf. Daniel Boyd was 2nd with 
a cow of the Scotch Jock strain. Robert Miller 
was 3rd with a cow by a Comet bull out of a 
Major cow. Spinks Bros 4th with a cow bred 
by Roger Murphy, of Jamberoo, of the Scotch 
Jock strain. Hugh Dudgeon was commended 
for a cow by George Tate, sen., of Broughton 
Village. 

Cow giving most milk in 24 hours — 1st prize 
J. W. Cole, 591b. 8oz. ; 2nd prize, Daniel Boyd, 
581b. 12oz. 

Cow giving the largest amount of butter per 
week for Herd Book — Spinks Bros., 1st prize, 
value £5 5s, 141b. lOoz. ; Cole Bros, 2nd prize, 
£3 3s, 121b. 12oz. ; Hugh Dudgeon, 3rd prize, 
£2 2s. 121b.; Hugh Dudgeon, 4th prize, £1 lOs, 
71b. This 4th prize cow was "Charmer," 9 
months in milk, 2 months off calving. 

1889.— Best bull, J. W. Cole, 1st prize ; Spinks 
Bros., 2nd prize. Bull, 2 years old, Thomas 
Honey, 1st prize ; Robert Jones, 2nd prize ; Peter 
Quinn, 3rd prize. Best cow, J. W. Cole, 1st 
prize; J. T. Cole, 2nd prize. Best dry cow, 
J. "W. Cole, 1st prize; J. T. Cole, 2nd prize. 
Best Ayrshire bull, George H. Grey, 1st prize: 
Robert Wilson, 2nd prize. Alderney or Jersey, 
best bull, William Emery, 1st prize; Z. Bice, 
2nd prize. Best cow, J. Jones, 1st prize; Wil- 
liam Emery, 2nd prize. 

Kiama A. & H. Society, meeting October, 
1889. Report on cow testing by Special Com- 
mittee. ^Ir. John James read the following 
report: — "Your committee, after mature con- 
sideration and careful experiment, beg to report 
that they believe hand separators will give a 
reliable test in any kind of weather, and recom- 
mend, Ist: The adoption of testing by hand 
separators instead of setting the milk as 
formerly; 2nd: That two persons be appointed 
to conduct tests in different localities; one in 
Jamberoo, and one in Gerringong, it is sug- 
gested would be more convenient than the pre- 
sent locality; 3rd: That two days' test be 



adopted instead of seven days as previously. 
This is thought may induce more stock owners 
to compete in entering stock; 4th: That 100 lbs. 
of milk or 3% lbs. of butter in two consecutive 
days be the standard for admission to Herd 
Book; 5th: That hand-feeding or milk-feeding 
be not allowed ; the feed to be best pasture 
a,vailable, or in times of scarcity, green fodder 
onl,y ; 6th : That the entrance fee be abolished ; 
7th: The adoption of the Cook System, the 
person testing to keep a book and enter name, 
age, colour, brand, breed, feed, state of the 
weather, and weight of milk and butter, a 
duplicate leaf to be given the owner of cow 
tested, both leaves to be signed by person test- 
ing and the owner of cow. In the case of a 
cow passing the standard, the person conducting 
the test to furnish the secretary with full parti- 
culars for entry in Herd Book, Waugh and 
Josephson, for lending a hand separator, and 
Prank McCaffrey for conducting the test of a 
hand separator. H. H. Honey was thanked 
also. He used one of Martin and Co. 's Alexan- 
der machines. "The Australian Ironmonger" 
was the journal that reported on these tests. 
G. W. Puller was then M.P. for the Kiama 
Electorate, and got £200 for the Kiama Show. 

Spring balance for weighing milk in cow 
tests, January, 1891. B. Lane, 175 lunches at 
4/- each, £35. ; 

The point system of judging, adopted July 
17th, 1891, and on 28th August, 1891, and 
£250 was approved of by Minister of Agricul- 
ture for district national prizes. 

Although the point system of judging was 
adopted in 1891, the actual arrangement of 
these points does not appear to have taken 
effect until after a general conference of the 
Agricultural Society's delegates who assembled 
in Kiama, 4/6/ '92. It was a representative 
meeting, as all such things were then and are to 
this day, and for the matter of that, from the 
beginning, but nothing seems to have come 
out of the movement, as the point system is 
above the mind of the majority of the best. 
1890. — Show in Kiama, 16th and 17th January, 
1890. Best bull, J. W. Cole, 1st prize; J. T. 
Cole, 2nd prize. Best bull, 2 years old, Hugh 
Dudgeon, 1st prize; Thomas Love, 2nd prize. 
Bull for dairy purposes, any breed and any 
age, J. W. Cole, 1st and champion. Cow any 
age and any breed, John Lindsay, 1st prize. 
Heifer, 2 years old that never had a calf, Craig 
and Son, 1st prize. Heifer, 2 years old in calf, 
Michael Murphy, 1st prize; William Sharpe, 
2nd prize. 



262 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABRA 



Wollongong Show, 1890 (February.) : Dairy 
cow, Edward Gibson, 1st prize; John Lind- 
say, 2nd prize. Berry Show, 1890 (12th 
Peb.) : Dairy cow in milk, Daniel Boyd, 1st 
prize? J. T. Cole, 2nd prize. Champion eow, 
Daniel Boyd. Heifer, 2 years old, Daniel Boyd, 
1st prize and 2nd prize. 

1892.— Best bnll, John Dudgeon's Reddie, 1st 
prize. Best bull, 2 years old, E. H. Cole, 1st 
prize. Best bull, 1 year old, Edward Gibson, 
1st prize. Best 4 dairy cows, John Lindsay, 1st 
prize. Best dairy cow, John Lindsay, 1st prize ; 
"Edward Gibson, 2nd prize. Best Ayrshire bull, 
Irvine Martin, 1st prize; Robert Lindsay, 2nd 
prize. Best Ayrshire cow, John Lindsay, 1st 
prize, David Manson, 2nd prize. Alderney or 
Jersey. Best bull, George Hill, 1st prize ; Con. 
Heninger, 2nd prize. George Hill, of Sydney, 
was in 1892, interested in the blue metal trade 
at Bombo, Kiama. 

1893.— Kiama Show, January, 1893. Bull, 4 
years and over, John Dudgeon's Reddie, 1st 
prize ; Spinks Bros., 2nd prize. Bull, 2 j^ears 
old, J. W. Cole, 1st prize; Henry Fredericks, 
2nd prize. Best eow in milk, John Dudgeon, 1st 
prize; Hugh Dudgeon, 2nd prize. Champion 
bull, Spinks Bros. Champion eow, J. T. Cole, 
1st prize. Heifer, 2 years old, T. and F. James, 
1st prize; James Bros., 2nd prize. 



Berry Show, 1893, opened by Lord Jersey. 
Best dairy bull, John Dudgeon, 1st prize 
(Reddie) ; J. W. Cole, 2nd prize. Best 
eow in milk, John Lindsay, 1st prize, 
Thomas Somerville, 2nd prize. Bull, 2 
years old, Edwin Vidler, 1st prize. Daniel 
Boyd, 2nd prize. Heifer, 2 years old, R. V. 
Boyd, 1st prize, John Lindsay, 2nd prize. 
Champion bull, John Dudgeon. Champion cow, 
John Lindsay. 

Albion Park Show, 1893. Best cow, Jokn 
Lindsay's (Honeycomb), 1st prize. Best 
bull, John Dudgeon's (Reddie), 1st prize; 
Hugh Dudgeon's (Charmer), 2nd prize. Cham- 
pion cow, John Lindsay's Honeycomb, Hugh 
Dudgeon, highly commended; heifer, 2 years, 
T. and P. James, 1st prize; T. James, 2nd 
prize. Bull, 2 years, Edward Gibson, Isl 
prize ; Michael Boyle, 2nd prize. 

Shoalhaven Show, 1893. Best dairy bull, J. 
W. Cole, 1st prize. Best 2 years old bull, J. 
W. Cole, 1st prize. Best dry cow, J. W. Cole, 
1st prize. 

Robertson Show, 1893. Best dairy bull, John 
Dudgeon's Reddie, 1st prize; J. W. Cole, 2nil 
prize. Best bull, 2 years John Lindsay, 1st 
prize, Edwin Vidler, 2nd prize. Champion 
dairy bull, John Dudgeon's Reddie, J. W. Cole, 
commended. Best dry cow, J. W. Cole, 1st 
prize ; W. Taylor, 2nd prize. 



263 



^he Farmers ' Slogan 



Successful Co-operative Marketing. 



A Genuine Co-operative House. 

J^e Berrima District Farm ^ Dairg (g. Ltd. 

401 Sussex Street, Spdnep. 
For the disposal of all kinds of Farm W Dairp Produce. 



Lowest Charges . Highest Prices , 

ARTHUR KNOX, General Manager. 



Cash Bonus. 




7O0 Harris Street 
Ultimo 



(i/uc^7 



yconm/ 



EEtabli.>hed in 1900 



Head Office and City Depot. 



Dairy Farmers of Albion Park and Dapto were the Originators of this Company, and afterwards linked up the 
South Coast from Nowra to Wollongong. The object being to place on the Sydney Market pure fresh Country 
Milk in unlimited quantities. 

Year by Year the business has grown till last Year the output exceeded 5 million gallons. 

Depots for receiving, pasteurising and cooling of milk are in operation at Nowra, Berry, Gerringong, Kiama, 
Jamberoo, Albion Park, Dapto, and Unanderra on the South Coast, and Raymond Terrace, near Newcastle 
with Dungog on the North, while Moss Vale is being linked up on the Southern Line. 

Milk is conveyed from the Country Depots to the City in large round insulated tanks which prevents high 
temperatures and insures the freshest and best of milk on arrival 

Distributing Depots are established in addition to the Head Depot at North Sydney, Waverley, Balmain, 
Ashfield, Lindfield and at Newcastle on the North. 

The Company is possessed of Freehold Property to the extent of about \\ acres, in the heart of the City, with 
ample Railway Siding, and has Buildings, Machinery, Plant, etc, thereon to the value of £150,000, 

This is the first and only Cooperative Company of its kind in the Commonwealth. 

H. FRYER, General Manager 



265 



DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING. 



Dairy cattle breeding as a means of living 
for many people on the land may be consider- 
ed by the majority of such persons a very 
simple process indeed. No doubt it is — so long 
as they as a body do not attempt to soar. any 
higher than the common level. But there are 
always a few who desire to improve their pro- 
ducts by turning their attention to the scien- 
tific side of the subject. Such persons very 
soon find that there are one hundred and one 
things to be learned that had never entered 
into their early philosophy. They have learned 
that in the beginning they knew very little, 
and that there is an important something they 
have yet to learn. 

There are many keys required to open the 
door to success in dairy-cattle breeding, simply 
because there are numerous influences operat- 
ing on the dairy farm. First we have selec- 
tion, and after selection comes the judgment of 
mating and the controlling of inheritance, j5n- 
vironment has its influence, which operates in 
an even or uneven range, according to othev 
influences. Then! we jhave that mysterious 
power which operates in animals in various 
ways, known as the exercise of the functions. 

The whole of these difficulties, together with 
the selection and mating of animals, we have 
learned from experience that unless a Taan has 
loaded dice he cannot always throw a six, and 
it is useless to use dice for procurinjc the six 
if a five is the number required. With the 
germ-cell it is the same, and much has to be 
done in this direction by means of mating the 
parents. Yet we know that there is a ''mean" 
within which our operations must be carried 
on. We very soon learn that poor qualities 
are apt to crop up where we expect to find 
good ones. It is the duty of the breeder, then, 
to reduce the chance of defects by increasing 
the chances of good qualities ; that is to say, 
loading the dice with special care or due cau- 
tion. 

The laws of inheritance naturally hold the 
animal kingdom in an orderly, systematic pro- 
cession. The art of the breeder, therefore, lies 
in first getting a thorough grasp of his own 
ambition, so as to reduce Kis aim to a certain 
direction. He must then learn the good and 
I^ad qualities in his breeding animals and their 



powers of transmission. The selection, mating 
and feeding of dairy cattle is, then, a very sim- 
ple matter, indeed, on paper; but on the dairy 
farm it somehow pans out different, and our 
breeders find that there is always something 
more to be discovered. 

Within the ordinary limits of a family there 
are certain hereditary peculiarities which con- 
stantly reappear, and a certain family likeness 
unites the members of a family. These physical 
resemblances are patent, and are looked upon 
as evidences of the laws of heredity. 

The question has often been asked, "How 
have breeds been founded?" And this inquiry 
has over and over again been answered by ask- 
ing other questions, namely, "Why did Charles 
Colling 's 'Hubbaek' (the grandsire of the bull 
'Comet') picked up in a lane; and the 'Godol- 
phin Arabian' (the maternal grandsire of 'Ec- 
lipse') purchased from the owner of a water- 
cart, become the fountain head to which cattle- 
breeders and horsemen desire to trace the pedi- 
grees of their stock ? Why were they selected ? ' " 
Just because they possessed, in a marked de- 
gree, most of the very best qualities which 
were desired in a bull and a horse, and because 
the purchaser believed and acted upon the idea 
that "like tends to beget like." 

Eight here, then, lies the judgment of the 
selector. If like tends to beget like in good 
qualities, why not in the bad? Experience 
teaches us that with regard to bad or inferior 
qualities like begets like, and it rolls on with 
fearful power if the defect be a hereditary one. 
Here we find the man of an inquiring turn of 
mind making his way through the crowd. He 
has selected his bull or an entire, and sets 
about ascertaining from every reliable resource 
the family traits of the animal he has selected. 
Here again the effects of too much inbreeding 
or too much outbreeding are apt to throw the 
best judgment out of line, when the progeny 
comes to be considered later on, and the true 
worth of the selection laid bare. 

With regard to inbreeding — there is always 
a risk when the males and females from two 
inbred herds are mated. But when this infu- 
sion of two different strains blend, the ill effects 
if too much inbreeding seem to disappear, and 
a more vigorous strain is the result. Charles 



266 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



Darwin saw the effect of mating two inbred 
iniimals from different strains and different 
pastures when he said: — "However little we 
may be able to discover with regard to the 
cause, the fact under review shows that the 
male and female elements must be differentia- 
ted to a certain degree in order to unite proper- 
iv and to give birth to a vigorous progeny. Such 
differentiation of the sexual elements follow 
from the parents, and their ancestors having 
lived during some generations under different 
conditions of life." 

Inbreeding for the Turf was in the past ex- 
ceedingly simple and may be briefly stated as 
follows : — 1st Inbreeding as the foundation ; 2nd 
outcrossing from inbred blood ; and 3rd, return- 
ing to same strain after an outer oss. By in- 
breeding, which produced animals successful 
both at the Turf and the Stud, was meant a 
re-union, once, twice, or oftener, of strains of 
same blood, separately as a rule, not more than 
four steps of generations. This inbreeding was 
considered to intensify all the prominent charac- 
teristics and qualities of the stock, and it was 
therefore essentiallj' necessary that the blood 
which is the subject of it should be the best 
and purest of its kind. Thus it will be seen 
that great importance was placed on correct 
pedigreeing early in the history of blood-horse 
breeding, as it was considered a mistake to 
adopt inbreeding with animals of impure blood 
or inferior powers. Take for example: 

Sir Hercules, once inbred to the brothers 
Whalebone and Whisker, at three removes, and 
twice to their sire. Waxy, is the best and 
simplest example that could be selected by old- 
time writers. His sire and dam were second 
cousins, the grandchildren of own brothers, and 
his sire before him stood in about the same 
degree of relationship, being the produce of 
half-brother and half-sister by Waxy. 

Outcrossing which was in the past remark- 
able for the production of many great race- 
horses, is the mating of an inbred animal with 
another of entirely different blood. This may 
take place from inbred blood on the side of 
either the sire or dam. Outerossins has natu- 
rally followed continued or close inbreeding, 
and is therefore an essential part of our breed- 
ing theories with all kinds of stock. But it 
has been found to limit the number of good 
l)rogeny. Breeders then return to the previ- 
ously inbred stock, for a eood cross can alwavs 
be introduced, and yet the inbreeding carried 
on, as may be seen by looking iip our blood 
horses' pedig^'ees. 



It may be desirable to point out that there 
is an essential difference between cattle and 
those which apply to the breeding of racehorses. 
It is not easy to define this difference, it never- 
theless exists. With cattle, not only close but 
continuous mating was originally advocated. 
Take for our example the long-horned bull 
Shakespeare, who was produced from only three 
distinct individuals in four generations, viz: — 
Westmoreland bull, old Comely (Canley Heifer 
No. I), and Canley Heifer No. IE: and the ani- 
mals whose names figure in the pedigree, Two- 
penny (son of West Moreland Bull), and old 
Comely, Twopenny's own dam, come together 
once, and Twopenny and the Canley Heifer 
No. II twice, the grandsire, and the dam of 
Shakespeare being both by him out of Canley 
Heifer No.II, and his daughter from his own 
dam being the dam of Shakespeare's sire; so 
that the breeding in-and-in, was remarkably 
close, and remarkably successful in a short 
space of time. 

Now, when inbreeding has been very close or 
long continued, the cross of unrelated blood 
seems to be essentially necessary to retain the 
vigor of the thoroughbred horse and the dairy 
eow, as they must both be capable of great 
bodily exertion — one in the direction of high 
and continuous speed, and the other in long con- 
tinued milk production. We find examples of 
the good effects of an outcross, and the return- 
ing to close breeding in many of our dairy- 
herds. 

We are never too certain of the breeding 
ideas of our Illawarra dairymen. They seem 
to think that this special brand of wisdom 
should be protected by Patent Rights, yet it 
is plainly clear that the smartest of them tried 
to ape the great racehorse breeders from time 
to time with regard to breeding in-and-in. We 
know that both Duncan Beaton and Andrew 
McGill at all risks followed their own respec- 
tive judgments, so did the elder 'Evan R. Evans, 
and purchased or otherwise selected animals 
from the larger breeders, and carried on breed- 
ing and dairying with blood, displaying a 
variety of colour, but of remarkable even type. 
Later breeders, for instance William Graham, 
of Minnamurra and Jamberoo, went in for close 
inbreeding with the Warrior blood. Warrior, 
a roan bull, was sired by a big framed bull, bred 
by his neighbour, Thomas Fredrifeks. War- 
rior was a fine type of dairy bull, displaying 
length and height'. He was the sire of that 
magnificent type of Illawarra Cow "Flower." 
Wlir:-! Graham Bros, went for an outcross to 



TUE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



267 



mate with the much inbred Warriors, they, 
after much enquiry selected a small sized red 
bull named Admiral, whose sire was a red bull 
named Sir Henry, and whose dam was a roan 
cow bred by Edward Moses. Here we have not 
only an outcross from a different strain, but 
an animal whose antecedents were raised under 
either different climatic conditions or dif- 
ferently arranged soils, as Dairymaid, the 
dam of Admiral, was bred on the Robertson 
Tableland, and Sir Henry was bred at Spring- 
Hill, Wollongong. Dairymaid was bred by 
Edward Mosfes, and Sir Henry was bred by 
Simeon Dudgeon. Both however were breeders , 
of dairy cattle of long standing in the Illawarra 
district. 

"Admiral" was the sire, and "Flower" the 
dam of "Togo," who in the possession of 
George Grey of Kiama proved himself to be 
one of the best sires in Illawarra. Of course 
there are many very excellent authorities who 
may disagree with me in this statement. If 
so, I cannot alter my opinion to please them, 
as I am working on practical results, and in 
doing so am quite prepared to allow that two 
bulls with equal merits will not always pro- 
duce the same results, and many good bulls have 
been wasted in the hands of their owners. 
Harking back to "Togo," and what we are 
pleased to term the "Togo" influences, when 
George Grey began dairying he was not blessed 
with riches — certainly, he had knowledge, but 
his dairy herd although good average dairy 
cattle, as producers, were a mixed lot with few 
exceptions. His first lift up was an Illawarra 
bred bull, bred from stock strictly Illawarra in 
type and quality, named Ranji. Ranji's G. 
sire was bred by William Coughrane, senr., of 
Spring Hill, Wollongong, and his G. dam was 
bred by the Grahams of Rcse Valley, Gerrin- 
gong^ — a very choice cow indeed. Ranji cer- 
tainly moved the herd upwards, yet, we cannot 
move from the truth, and after a very careful 
survey of the whole facts of the case, we have 
to say that "Togo" was one of the most notable 
bulls ever bred in the Illawarra district. 

"Togo's" G.G. dam "Nugget," G. dam 
"Dairymaid;" and dam "Flower," were of 
high standard quality. Ranji's G.G. dam, G. 
dam, and dam were also of a high standard of 
quality. These six cows possessed good form 
and contour — hence the high quality of 
"Togo." 

Chance or accidental mating of certain ani- 
mals have produced excellent results in many 
instances. Wh6n Michael Carberry was living 



in the vicinity of Kiama, he possessed a very 
excellent bull; bred by Michael O'Gorman of 
Albion Park, sired by Volunteer. This bull 
was on exhibition in Kiama in 1877 and was 
very much admired. Jerry Daly of Wallaby 
Hill, .Jamberoo had, purchased heifers from 
O'Gorman, and got a bull from Carberry. From 
one of the O'Gorman cows he raised a young 
bull by the Carberry bull, which he gave to his 
neighbour, Mr. Chase, who in turn sold him 
to Thomas McCarthy, of Druwalla, Jamberoo, 
who mated him with an excellent cow, purchas- 
ed from Samuel Risk of Kangaroo Valley. Mc- 
Carthy sold the old bull to Charley Allen, and 
in time Stephen Major got possession of the 
younger bull, and sold him to Jas. W. Cole, 
who called him "Comet." "Comet" was not 
a show-bull. It was, however, from that strain 
of blood that that great show cow "Gold of 
Coleville" was produced. 

Take another example — Edward Smith of 
Druwalla, Jamberoo, was a dairyman who kept 
closely to the Henry Fredericks and Dudgeon 
strains of dairy-cattle. From Edward Smithy 
C. W. Craig purchased a big lengthy, light roan 
bull called "Colonel." Smith leased a bull 
from Hugh Dudgeon by Soger Boy II., and out 
of "Gazelle." He was known as the Gazelle 
bull. From the Gazelle, Smith bred John 
Boyle's "Emperor," from that bull Dixon Cook, 
on the North Coast, produced some foundation 
cows. 

These and other chance matings not having 
been carefuUj^ recorded at the proper time, de- 
cade after decade has left each generation that 
has followed on since then in a shadowy vale 
of doubt. The Cattle Associations that are now 
being perfected will, it is to be hoped, place 
these chance or accidental matings on record, 
so that that which was designated "mere 
chance" may prove the true lines to follow in 
order to obtain the best possible results. 

The influence of the sire on his female pro- 
geny, and that of the dam on her male progeny 
has long since been freely admitted. It is, how- 
ever, possible to learn ton much either way. 

There are numerous writers who have ex- 
pressed their vieAvs on the system of selecting 
dams whilst but few have attempted to define 
the sires, although the indications of high pro- 
duction in a modified form or degree is to be 
seen in the sire — Thus a fine bone and deep 
body is essential in both sexes, together with a 
thin, flat, broad thigh. The pelvic bones and 
the prominent spine are necessary in both, as 
well as a full clear eye. The trouble is that 



268 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



even with these qualities combined in both sire 
and dam, the offspring may fail to be equal to 
their parents in general outline and conformity 
to type and quality from a productive point. 

Unfortunately for the investigator or the en- 
quirer after truth our past dairy-cattle records 
have been loosely kept, and, in some instances 
purposely faked, then again so few stud animals 
of either sex have been tested; fewer still have 
been mated on any seeming scientific basis. 
This in itself compels most of our writers on 
stock-breeding to fall back for guidance on 
the results obtained by the followers of race- 
horse breeding. 

Right here we are at times confronted by a 
little doubtful pedigreeing. But on the whole 
we find that certain strains of blood hold good 
throughout the long list of racing records. It 
has been stated somewhere that the "Welkin 
link" in the chain of racing sires may be 
classed as the weakest link in the chain, and 
that it proved itself to be the strongest in cer- 
tain animals. 

Be this as it may, we all know that that 
ivhich is often proved to be weak in theory 
comes out strongest in practice. This may be 
explained when we come to consider the many 
theories that float about among breeders of 
dairy cattle that pass in a nebulous form over 
the top-rail of a fence without further notice, 
no opportunity being available by which these 
theories could be put into practice. "Procras- 
tination is the thief of time," and one is safe in 
saying that many brainy men have allowed their 
opportunities in life to drift away like smoke, 
to be caught up years later in another form. 
This may be applied to our racehorse breeders 
with as much force as to our dairy cattle 
breeders, and is the cause of many heated dis- 
cussions with a view to prove whether our 
horses or cattle are better to-day than those of 
fifty or sixty years ago, without arriving at the 
needful result. 

During those discussions it was frequently 
remarked that "most of the breeding went in 
at the mouth," which was then and is now in 
part true. But it took modern scientific re- 
search to put the whole case before our 
breeders, and this was not done until serious 
investigation began to analyse and investigate 
"Mendelism." Sir Francis Galton was the 
founder of modern eugenics, adopting a phrase, 
it is said, from the immortal Shakespeare. He 
affirmed in effect that every character and every 
attribute of every living being is the product 
of "Nature" and "Nurture." By "nature" 



he meant all that comes under birth and the 
pre-natal stage of animal life, heredity, etc., 
and by "nurture" all that comes under nutri- 
tion, care, and training, and -that both were 
equally necessary. 

An important press writer has stated: — "A 
point that is sometimes discussed among 
breeders is whether absolute purity should he 
maintained in the breeding of stock, even when 
there are signs of wane of constitutional vigor. 
This question of the introduction of alien blood 
is one of the most important with which the 
expert is called upon to deal. In the improve- 
ment of races that sadly need replenishing he 
is a wise man who uses skilfully the best mate- 
rial at hand. The history of what we now 
know as pure stock-breeding is redolent of out- 
side crosses, which have been skilfully blended 
with native blood, and there are very few types 
which have not borrowed some characteristics 
from those which nowadays we regard as en- 
tirely alien." 

The Shorthorn, going back, as it does, over 
such a long period, has not been free from out- 
side influence, and one can trace in most of the 
native races a blending of types which has re- 
sulted in the making of distinct characteristics. 
Breeders to-day have reached a higher point 
than ever Bakewell attained, just as dairymen 
claim to stand on a higher pedestal than did 
the dairymen of a previous generation. Yet 
the principles which Bakewell adopted have 
been commonly accepted as the best means of 
attaining the end breeders have in view. These 
principles, so far as we know, were the con- 
centration of desired characteristics by means 
of line breeding and breeding in-and-in, which 
was later on carried too far by many of the 
shorthorn breeders, namely, Bates and Colling 
Bros. 

Getting down to the theory based on the ex- 
periments of the "Abbot Mendel," Me are in- 
formed by Professor Bateson that "the factors 
which the individual animal receives from his 
parents, and no others, are those which he can 
transmit to his offspring, and if any one factor 
was received from one parent only, not more 
than one-half of the offspring on the average 
will inherit it." This fact has only recently 
been recognised, even among prominent breed- 
ers. It is, therefore, as previously hinted in 
this article, that breeders have come to see that 
the dam matters as much as the sire. Hence 
the importance of breeding from the best. 

This is a wholesome reminder to breeders of 
every dass of stock, and may not, perhaps, 



THE lllHTORY OF ILLAWAKKA 



269 



overturn the old axiom that "the bull is half 
the herd," but it does emphasise the fact that 
the best bull that ever lived cannot raise all his 
produce to his own standard of merit. It is 
also well to remember that heredity can be ex- 
pressed in terms of absence and presence alike. 
Some ingredients possessed by the ancestor are 
represented and some omitted, and heredity is 
established by either line of proof. But no 
case or illustration is established by simple 
rules. 

Here we are confronted with the theory re- 
garding the breeding of that mysterious animal 
— the general-purpose cow. Hoard's Dairymen 
of 1-9-16 says: — "One of the peculiarities of the 
advocates of dual-purpose cattle is that, while 
they may make a plausible argument and paint 
an alluring picture of the cow that will please 
the beef farmer as to form and the dairy farmer 
as to milk production, yet they always gasp 
for breath when called upon to submit the proof 
to critical experience. The dual-purpose de- 
lusion was preached for years before the special 
purpose cow had a single champion in America, 
yet in all this time the picture of the success- 
ful dual-purpose cow has not been visualized 
on American farms. Her advocates, while 
gasping for breath, shout 'Bates,' 'England,' 
'Across the pond.' After these many years 
of advocacy of dual-purpose cattle and the trials 
made in America, they must still rely on Great 
Britain for proof, if proof it can be called. 
They cannot point to a single State or commu- 
nity where a successful attempt has been made 
to realise a dual-purpose ideal." (The same con- 
dition of things has prevailed against odds in 
Australia for upwards of seventy-five years.) 

Again Hoard's Dairymen: — "If there is one 
State that has suffered more than any other 
from the. dual-purpose propaganda that State 
is Minnesota. Men of strong minds and firm 
purpose have taught dual-purpose in that State 
for many years. These men have had the sup- 
port of still other men who were able to spend 
large sums of money in trying to prove out the 
theory. They have sent men up and down the 
State to argue and convince her people, and 
how expensive this teaching has been to the 
farmers of Minnesota and how meagre and un- 
substantial have been the results, he who runs 
may read. 

Many communities that owe their prosperity 
to the special-purpose dairy cow can be found 
in every State of the Union, and we will be 
able to say in every county in every State. 
When will the dual-Burpose enthusiasts meet 



the issue and locate American communities that 
are prosperous because of dual-purpOse cattle? 
They never have, they do not now, and they 
never will. It simply can't be done." And 
so say all of us ! 

The bull, after all, must be looked at 
"broadside on" — depth of body, length of the 
sheath, prominent spine, depth and fineness 
of flank ; above all, look for space between the 
hook bone and the rib. Without space there 
the rib cannot grow down and out to give room 
for the dairy quality that is to be looked for 
in his female progeny. Beef bulls do not carry 
this (luality, as it tends to increase the offal 
or waste flesh not desired by the butcher. 
The Effect of Feed on a Dairy Cow. 

It has been long asserted, and still believed 
by many dairymen, that a great tendency to 
feeding is incompatible with a great tendency 
to milking. While trying to solve this hackney- 
ed assertion, an eminent writer has stated that 
' ' the tendency and effect are two very different 
things," giving as his opinion that the tendency 
may exist when its effects are wholly or partly 
destroyed by some counteracting cause, and 
that if the effects of such counteracting can be 
removed the other cause may be wholly produc- 
tive. If it be assumed that a cow, while giving 
a great quantity of milk, cannot keep herself 
in good condition, because so great a portion 
of the food consumed being converted into 
milk rich in solids the carcase could not be 
properly supported, it would yet be a rash con- 
clusion to infer from hence that the same animal 
could not have a great tendency to get fat, 
and that when dried off cannot keep herself in 
good condition, and soon produce in correspon- 
ding effect, for the effect of the milking ten- 
dency having then ceased the other cause, 
namely, the tendency to fatten, would remain 
unopposed, provided the same food conditions 
remained. In theory this may work out nicely, 
but cattle bred for dairj^ purposes should not 
have a great tendency to fatten, as the fat will 
quickly work itself into the udder, and all the 
tissues will be affected by it to such an extent 
that there will be no room left in the udder for 
the manufacture and storage of any great quan- 
tity of milk. It will be carried on to the off- 
spring. And it will soon be observed that the 
near future generations will be lacking in back 
udder formation. Some argue from another 
standpoint, which is very natural, but those 
who have watched cattle developing must have 
noticed the good and bad effect that food has 
on cattle bred for a'ly given purpose. 



270 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWABBA 



There is in almost any breed of animals that 
are raised domestically certain strains of blood 
vfhich, when closely followed, give that particu- 
lar strain a title, which we call a family. And 
it is quite noticeable throughout the history of 
dairying in Illawarra that the most successful 
of our breeders to-day can sit down and trace 
out within a defined circle how they have bred 
in and out for years without losing sight of the 
first point of that circle. 

Mr. Daniel Boyd, of Broughton Vale, Illa- 
warra, was a dairy farmer whose conservative 
judgment made his name a name and fame 
memorable without any desire on his part to be 
considered notable. The writer visited his 
farm in 1892, at a time when his herd was con- 
sidered to be on the wane. He had, however, 
at that time many very valuable dairy animals 
— animals that would command attention in 
any show ring at the present time. They were 
nearly all blood reds, with the exception of a 
few spotted red and white and roan cows. The 
herd might be termed all reds. The type 
throughout was uniform, but speaking gene- 
rally they were too high on their legs, caused 
possibly by too close breeding. He remarked 
to me that he would have gone outside his own 
herd for bulls had his neighbours bulls of equal 
quality to his own. It was plain that he had 
seen no cattle so pleasing to his eye as his own. 

In a conversation with William H. Morrow 
about the Boyd cattle he said: "I am certain 
that when the Boyds came to James Robinson's 
farm at Broughton Vale they brought no roan 
nor red and white cattle with them. That was 
in 1871. They had a beautiful red bull and a 
small hetd of female cattle of all ages. A few 
years afterwards the herd had increased con- 
siderably, and there wasn't then three per cent, 
of broken colored cattle in the whole herd, and 
as for dairy quality, no better herd could be 
found in N.S.W. Later on," said Mr. Morrow, 
"Dan Boyd purchased a few head of cattle, but 
in quality these animals were very common 
looking when placed side by side with the 
reds." 

It must be borne in mind that William H. 
Morrow was a neighbour of the Boyds at 
Broughton Vale, only a fence between the 
farms, and that he (Mr. Morrow) is a keen 
cattle judge, a breeder of high-class dairy 
cattle, and, above all, a thoroughly reliable au- 
thority. He always says what he thinks, and 
has a happy knack of expressing what he thinks 
in a clear, concise way, so that there is no pos- 
sible chance left for misunderstandings. 



It would appear that when the British Agri- 
cultural Commissioners visited N. S. Wales, 
some years before Dan Boyd's death, they were 
taken to see Boyd's dairy herd. They were so 
pleased with what they saw that they advised 
Dan Boyd to "continue on the lines he had 
been following," which may be either termed 
in-breeding or in-and-in-breeding. Doubtless, 
Ben Jones and the other British Commissioners 
were imbued with the spirit of the old time 
notions, which were then at least a century old, 
namely, "that races of doinestic animals repro- 
duce themselves with great uniformity if in- 
bred, but that the moment one mixed up two 
different races or breeds, one did something that 
caused an epidemic of variation," quite for- 
getting that in practice variations occur so fre- 
quently in in-bred races of domestic animals 
that it is difficult to keep up the standard in 
many cases without having to resort to con- 
tinuous culling. Similarity of offspring to their 
parents may be very marked in dairy cattle, 
iind may extend to all the characters of the 
race, yet variability appears to be a property 
peculiar to all animals under domestication. 
The characters, however, which go to make up 
a b.'-eed or family of dairy cattle are not all ol; 
the sajme kind; some of them are inborn, and 
will develop under normal conditions of nou- 
lishment, naturally others require various kinds 
of stimuli to produce ihem. Take as an ex- 
gjnple the udder of i: high-class dairy cow. It 
may appear to be inb( rn, and to a certain ex- 
tent it is so, but it requires great care to keep 
up to the standard required by our dairymen, 
and it is done by r-areful mating and feeding. 
Consequently we cannot call all its great charac- 
teis inborn. 

' ' Much obscurity has been due, ' ' says Thomp- 
son, "to false antithesis between heredity and 
variation. When we say that 'like begets like,' 
that offspring tend to resemble their parents 
and ancestors, we are stating a fact of life. 
But when we speak of an opposition, such as a 
tendency to variability which makes offspring 
different from their parents, we are indulging 
in verbiage." It has been often demonstrated 
in dairy cattle breeding that a slight structu- 
ral peculiarity, such as a nick in both ears at 
the extreme tips, may persist for several gene- 
rations. Modifications of bodily structure or 
habit may also be acquired. They are distin- 
guished from temporary adjustments or ac- 
commodations on the one hand and from inborn 
variations on the other. Change of food and 
climatic conditions become quickly visible when 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



271 



young heifers are removed from one climate 
to another, or when food conditions are altered 
from rich to poor. Nothing more certain than 
the change in type and of character of cattle. 

If an enquirer in search of historical facts, 
as we understand facts, were to depend on 
much that has been written about the state of 
agriculture and stock raising in Great Britain 
and Ireland one hundred and fifty years ago, 
his research would not benefit him very much, 
as the people had not settled upon any fixed 
ideas about breeding methods, and as a result 
we find from repoi'ts on the animals of the 
farms that little or no progress was made by 
way of forming breeding associations on de- 
fined lines. In truth, it is doubtful if there 
existed any defined lines. 

It is correct enough to state that one hun- 
dred and fift.y years ago the pioneers of New 
South Wales were either unborn or mere school 
children — many of them unfortunately never 
saw the inside of a school. Yet it was under 
such conditions that Captain Phillip founded 
the first settlement in Australia, on the shores 
of Port Jackson, A.D. 1788, with a mixed crowd 
of human beings. He, or the authorities, ne- 
glected to send out cattle with the fleet for the 
development of the settlement, so he called at 
the Cape of Good Hope and took on board a 
number of zebu cattle, which were naturally 
adapted to suit pioneering work. 

Later on ships' captains speculated in cattle, 
horses, sheep, pigs and goats, and many animals 
were added to the live stock of the settlement 
in this way. The "zebu" thrived apace, and 
in the thirties and early forties of last century 
traces of them were to be found in every settle- 
ment in New South Wales. 

If we take our lead from the twenties and 
thirties of last century we will find that mixed 
types of cattle from every county in Great 
Britain and Ireland were to be found in the 
possession of the pioneer settlers. The question 
then arises — Was that admixture of blood ever 
eliminated? Neither history nor science could 
answer in the affirmative, as each animal had 
neeessaiily two parents, four grandparents, 
eight great-grandparents, and sixteen great- 
great-grandparents, and so on ad infinitum. 
Breeding influence may control the zebu blood, 
but, as will be shown elsewhere in this work, 



it maj be held by careful mating, but always 
remains as a latent character in the cells. 

The actual value that can be placed on argu- 
ments relating to dairy cattle breeding must be 
based on the capacity of the human brain to 
conve.y or receive truths. It is very doubtful 
if one person can convince another of a great 
and scientific truth by mere words. It is a com- 
bination of circumstances which invariably lead 
men to form an established conviction, which 
may be claimed to be a relative conception of 
truth. Our individual experiences are no proof 
to anybody but ourselves, unless it is persons 
who have met with similar experiences, and un- 
fortunately such persons are not numerous. 

It matters not how sincere an exponent of a 
new idea in cattle breeding may be, still we 
have to recognise the fact that no one can be 
convinced regarding this or that system if they 
do not earnestly desire to know. The desire 
to know is the first and most important factor 
in all questions of research. It is very easy for 
some men to say "I believe you!" But to 
know requires an effort, nay, many efforts. 
Too many trust to past experience, and will not 
entertain new ideas. They forget that every 
effort to gain fresh knowledge sensitises the 
brain, and the moment one's mind is sufficiently 
sensitised it receives its impression. This rule 
applies to every line of thought. Some brains 
are. however, more easily sensitised than others, 
yet there is a cause for every effect. 

In basing my argument on the difficulty of 
educating people up to any given standard, it 
is not intended as a slight on their intelligence. 
This fact is not difficult to explain, when we 
reflect on those people with only moderate in- 
telligence who have bred many excellent cattle, 
while others with excellent mentality cannot or 
have not been able to master the first rudiments 
of the art. The difference is this: One takes 
in the whole situation and plods on with the 
good and the bad combined; the other takes 
the case bit by bit and rejects it item bj' item, 
waiting until a single absolutely conclusive idea 
turns up, which never does turn up. It is right 
here that Mendelism can be of great value to 
breeders of every description of stock, provided 
that the farms were properly fenced, and 
that proper pedigrees Avere then kept of all the 
breeding animals. 



272 



CATTLE SALES. 



As all writers are supposed to have an object 
in view when placing reading matter before 
their readers, it is but right to state that in 
this instance a section of this work has been set 
apart for a review of important auction sales, 
as being a guide to readers, from which they 
can draw their own conclusions. Unfortunately 
auctioneers had to make sales, and in order 
to do so had often to find buyers and give long 
terms of credit in many instances — hence ani- 
mals were often sold and re-sold many times. 
"When a bull got a name, that bull sired in 
some instances more bulls than the number 
of cows in his owner's herd! 

In 1804 Governor King established his dairy 
farms — one was situated near Parramatta, and 
the other at South Creek. His stock brand was 
K. In the same year Lieutenant Kent left Syd- 
ney on a tour of inspection in the lUawarra and 
Shoalhaven districts. In those days Madagas- 
car cattle were being highly praised owing to 
their cheapness compared with other breeds. 
They could then be purchased on the island 
at £2 per head at six months old, and that 
Madagascar having a similar soil and climate 
to New South Wales, they would prosper here. 
At least this was Lieutenant Brerton's opinion. 
On 3rd March, 1805, Lieutenant Kent, of H.M.S. 
Buffalo, is reported to have returned from 
his tour of the Coast. August 30th, 1807, two 
cows were shipped from Sydney to Dr. Charles 
Throsby, at Newcastle. This brings us to the 
Bligh rebellion, and all the trouble of those 
who assisted in bringing about his arrest, and 
subsequent enquiries. 

Captain William Cox, Paymaster of the old 
New South AVales Corps, owned two properties 
• — one at Canterbury, and one at Prospect — to- 
gether with stock in 1803. Mr. Robert Camp- 
bell—" Big Campbell of the Wharf "—sold these 
farms and a mare and foal, and most of the 
cattle by auction at Parramatta. The mare and 
foal brought £380, and the cows averaged £50 
each. 1 English bull of the "Hampshire 
breed," 4 cows, 3 heifers and 1 calf were 
reserved from sale. These were sold by Mr. 
Simeon Lord, in 1805. 

In the year 1805 Mr. Simeon Lord, Auction- 
eer, sold out Captain William Cox. The Cox 
property at that time consisted of fourteen 



grants of land, comprising in all 775 acres, one 
Hamjjshire bull, aged 3 years and 3 months, 
and 9 bullocks in harness. 

Captain William Kent, R.N., suffered se- 
verely under the regime of Governor Bligh. 
He brought from England in H.M.S. Buffalo, 77 
head of cattle. 2 horses and 4 mares of the 
Persian breed. He could lay claim to be one of 
the earliest importers of merino sheep. Bligh, 
however, was displeased with him. Kent suffered 
and died about 1815, when the trustees of his 
estate sold 60 head of horned cattle (Devon 
and Alderney crosses) and 300 pure merino 
sheep. 

Cattle sales followed: John Macarthur's 
cattle, together with a number of fine cows and 
bulls of the English breed were sold at Par- 
ramatta, February 19th, 1809. Dr. Charles 
Throsby was dead and a practical man was re- 
quired to take charge of his dairy herd at Par- 
ramatta. Captain Antill and Thomas Moore 
were interested in the sale of the late Andrew 
Thompson's farm, known as Killarney, on 
Bardo-Nerung River ; Gaudry, of Windsor, was 
the auctioneer, date of sale, 27th December, 
1810. A red cow with hooped horns down to 
the nose was being advertised for. Thomas 
Laycock was dead, and his Ayrshire herd was 
being sold by his executors. The colours of 
these animals were red and white, flecked. Mr. 
Bevan, auctioneer, was selling for Mr. Bayley: 
"Primrose," a full-blooded English cow, 4 years 
old, with female calf at foot, by Mr. Blaxland's 
bull, the dam of this cow was imported by Col. 
Foveaux; "Jenny," a full bred cow, 4 years 
old, dam "Scott," imported by Captain Scott, 
in H.M.S. Porpoise, with a female calf at her 
side of ]\Ir. Blaxland's bull "Raspberry"; a 
full-blooded cow, 4 years old, dam "Old Daisy," 
with a female calf at foot by Mr. Blaxland's 
bull, she had been purchased from Mr. Holt; 
"Magpie," a granddaughter of the famous 
"Magpie," by Mr. Connolly's English bull, with 
a male calf at foot by Mr. Blaxland's bull, 
"Cherry Longsides"; and a polled cow bred 
by Mr. Macarthur — a good milker, of great 
size, and in calf to a thoroughbred bull of Mr. 
Badeery; 1 2-year-old bull, thoroughbred, from 
the stock of Captain Kent, a yearling bull out of 
' ' Old Daisy, ' ' by Mr. Blaxland 's bull. Mr. Blax- 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



273 



land's farm was at Prospect, aud the date of 
this sale was 20th December, 1813. Mr. Charles 
Throsby was agent for Mr. John Jamieson, who 
had been on a trip to England. 

Mr. Bevan was selling on behalf of Captain 
Richard Brooks, 1400 head of cattle at his Cattle 
Market, Haymarket, Brickfield Hill, Sydney, 30th 
March, 1815. In 1815 Captain Kent was dead, 
and in July of that year, Messrs Oakes and 
Rouse, auctioneers were selling his stock con- 
sisting of 300 sheep and 60 head of pure Eng- 
lish bred cattle. Robert Jenkins, auctioneer, sel- 
ling on 19th January, 1815, a yellow Cape bull, 
with short horns ; also a brindle bull with white 
breast and back of the buffalo breed. Septem- 
ber, 1817, Mr. David Johnston had lost a valu- 
able red and white bull, bred entirely from the 
stock of Governor William Bligh, the age of the 
animal being given as 14 months. The first ar- 
ticle on cow-testing appears in the Sydney Ga- 
zette, June 14th, 1817, by a Mr. Anderson, who 
suggested that each cow should be tested once 
a month. At a cattle sale on account of the 
stock committee of the New South Wales Agri- 
cultural Society, one heifer to J. T. Campbell 
at £25, one heifer to J. T. Campbell at £41, one 
heifer to J. T. Campbell at £53, one heifer to 
John Dixon at £36, one heifer to J. T. Campbell 
at £63, one heifer to John Dixon at £48, one 
heifer to De Arcy Wentworth at £51, one heifer 
to Sir John Jamieson at 50 guineas, one bull 
to Sir John Jamieson at £85, one bull to John 
Dixon at £107. Date of sale, January, 1825. The 
ship ' ' Brothers ' ' arrived with cattle for the Aus- 
tralian Agricultural Coy. The ship "Greenock" 
also arrived with four 4-years-old cows and two 
2-years old bulls of the pure Ayrshire breed, 
also four yearling heifers and two yearling bulls 
of the pure Ayrshire breed, January, 1824. These 
Ayrshires were the animals that found a home 
on John Wyllie 's Dunlop Vale Estate, Illawarra, 
which Mr. John Brown described so often, and 
whose descendents laid the foundation of Berry's 
Ayrshire herd at Coolangatta. Importation of 
brown and brindle cows and bulls, August, 1826, 
by Mr. De Arcy Wentworth. These were the 
cattle that Mr. James McGill used to dilate on 
at the Illawarra A. and H. Society show dinners. 
Sale of stock per shio "William Shand" — a red 
Devon, and a piebald Durham to J. T. Camp- 
bell, a red Devon to J. T. Campbell, a red 
Devon to John Dixon, a Devon heifer to J. T. 
Campbell, a Durham cow to Sir John Jamieson, 
a Devon bull to John Dixon, date of sale Janu- 
herd at Parramatta for £1200, consisting of 300 
head. 



During 1827, 15,000 cows passed from 
the Hunter River Valley to Liverpool Plains. 
The Moreton Bay settlement was buying cattle 
for Queensland. May 1827. — Camden cattle, 
including Macarthur's, were being offered at 
from £6 to £12 per head ; Illawarra cattle were 
offered at 4 guineas per head. Surgeon De Arcy 
Wentworth was dead in 1827, and Mr. Richard 
Jones bought 1400 head of his Cattle. His Exe- 
cutors offered 1200 heifers in the Estate at £10 
per head. Five years' credit was given to bona 
fide land owners. In 1829 horned cattle in 
New South Wales dropped to £2 per head. On 
1st October, 1829, Mr. Peter Macqueen, of the 
Segenhoe Estate, Singleton, had for sale 
at Parramatta eight young Durham bulls. 
Cattle still continued to drop in value, 
and during August, 1834, they were sell- 
ing in the Sydney Markets at from 
£1 10s. to £5 per head. A serious drought was 
the cause, yet in Illawarra in 1834 a Gazette 
report shows that a splendid season prevailed. 
Cattle were milking well, and the dairies pre- 
sented a busy appearance — cows giving an abun- 
dance of milk. John Terry Hughes bought 50 
milking cows from Aspinall and Brown, in Syd- 
ney, £10 15s. per head, in 1834; Mr. J. Moore 
of Baw Baw, Goulburn, selling out 500 dairy 
cattle of the Durham, Devon and Alderney 
breed — date of sale, September, 1833. On Oc- 
tober 1st, 1833, after the exhibition ' at Parra- 
matta, two pure Durham bulls for sale. In 
1834, John Dixon sold to Alexander Berry 600 
head of milk and dairy cows improved from 
crosses with his Devon stock, 50 red Devon hei- 
fers, 20 pure bred Devon bulls. January, 1837, 
15 head of high class cows for sale in Sydney, 
in calf to a bull bred by Mr. Henry Dangar of 
Neotsfield, Singleton. At Jervis Bay, 250 head 
of Cattle including 70 dairy cows, bred by 
William Cox, of Parramatta. 

"Sydney Herald" of September, 1831, states: 
G. T. Palmer offers for sale a considerable quan- 
tity of dairy cows, crosses of the best imported 
Alderney, Lancashire, Suffolk, Devon and Short- 
horn herds, during the last 21 years, and may 
be seen in the Argyle district. Samuel Lyons 
was selling on same date on behalf of Governor 
Darling 84 head of milking cows from imported 
English bred cows and bulls, also 3 Durham 
bulls. 

In September, 1831, 700 head of cattle were to 
be sold by auction at Shancanmore, the Es- 
tate of John Terry Hughes, comprising Ayrshire 
cows, bulls, heifers and oxen. 



274 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARBA 



About this date the "Sydney Herald" stated 
that Sir John Sinclair, President of the Agricul- 
tural Society of England had said: "The Ayr- 
shire cattle for the dairy is the superior breed — 
that opinion prevails." The Sydney market was 
glutted with inferior cattle, 800 head sold in 
October 1831, at 30/- per head. The ships 
"Lang" and "Mansfield" arrived in Sydney 
with valuable live stock for the Imlay Bros., 
in August, 1832. Cooper and Levy had slaugh- 
tered 3,820 head of cattle in Sydney from April 
to June, 1832. 

An important sale of pure Durham bulls in 
Sydney, bred by Mr. Thomas Potter Macqueen, 
of Segenhoe, Singleton, on January 15th, 1837: 
Lot 1, Bravo ; Lot 2, Baron ; Lot 3, Musleman ; 
Lot 4, Tancard, Lot 5, Mameluke ; Lot 6, Meteor ; 
Lot 7, Star; Lot 8, Friar Jack; Lot 9, Ranger; 
Lot 10, Casper ; Lot 11, Rosey Beau ; Lot 12, 
Comet. Comet was represented as the best 
bull in Australia, his sire cost 1000 guineas in 
England. At Parramatta, 100 head of dairy 
cattle, selected from the well-known herd of 
Mr. George Macleay, the cows were in calf to 
a Durham bull. Mr. Richard Jones' Cattle at 
Maitland for sale during May 1837, 550 head 
of breeding and milking cows and heifers. 12 
superior pure bred Durham bulls, including the 
celebrated imported bull "Roger," a number of 
cows in calf to Mr. Icely's bull. 

Francis O'Brien of Illawarra had for .sale a 
small herd of 30 well-bred dairy cows, by private 
contract. October, 1837. For sale, October, 
1837, 700 head of cattle belonging to the Estate 
of the late Captain Eber Bunker, at CoUingwood. 
200 head of Durham milkers in connection with 
the Torybum Estate. John Tooth had for sale 
674 head of cows, heifers and bulls of the pure 
Durham breed, also 588 head of cows, heifers, 
and bulls of the pure Durham and Aryshire 
breeds mixed, Nov., 1837. Sale of cattle at 
Ireland's on Parramatta Road, 800 cows and 
heifers, the majority of which are of the Dur- 
ham breed. Sale of 11 young Devon bulls at the 
bazaar, Sydney, Abraham Polack, auctioneer; 
also on behalf of Mr. T. U. Ryder, 4 pure Dur- 
ham bulls and 3 heifers. These animals were 
landed from the ship "Juliet," December, 1837, 
bearing the highest pedigrees. The bull and one 
heifer went to Mr. Lawson, for £45, a heifer in 
calf to Mr. Lawson for £170 ; heifer to Mr. Law- 
son, for £125 ; a cow to Mr. Lawson at £65 Mr. 
Armstrong, U.S., imported per ship "Achilles," 
two Durham bulls, one 22 months old and the 
other 20 months old, both of deep, rich red 
colour. Mr. Armstrong had a bazaar and a 



veterinary hospital in Sydney, and a run for 
horses .and cattle in Illawarra. At Mr. Hart's 
yards, Sydney, 6 very superior Durham cows, 
warranted in calf to an imported bull, 
September, 1839. Mr. J. J. Moore, selling 
at Baw Baw, Goulburn on 12th September, 
1839, 250 cows, 250 heifers, 3 well-bred 
bulls. They are of the noted Ayrshire, 
Devon and Durham breeds, very much im- 
proved and noted as the most desirable fo)' 
graziers and breeders of horned cattle. 

Sale of dairy cattle at tbe Segenhoe Estate, 
Singleton, on January 20th, 1838: 20 cows 
to James Boman at £21 each; 20 cows to W. 
McLean at £16 10s. each; 20 cows to A. Fother- 
inham, £15 10s. each; 20 cows to James Barker, 
£14 10s. each; 20 cows to A. Fotheringham, £11 
each ; 20 cows to D. Chambers, £12 each ; 20 
cows to John Johnston, at £10 10s. each ; 20 
cows to A. Fotheringham, at £9 10s. each; 20 
cows to D. Chambers, £8 10s. each; 20 cows to 
A. Fotheringham, £8 each ; 15 cows to E. Turner, 
£7 lOs^ each ; 15 cows to E. Turner, £8 each ; 15 
cows to George Ruat, £7 each, 15 cows to A. 
Foss, £7 each; 1 cow to George Porter, £15; 15 
cows to George Nail, at £6 each; 15 cows to C. 
Haley, at £6 each; 15 cows to J. Wheeler, £6 
each, 15 cows to H. Keek at £5 each ; 15 cows to 
S. A. Bryant, at £4 10s. each; 10 cows to W 
Shepman, £5 5s. each, 40 cows to James Hale 
at £4 each ; 1 bull calf to John Smith, at £39. 

The bull sales at the Segenhoe Estate, Single- 
ton, January 20th, 1838. 

The residue of the Segenhoe stock of Durhams 
improved under the management of Messrs Mc- 
Intyre and Scomfill, 60 head of delightful milk 
cows, 130 heifers and 2 bulls. Three head of 
horned cattle were landed in Sydney in the quar- 
ter ending 10th October, 1838, and were valued 
at £400. Sale of cattle at Underwood's: 1 bull, 
£67; 1 yearling bull, £21; 1 cow and calf, £67 
10s. ; 1 Ayrshire cow, £27 10s. ; 7 cows, £53 15s. ; 
11 head of yearlings, £60 10s., sent from Tas- 
mania. Mr. Dawson, of the Reddall Estate, Il- 
lawarra, advertised for a cow with blue sides, 
white belly, back and face. Alexander Berry 
was the sole executor in the estate of John Dix- 
on, of Dixon's Estate, Nonorrah, and 800 head 
of Cattle at Camden. Tradition points to Dix- 
on's cattle having been purchased by Alexander 
Berry, and sent to his Coolangatta Estate, Shoal- 
haven. This is certain, the type of cattle owned 
by John Dixon were later plentiful in the Shoal- 
haven district in after years. 
' Mr. "William Howe, of Glenlee, Campbelltown, 
purchased at the Segenhoe Estate, near Single- 



HENRY SPINKS, Culwalla, Jamberoo, Illawarra. 





DAPHXE and OF CULWALLA. 

(.■Vo. 1726, LD.C.H.B.) 



^L■\BEL OF CILWALLA. 



HENRY McGRATH, Graenhills, Nowra, Shoalhaven. 





THE UliSTOEY OF ILL AW AURA 



Til 



ton, sale on January 20th, 1838, the Shorthorn 
bull, "Jupiter," for £85. This bull was then 
4 years old, and was one of the 
chief stud bulls owned at the time 
by Mr. Potter Macqueen. We can note 
in April, 1841, that Samuel Lyons had for 
sale in Sydney the celebrated pure Durham 
bull "Jupiter," bred by Mr. Potter Macqueen, 
of Segenhoe, Singleton. Hissire was "Comet," 
and his dam was "Durham" Nancy." His age 
was given at 7 years; and if fat would weigh 
2000 lbs. Also 4 bulls by Jupiter out of Glenlee 
cows that have been judiciously crossed by im- 
ported bulls for the last twenty years. 

A. Polack, at his bazaar, Sydney, January, 
1838, 13 Durham and Devon bulls, all pure-bred ; 
also 5 pure Devon bulls and one Durham cow, 
landed per ship "Spartan." John Tooth, auc- 
tioneer, selling 1000 head of cattle at the Cow- 
pastures, Camden, and 1000 head of cattle on 
behalf of Mr. Thomas U. Ryder, all Shorthorns, 
at Belltrees, Hunter River. Abram Polack sold 
at his yards, Sydney, March 1838 : 20 cows to. 
Edward Browne at £320; 20 cows to Edward 
Brown at £270; 20 cows to Edward Trimnar at 
£230; 20 cows to G. F. Fenwick, at £210; 20 
cows to T. Holmes at £210 ; 40 cows to T. Holmes 
at £320 ; 20 cows to Dr. Thompson at £150 ; 20 
cows to T. Holmes at £150 ; 25 heifers to George 
Ruat at £237 10s. ; 25 heifers to Edward Brown 
at £200 ; 120 heifers to Thomas Holmes at £560. 
These cattle comprised Mr. Thomas U. Ryder's 
stud herd. Abram Polack sold at his bazaar, 
Sydney, 10 very superior bred bulls, including 
2 pure Durhams, and 2 pure Devons. At the 
sale of Sir Richard Bourke's cattle, cows aver- 
aged £12 per head, and heifers £8 pei head. They 
were the Rev. Samuel Marsden's breed. Red 
Polled Norf oiks. Mr. Richard Jones had for sale 
in June, 1829, in the estate of the late Mr. W. E 
Riley, 20 pure Devon cows, 3 cross-bred bulls, 6 
heifers, 6 female calves, 6 male calves, one In- 
dian cow and calf, running at Raby. The im- 
ported bulls and heifers per the Ship "Mellish." 
arrived in Sydney and were on view at Quinn's 
stables in York Street. They were of the Dur- 
ham breed, from the stock of one of the finest 
breeders in England, Mr. Jackson, of Berwick 
Hall, and were imported by Mr. John Brown, of 
Pemberton Grange. Mr. Armstrong, V.S., had 
for sale at his bazaar, Sydney, December, 1829, 
5 Durham bulls, 3 Hereford bulls, a pure Ayr- 
shire bull and cow. The Durham bulls were by 
Mr. George Hobblen's imported bull "Jupiter," 
purchased at the Segenhoe Estate sale. The 
Hereford bulls were wrecked in the ship "Dun- 



lop," off the Cape of Good Hope. The Duke of 
Bradford had paid £100 for the service of the 
sire for one season. The Ayshire bull and cow 
were imported by Mr. A. Paterson, of Maitland. 
Sale of cattle belonging to Mr. Thomas Icely 
and Coy.: 400 dairy cows, in calf and calving, 
200 heifers by imported Durham, Devon, and 
Ayrshire bulls on November 1839. Mr. Icely 's 
stock were famous for the dairy. The Austra- 
lian Auction Company was formed in December, 
1839, and had for sale on behalf of Mr A. B. 
Spark, 80 cows with calves at foot, 40 2-year-old 
heifers, 30 heifers 1 year old, 3 very fine bulls. 
These cattle were in charge of Mr. Thomas Wil- 
son, of Wollongong, lUawarra. Alexande/ 
Berry had 1437 head of mixed cattle for sale, 
of the Durham and Devon breeds, on behalf of 
the eslate of the late John Dixon. 

T. W. Smart, auctioneer, had sold the Oldbury 
herd, 79 cows, 20 heifers, 11 bulls, on 1st Oc- 
tober, 1838. The Oldbury Estate ,vas near Sut- 
ton Forest, and owned by the late Mr. John At- 
kinson. Abram Polack sold at his bazaar, Syd- 
ney, 25 heifers of the pure Durham and Suffolk 
breeds, heavy in calf, on October, 1829. Samuel 
Lyons, auctioneer, selling 500 cows and heifers 
of the Durham, Devon and Hereford breeds on 
December, 1839. The Australia Auction Coy. 
had a capital of £240,000. Shares were £12 each, 
and the Company was formed by the leading 
business men and settlers in the Colony. It had 
for sale, 14th August, 1839, a very superior 
herd of dairy cows running at Colyer's, Leigh, 
Bong Bong, comprising 80 cows and 1 superiof 
bull by Dr. Reid's Durham bull, and 
for sale at the Auction Mart, Sydney, 6 Durham 
cows, with calves at foot bred by Mr. Macarthur, 
of Camden, for the dairy. Sale of cattle belong- 
ing to the Estate of the late Mr. J. M. Blaxland, 
September, 1840, consisting of 49 cows and hei- 
fers, and 1 imported Durham bull. A Mr Dodds 
was appointed agent for the Australian Auction 
Coy. at Maitland. 

In September 1840, the Australian Auction 
Coy. imported, per ship "Mary Ann": "Daisy," 
a pure- lined Durham cow, calved April, 1835, got 
by "Scription" out of "Red Daisy"; "Young 
Albert," her calf, by "Prince Albert," calved 
1840 ; "Mary Ann, " a pure-bred Devon cow, with 
a bull calf at her side, calved August 1840; 
"Lady Clark," a superior large framed Devon. 
These cattle were specially selected. A Dndds, 
agent for the Australian Auction Coy., selling 
for Mr. Thomas Potter Macqueen. of the Segen- 
hoe Estate, 71 cows of the Durham breed, 60 
3-year-old heifers, pure Durhams, 11 2-year-oId 



278 



THE HISTOKY OF ILLAWARKA 



Durham bulls, 13 2-year-old heifers, 10 Dur- 
ham bull calves, 1 bull, 5 years old, 1 bull, 3 years: 
old, 3 1-year-old bulls, 300 very superior cows 
of the Durham breed in calf to imported Dur- 
ham bulls and with calves at their side, and 12 
superior Durham bulls, in September, 1840. 
Note — When the compiler of the foregoing notes 
visited Segenhoe in 1892, there was but little 
left of the once greatest cattle breeding Estate 
in New South Wales. If ever the history of 
Segenhoe is written it will form tragic reading, 
of which traces could be found then (1892), 
otherwise the whole settlement wore a neglected 
appearance. Mr. J. J. Forrester, of Drayton, 
"St. Patrick's Plains," Singleton, had lost in 
1840 from his station, 20 young bulls from 1 to 
2 years old of the Devon and Durham breed, 
missing from 1st January, 1840. The Austra- 
lian Auction Coy. was selling for Mr. George 
Maeleay of the Cowpastures, 100 dairy cows of 
an improved breed. 

In 1840 John Terry Hughes purchased 
two pure-bred bulls, 17 and 18 months old re- 
spectiveljr, for his estate, Shankamore, near Brin- 
gilly, at £420, and in the same year, through the 
same agency — namely, the Australian Auction 
Company — Mr. Henry Osborne purchased three 
very superior bulls, one being described as being 
by "Knight's old grey bull," one by "Young 
Favorite," and the third by "Phoenix" (no bet- 
ter blood, it was said, could be found in Eng- 
land) in March, 1840; price paid, £700. Mr. 
Osborne later on purchased two more bulls — 
one a roan, the other a red and white, 12 and 
15 months old — of the Yorkshire breed. All 
these animals played an important part among 
the dairj' herds of Illawarra. Some of these ani- 
mals were probably bred by Hon. Potter Mac- 
queen, Segenhoe, near Singleton, as the Aus- 
tralian Auction Company was his agent. On 
the other hand, however, it is certain that two 
Durham cows purchased by Mr. Henry Osborne, 
of Marshall Moimt, Illawarra, were imported 
direct from England, and sold by Mr. Samuel 
Lyons from the ship "Earl Grey," and the two 
Yorkshire bulls mentioned above were landed 
from the ship "Hope," and also sold by Mr. 
Samuel Lyons. 

The Australian Auction Company had for sale 
at Maitland, on behalf of Eichard Jones, Esq., 
M.C., 20 young bulls of the Devon and Durham 
breed, November, 1840. Samuel Lyons had for 
sale, November, 1840, 500 cows, 270 heifers and 
6 bulls. These cattle are of the Ayrshire, Dur- 
ham, Devon, and Sussex breed, and are remark- 
able for their dairy quality. 



In February, 1840, two pure Durham bulls 
were landed, per ship "Florentia," from the 
herd of Mr. Smith, of Primrose Hill, England, 
and one pure Durham bull, fashionably bred, 
from the same herd, 21 months old. The A.A. 
Company, of Port Stephens, sold 26 pure bred 
Durham cows and. six three-quarter Ayrshire- 
Durham cows, at an average of £40 per head. 
Note. — It is well to understand that there was 
a marked distinction between the Australian 
Auction Company and the A.A. Company; one 
was merely an agency, the other was pastoral. 
It was the Australian Auction Company that 
imported the pure Shorthorn bull (colour white), 
named "Ella," from Tasmania, for Mr. Alex- 
ander Berry, of Coolangatta, in the "Australian 
Packet." Mr. Thomas Icely had for sale at 
Stubb auction mart, George-street, Sydney, 
April, 1840, 50 head of thoroughbred Durham 
cows, in lots of five each, the whole in calf; 
two pure-bred Durham bulls, "Comet" and 
"Christmas." De Loitt & Company had for 
sale in Sydney, February, 1840, an imported 
cow of the Durham breed, per ship "Florentia." 
The Australian Auction Company, in March, 
1840, at Maitland, six young Durham bulls and 
25 Durham cows in calf to a choice bull, on 
behalf of Mr. P. P. King, manager of the A.A. 
Company, Stroud; also 20 good milk cows of 
1he Durham breed, two excellent Durham bulls, 
and one superior Durham bull bred by Doctor 
Boman. Samuel Lyons had for sale at his auc- 
tion mart, Sydney, two thoroughbred Yorkshire- 
Durham bulls, just landed ex ship "Hope"; one 
Durham bull calf, and two very superior Dur- 
ham cows, just arrived per ship "Earl Grey," 
from England: one very fine English cow, im- 
ported per ship "Bengal." The result of this 
sale was as follows: — One Durham cow to 
Thomas Walker, £75 ; one Durham cow. with 
calf at foot, to Thomas Walker, at £94; two 
thoroughbred red and white Yorkshire bulls, 17 
and 18 months old, to Mr. John Terry Hughes, 
at £420. Mr. Thomas Walker was a member 
of the Twofold Bay Company, and Mr. John 
Terry Hughes owned Albion Park, Illawarra. 
It was also through the Australian Auction 
Company that Mr. Henry Osborne, of Marshall 
Mount, Illawarra, imported his cattle in 1843. 
The Australian Auction Company had for sale, 
at mai't, Sydney, three very superior Durham 
bulls — one by Knight's old grey bull, one by 
"Young Favourite," and one by "Phoenix"— 
no better blood in England, March, 1840; also", 
per ship "Competitor," three pure Hereford 
bulls and four pure Durham bulls. The foui* 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWAHHA 



279 



pure Durham bulls sold for £600, while two 
colonial bred buils sold for £10; two red and 
white bulls, pure Yorkshire strain, 12 and 15 
months old, sold at £210; name of purchaser 
not given. The Australian Auction Company 
had for sale, at mart, Sydney, four Durham 
bulls by imported Durham bulls out of Segen- 
hoe-bred cows, March, 1840. Richard Jones, 
Esq., M.C., had for sale at his Fleurs Estate, 
Sijuth Creek, a number of superior young bulls 
of an improved breed for the dairy. 

This brings us at once into touch with Mr. 
David "Williamson Irving, of Newton, lUawarra. 
who was a son-in-law of Mr. William Howe, of 
Glenlee, who commenced dairying in Illawarra 
in 1840 with Glenlee bred cattle. The Glenlee 
cattle had a mixture of the Sussex blood in 
tliem. The Sussex is described as being harder 
to the feel of the hand than the Devon; deeper 
in colour than even that of the North Devon; 
they are described as ' ' cherry red, ' ' and tip-top 
milkers. A Gazette notice states : ' ' Mr. Bevin, 
auctioneer. In the insolvent estate of John 
Robertson, land and stock at Jerry's Plains; 
5 Durham bulls, half-share in a bull, 300 cows ; 
date of sale, 6th May, 1843." 

The "Sydney Morning Herald" for 1841 con- 
tains such a long list of cattle sales that it is 
impossible to deal adequately with them in this 
volume. In passing let us be satisfied with just 
one, dated 22nd May, 1841 : For sale at Oatley 's 
stables (per ship "Mary"), a young bull and 
heifer of the Shorthorn-Durham breed, pure 
white in colour, bred by Mr. Henry Barry. The 
heifer had won the Liverpool (Eng.) Society's 
medal for 1839. The bull, whose name was 
"Wellington," sired by "Malibran," calved 27th 
November, 1839, was descended from the cele- 
brated btill "Comet." "Camelia," the heifer, 
calved 7th June, 1839. Messrs. Aspinall and 
Brown were the agents. 

Sufficient has been shown in these cattle sale 
reports taken from the records, and are authentic 
so far iis such records go, that from the earliest 
times New South Wales received hundreds of 
valuable animals from the countries of the old 
world, and that breeders everywhere aimed at 
breeding cattle to suit their surroundings. They 
also show us that no one all along those de- 
cades from 1800 to 1840 had by any means a 
monopoly of the wisdom or wealth of cattle. 
True, some prospered, while others lost. Bu*^ 
following on the years, the time was ripe in 
1840 for the coming of the emigrant settler, 
and they came in hundreds, and New South 
Wales benefited thereby. It was old Illawarra. 



howevei', tiiat led the way from 1840 onward 
in dairying. It is not by any means an easy 
task to follow the movement of the early settler 
and their cattle, as cattle were being constantly 
sent away in droves to the south as far as the 
River Murray, and north to the Queensland 
bordei'. A)id cattle were returned from those 
far away places to the western district of New 
South Wales, where the South Coast settlers 
had large holdings. The truth is — it is remark- 
able how we have been able to trace as much 
of our cattle transactions as we have done, 
owing lo the destruction of the old homesteads, 
which contained many valuable papers and 
documents that would have connected the past 
with the present generation. 

Samuel Lyons has for sale, at his bazaar, Syd- 
ney, six Durham heifers (sire "Alexander") ; 
one roan bull, whose sire is "Elrington," im- 
ported by Mr. Carr in the ship "Alexander" 
in 1S40; a brown filly by Charles Roberts' 
"Colonel," dam "Medora" by "Whisker," 
grand-dam by "Model," g.g. dam by "Sheik"; 
date of sale, 9th May, 1843. 

William Boman and William Dawes had a 
dairy farm for lease, called Bishopgate, opposite 
Cooper's distillery, in Parramatta-street. Syd- 
ney, May, 1843. 

Major Wentworth arrived in Sydney from 
London in the ship "Brackenmoor, " May, 1843. 
He was interested in a consignment of cattle. 

On 3rd May, 1843, in the insolvent estate of 
Mr. John Robertson, land and stock at Jerry's 
Plains; five Durham bulls and half-share in a 
bull, 300 head of cows. 

On 6th May, Samuel Lyons, selling at his 
auction mart, Sydney, six Durham lieifers, 
whose sire is "Alexander" ; one roan bull, whose 
sire in "Elrington," imported by Mr. Carr in 
the ship "Alexander" in 1840. 

Note. — On following up the cattle sale adver- 
tisements throughout the years it is plain that 
there were plenty and to spare of speculators 
who brought out valuable cattle from not only 
Great Britain and Ireland, but from all the 
centres of commerce where British ships were 
trading. A beast purchased in one or other 
of the markets for, say, £10 could be sold in 
Sydney, if safely landed, at a profit. It may 
be termed gambling, but the Stock Exchange 
is a gamble. Unfortunately we have no authen- 
tic records as to who purchased those cattle 
when sold. 

Then cattle came into Illawarra at a time 
before we had a local press. For example, the 
Honorable East India Company, in 1850, had 



280 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



an auction mai-t in Hunter-street, Sydney, under 
the management of Mr. Thomas E. Jones. Latei; 
Mr. Bndham Thompson took charge. This com- 
pany carried out very extensive dealings with 
shipping men in both horses and cattle in a 
private way ; hence we cannot reach their re- 
cords during this life. 

There were many other such auction com- 
panies in Sydney, which enabled wealthy men 
to get their stock first hand. If the progeny 
turned out well a pedigree was arranged ; other- 
wise not a word was uttered. 

Be all that it may, the auction sales given 
here are from our newspaper files, and the men 
who attended many of those sales are still liv- 
ing. What is more, the newspaper files from 
which they were taken still exist. One notable 
feature of these auction sales is this. It often 
happened that those who bought from the ori- 
ginal breeders, and then sold the progeny of 
the purchased, framed most of the pedigrees, 
in conjunction with the auctioneer. 

Many of our stock-breeders when cornered 
over the pedigree of a bull or a cow, in the 
crazy days of pure Shorthorns, were ever ready 
to console an anxious enquirer with these 
words: "By or out of an A.A. Company's bull 
or cow," as the case demanded. The writer has 
had a good deal of experience in working out 
dairy cattle pedigrees, and always when in 
doubt — and that frequently happened — asked 
for the description of the brand used by the A.A. 
Company, whose headquarters were between 
three centres of civilisation to-day, namely, Port 
Stephens, Stroud, and Gloucester, and never 
once got any really reliable information from 
anyone. The brand was either AA. over CO 
and CO over AA. The company was establish- 
ed there in 1824. It was through the A.A. Com- 
pany that John Berry imported the black 
Argyleshire cattle to Coolangatta. This com- 
pany had no connection with the Australian 
Auction Company, of Sydney and Maitland. 

1855-6. — Fred. R. Cole, selling for Jas. Arm- 
strong at Keelogues, near Wollongong, a dairy 
herd (40 cows, 12 heifers, two bulls). He 
also was selling at Brown's Illawarra hotel 
yards, Dapto, October 13th, 1855. 40 head of 
sipringing heifers, carrying the WC brand, and 
lired by William Carr at Murramarang. John 
Collie, selling for Patrick Heffernan, 20 cows 
and 10 heifers, at Five Island, Oct., 1855. Fred. 
R. Cole, selling for John Hukins, at Eden 
Hill, Shellharbour, 20 cows, 3 heifers. 1 bull 
bred by Captain Addison, November 13th. 1855. 
John Collie, selling at Barton's hotel yards. 



Kiama, November 1st, 1855, 25 springing heifers. 
John Carruthers, selling at G. Woods' farm, 
Jamberoo, on November 19th, 1855, 40 dairy 
cows and 1 bull. Fred. R. Cole, selling at 
Hyam's late farm at Jamberoo for William 
Johnston, 30 dairy cows in milk, 10 dairy cows 
in calf, on 21st December, 1855. Fred. R. Cole, 
selling at Brown's Illawarra hotel yards, Dapto, 
on December 13th, 1855, 30 springing heifers, 
carrying the EE and AVC brands, from Murra- 
marang. Cole also announced, on behalf of 
B. R. Evans, a mob of heifers, bred in New 
England, and specially selected by Mr. Evans. 

1856. — Fred. R. Cole, selling for H^nry Os- 
borne, M.C., at Brown's Illawarra hotel yards, 
on January 7th, 1856, 25 first-class springing 
cows and heifers, 4 pure-bred bulls, all carrying 
the HO brand. Fred. R. Cole, selling for Wil- 
liam Wilson, at the Macquarie Rivulet, Albion 
Park, 30 cows, 15 heifers, 2 first-class Shorthorn 
bulls and 1 Devon bull, equal to imported. Mr. 
Wilson was a brother-in-law of Mr. William 
Hawdon, of Kiora, Moruya. 

JauLiarv, 1856. — Fred. R. Cole, selling for 
Thos. A. Beddall, January 22nd, 1856, 20 head 
of TXA cows, specially bred by Messrs. Towns 
and Addison, of Shellharbour. John Collie, 
selling on Wollongong Showground, 7th Feb- 
ruar.v, 1856, 1 very superior bull (4 years old) 
of the Durham breed, bred by Tritton from the 
A.A. Company's, of Port Stephens, stock; als;> 
1 red and white bull out of one of the best 
TXA Durham cows, and by Evan Evans' well- 
known Durham bull. John Carruthers, selling 
for William Howard at Jamberoo, 42 cows. 1 
superior bull, Feb. 18, 1856. Thos. Rose, sell- 
ing for Campbell, of Bergalia, 20 cows of the 
famoiis Heart brand at Barton's Hotel 
yards, Kiama, Febi-nary 13th, 1866. These cows 
brought £6 per head. Gerard, selling at Higgins' 
hotel yards, P^igtree, near Wollongong, 60 head 
of springing heifers, bred by Macarthur, of 
Camden, 13th Febriiary, 1856. Gerard, selling 
for Wyatt and Butler, of Fairy Meadow, same 
date and place, 15 heifers and 1 Glenlec-bred 
bull. Fred. R. Cole, selling for Robert Sonler- 
ville at Dapto on April 3rd, 1856, 29 cows, 5 
two-year-old heifers, 1 superior bull got by 
George Somerville's well-known bull "Major." 
This bull, "Major," was a white bull, smaU 
spots on neck and head, and was given as a 
present to Mr. George Somerville by Henry 
Osborne when a calf. Edmond Gerard, selling 
at Higgins' Mount Kiera hotel yards, near Wol- 
longong, 40 pure Durham cows, bred by James 
Rodd, of Braidwood. 



THE HISTORY OF ILLAWARRA 



231 



Several of those who were associated with 
Henry Osborne's Kangaroo Valley property 
had the right to rear a few heifers from cows 
that were allowed for the supply of milk and 
butter for the family. Among the number were 
John Tritton and Robert Johnstone. Tritton's 
brand was JT; Johnstone's brand was RJ. 
Tritton made the best use of his opportunity, 
and when he left the Valley to reside on por- 
tion of the Avondale Estate, Dapto, he had a 
fair herd, which he improved, or tried to im- 
prove, by buying bulls from the large cattle 
owners. He became associated in cattle mat- 
ters with Joseph Dunster; set Dunster up in 
a butchering business at Shellharbour, and sup- 
plied him with cattle. It was from Tritton 
that Joseph Dunster got his red and white 
spotted cattle. 

In October, 1856, Fred. R. Cole sold, 
on behalf of David Johnston, of The Meadows, 
lUawarra, 50 head of pedigreed Durham cattle 
at Brown's Illawarra hotel yards. 

Fred. R. Cole, selling at Brown's Illa- 
warra hotel yards, Dapto, for David Johnston, 
of The Meadows, 12 superior Durham heifers, 
on 28th November, 1856. 

Fred. R. Cole, selling for Henry Osborne at 
Brown's Illawarra hotel yards, Dapto, 70 head 
of fat cattle and springing heifers, 6th Jan- 
uary, 1857. 

Waldron, selling for Charley Ransome 
("Charley the Cobbler") at Stoney Creek, near 
Jamberoo, 50 head of dairy cows and heifers, 
May, 1857. 

Fred. R. Cole, selling for Evans and Yates, 
at Brown's Illawarra hotel yards, 60 superior 
cows and heifers from Murramarang, and 4 
superior bulls, Devon and Durham, from 1 year 
to 2 years old, EE and WC brands. 

Fred. R. Cole, selling at Wilson's Store. 
JIacquarie River, Albion Park, on April 
8th, 1856, 20 cows, 6 three-year-old heifers, 12 
two-year-old heifers, 3 high-bred Durham bulls. 
Dr. Falder had for- sale at his farm, Mount 
Kiera, near Wollongong, April, 1856, 20 cows 
and 1 yearling bull that received first prize at 
the late Illawarra Show. George Somerville. 
selling at Brown's Illawarra hotel yards, Dapto, 
40 cows and heifers and prize bull "Young 
Major," also 4 young bulls from one to two 
years old, on April 20th, 1856. Gerard, selling 
for Wyatt and Baker, a milk walk in Wollon- 
gong, 10 cows, and 1 highly-bred two-years-old 
Ayrshire bull. John Collie, selling at Higgins' 
Mount Kiera hotel, near Wollongong, 35 spring- 
ing heifers from the famous herd of James 



Throsby, of Bong Bong. T. Rose, selling for 
John Sharpe, of Bushbank, Kiama, 30 cows and 
heifers of the noted Gerard Gerard breed. John 
Collie, selling for Edward Hawdon, of Broulee, 
at Brown's Illawarra hotel yards, Dapto, 115 
cows and heifers, and one bull got by the im- 
ported Shorthorn bull "Leslie." Thos. Fowler, 
selling at Hukins' Four-in-hand Inn, Kiama, on 
25th September, 1856, 20 springing heifers of 
the B and W brand, on behalf of David Berry, 
of Coolangatta, Shoalhaven. 1858. — John Collie, 
selling for George Whitton, at Dapto, 40 cows, 
33 hand-reared heifers, 2 bulls (one of whom 
was bred by George Somerville). F. R. Cole, 
selling for John Graham at Barretts' farm, West 
Dapto, 36 cows, 10 vearling heifers, 2 choice 
bulls, 2nd November, 1858. Fred. R. Cole, sell- 
ing for John Beatson at Macquarie Rivulet 
stores, 50 choice springing heifers. These hei- 
fers had been taken in exchange for goods — 
the rule of the road in those days. Fred. R. 
Cole, selling for George Buchanan, at Dapto, 
75 head of cows and heifers, 35 young hand- 
reared heifers, and 4 superior bulls, November, 

1858. Mr. Alex. Osborne purchased 100 
head of heifers from Messrs. Evans and Ritchie 
at Murramarang. Fred. R. Cole, selling for 
David Johnston, of The Meadows, Albion Park, 
at Brown's Illawarra hotel yards, December 
3rd, 1858, 90 head of well-bred heifers, some 
very forward. 1859. — Irvine and Fowler, sell- 
ing for Messrs. George and John Noble, at 
Omego Retreat, Gerringong, on 2nd February, 

1859, 20 cows of the HO breed, 7 heifers, and 
1 well-bred bull. Fred. R. Cole, selling for 
David W. Irving, at Newton, Dapto, on 22nd 
February, 1859, 84 cows and springing heifers, 
23 hand-reared heifers, 14 yearling heifers, 2 
superior bulls, equal to imported, winners of 
several prizes. "Sportsman" was a bull of the 
pure Durham and Devon extraction, was the 
winner of two first prizes, and was bred by 
Mr. Evan R. Evans, of Penrose, Dapto. "Glen- 
lee" was bred by Mr. William Howe, of Glenlee, 
Campbelltown, from a pure Alderney cow. G. 
K. Waldron, selling for Messrs. W. R. Hind- 
march and W. W. Ewing at Alice Bank, Ger- 
ringong, March, 1859, 120 cows and heifers. 
Fred. R. Cole, selling for Messrs. Graham and 
Armstrong, at Kembla Grange, Dapto, 100 first- 
class cows, 40 heifers from one to two years 
old, 10 calves, 2 superior bulls (one by Captain 
Addison's bull "Dick), and 3 two-year-old bulls. 
Fred R. Cole, selling for Thomas Clifford, at 
Mullet Creek, Dapto, 68 first-class cows, 37 two- 
years-old heifers, 14 one-year-old heifers, 2 four- 



282 



THE IIISTONY OF ILLAWARRA 



year-old bulls, 1 two-years-old bull, 3 one-year- 
old bulls, February, 1859. 1859.— Fred. R. Cole, 
selling for Captain Hopkins, at West Dapto, and 
John Weston, West| Dapto, known as the Hors- 
ley herd, consisting of 40 cows of the Badgery 
breed. Burt & Co., of Sydnej'-, were selling at 
their bazaar the prize bull "Louis Napoleon," 
bred by John Emraerson, of Overdurdale, Dar 
lington, England, calved February 3rd, 1858, 
colour white, got by Baron Farnly (14,129 
C.H.B.), dam Louisa IV. by Red Duke (18,571 
C.H.B.), winner of first prizes at Cumberland. 
Cleveland, and Barnard Castle shows, and h.c. 
at Yorkshire, March, 1859. Irving and Fowler, 
selling for John Dean, of Shellharbour, 35 
cows, 18 heifers, and 1 bull by Captain Addi- 
son's bull "Stewey." P. R. Cole, selling for 
Duncan Beatson, at Hughes' Station, Albion 
Park, Macquarie Rivulet, on May 9th, 1859, 
80 dairy cows, 20 springing heifers, 30 young 
heifers, and 6 splendid bulls. Thomas Corser, 
selling for Patrick Ryan, at Mayfield, Shoal- 
haven, 20 first-class cows in milk (without 
calves), 10 choice springers, 50 head of hand- 
reared cattle from 12 to 18 months old, 1 
superior four-years-old Durham bull, and 1 roan 
Durham bull, two-years-old, May, 1859. G. K. 
Waldron, selling for William Haslem, at Hukins' 
Hotel (The IMan of Kent), Jamberoo, on 28th 
January, 1859, 20 heifers and 1 choice bull, 
18 months old. Fred. R. Cole, selling for Ephri- 
mus Howe, at Dapto, August, 1859, 40 cows, 8 
heifers, and 2 choice bulls. Note. — Mr. Ephri- 
am Howe and David Williamson Irving were 
brother-in-laws, and they used the same class 
of cattle and carried on dairying pursuits in 
Illawarra on, as near as possible, the same lines 
as that of William Howe, of Glenlee, Campbell- 
town. Messrs. Collie and Curr, selling at the 
Mount Kiera hotel yards, near Wollongong, 21 
springing heifers, bred by Henry Badgery, of 
Vine Lodge, Bong Bong. G: K. Waldron, sell- 
ing for William Brown, at Steam Packet hotel 
yards, Kiama, on 8th September, 1859, 33 
springing heifers, bred in Bong Bong. Fred, R. 
Cole, selling for James Sleevens, at the Kee- 
jogues, near Wollongong, on 29th September, 
1859, 50 good cows, 40 head of hand-reared 
heifers, from 1 to 2i/^ years old, and 2 high- 
bred bulls. Messrs. Collie and Curr, selling 
for James Condon, at Gooseberry Hill, Shell- 
harbour, 73 cows, 15 heifers (two-years-old), 
21 yearling heifers, 20 calves, 3 well-bred bulls. 
G. K. Waldron, selling at Steam Packet hotel 
yards. Kiama, 31st September, 1859, for David 
P>erry, of Coolangatta, 12 springing heifers. 



Messrs. Fuller and Waldron were purchasing 
weaned calves in Kiama at £1 per head for J. 
G. and R. Wilson's run at Cambewarra, where 
grazing could be had for £1 per year. Owing 
to imported cattle reaching New South Wales, 
via Victoria, from South Australia, great alarm 
was felt, as pleuro-pneumonia had broken out 
in a Mr. Boadle's herd in Victoria, October 6th. 
1859. Thos. Fowler, selling Kenneth Finlayson's 
herd at Bolong, Shoalhaven, 20 cows, 6 spring- 
ing heifers, and 1 superior bull by Jenkins' 
imported Durham bull, "Bellins," and out of 
an imported cow, October, 1859. 

Messrs. Collie and Curr, selling at Brown's 
Illawarra hotel yards, Dapto, October, 1859, 
20 springing heifers, on behalf of Martin 
Larkin, carrying the Messrs. Hassall and Bad- 
gery brands. Messrs. Collie and Curr, selling 
for Mrs. Esther Hughes, of Sydney, at Terry's 
Meadows, Albion Park, in accordance with the 
directions in the will of Samuel Terry, 97 cows 
(milking and springing), and 100 heifers. 6 
bulls, on 2nd and 3rd November, 1859. G. K. 
Waldron, selling for Robert Miller, of Gerrin- 
gong, at Steam Packet hotel yards, Kiama, on 
3rd November, 1859, 4 prime bulls (one being 
his celebrated Durham- Ayrshire cross bull). 
The trustees of the late Henry Osborne were 
selling at the Fermanagh hotel yards, Kiama, 
on November 10th, 1859, 50 choice springing 
heifers, described as being of equal quality to 
those sold by Mr. Osborne the previous year. 
Christopher Murray, for James Bemill, Good- 
dog, near Jervis Bay, 5th December, 1859, 1 
Durham bull, 3 young bulls, 4 heifers. Fred. 
R. Cole, selling at Brown's Illawarra hotel 
yards, Dapto, on account of David Johnston, of 
The Meadows, Albion Park, 25 choice springing 
heifers, on December 10th, 1859. Messrs. Collie 
and Curr, selling for Thomas Farraher, at 
Stoney Creek, Jamberoo, on 3rd December, 
1859, 35 cows, 12 two-years-old springing hei- 
fers, 23 yearling heifers, and 1 Devonshire bull 
— a truly superior animal. For sale at Martyn's 
bazaar, Pitt-street, Sydney, 14 remarkably fine 
Durham bulls and 2 very superior cows with 
■ialves, said to be the best lot ever imported. 
Fred. R. Cole, selling for Robert Kerr, at Mount 
Kembla, 21 choice cows, 8 hand-reared heifers, 
2 well-bred bulls. The cows were all carrying 
the Badgery brand, and were described as very 
superior. The Cumberland disease had broken 
out among the dairy cattle in Kiama; East, of 
East's Prospect farm, had lost four head, John 
Greenwood- five head, Hall of Mount Salem 
two head, Hindmarsh one beast, Honst, the Ger- 



THE IIISTOHY OF ILL AW AURA 



283 



man, one beast; date January, 1860. This 
disease had been introduced to Kiama by the 
Messrs. Cook, butchers, of Kiama, who had a 
holding at Marsden Hill, Kiama, and had pur- 
chased a mob of fat cattle at Wagga Wagga. 
It spread very quickly, and practically carried 
off all the animals in the herds mentioned. It 
may have been pleuro-pneumonia for all anyone 
knew about cattle diseases then. Pleuro-pneu- 
monia or Cumberland disease (it is difficult to 
say which). Shortly afterwards, 1862, it ravag- 
ed the herds of Andrew MeGill and David John- 
ston at Albion Park ; introduced by a man nam- 
ed Stuckey, who was moving a mob of cattle 
through there to Shellharbour. McGill lost his 
prize two-years-old bull and several of his show 
cows, and David Johnston lost over a score of 
his choicest animals. 

Charles Maityn was selling for the exe- 
cutors in the estate of the late Henry Os- 
borne, of Marshall Mount, Illawarra, at his 
bazaar, Pitt-street, Sydney, on 3rd March. 1860, 
2 imported Durham cows, 30 superior cows (all 
from imported stock, pedigrees at sale). A 
footnote stated : "The late Henry Osborne never 
spared money in purchasing cattle." On 8th 
March, 400 cows, 20 bulls, 300 mixed dairy 
cows, 210 heifers from two to three years old. 
400 heifers from 18 months to two years old. 
These animals were running at Marshall Mount 
and Kangaroo Valley. 610 head running at 
Point Station, Jugiong, Murrumbidgee River. 
The latter lots for absolute sale at Honicbush 
yards, near Sydney. Henry Osborne gathered 
those cattle and five large holdings in 30 years. 
The pedigrees of the stud cattle were mislaid, 
and could not be found, consequently the sale 
was delayed by the auctioneer until 4th April. 
1860. On that date they were sold without re- 
serve, as was the custom when pedigrees were 
not forthcoming. The two imported cows were 
"Charlotte" and her dam. "Young Charlotte" 
was calved on the voyage out in 1856, and at 
the sale on. April 4th, I860, she was purchased 
by C. S. Tindall, of Ramornie Station, Clarence 
Rivejv N.C. She was the dam of "Constance" 
rsee Vol. I. N.S.W..S.H.B., 1872). 

Important Sale. 

^lessrs. Collie and Curr, selling for Daniel 
Downey, at Eden Hill, Shellharbour, on 
14th and 15th February, 1860, 56 cows, .30 hei- 
fers from one to three years old, 20 yearling 
heifers, 4 superior Durham bulls. Eden Hill 
comprised 840 acres, of which 100 acres was 
cleared. 

William Irvine, selling for S. Mathews, 



of Shellharbour, on March 21st, 1860, 21 cows, 
4 two-year-old heifers, 12 one-year-old heifers, 
one well bred bull out of McGills' prize cow. 
Collie and Curr selling for James Kidd at Ro- 
den Vale, West Dapto, 40 cows, 32 heifers, one 
well tared Ayshire bull, on May 5th, 1860. 
Collie and Curr selling at Ousley Vale, near 
Wollongong, for Carnes of Fairy Meadow, on 
10th May, I860; 40 well bred cows, one three- 
year-old bull by an imported sire. William 
Irvine selling for W. H. Steadman at Jamberoo 
on 15th May, 1860, 40 cows, 26 heifers, one 
shorthorn bull. 

Sale at "Retreat," Bringelly.— David Bell, 
Esq.— 300 head of cattle, 10 well-bred 
bulls, December 1st 1863. John Biggar selling 
for Robert Miller at Dapto Flour Mills (now 
Brownsville), 2nd November, 1864; 110 cows, 
three well bred bulls, cattle purchased from 
the A.A. Company, Stroud, the Glenlee herd, 
and the estate of the late Henry Osborne. Mil- 
ler was leaving for Chatsbury, near Goulburn. 
D. L. Dymock was selling for A. K. McKay, 
of Nowra Park, Shoalhaven, 5 bulls, at Steam 
Packet hotel yards, Kiama, by only imported 
Ayrshire bull in the Colony; date, 24th No- 
vember, 1864. G. K. Waldron, selling for John 
Mitchell, of Mitchell Mount, Kiama, 30 . cows 
and 2 bulls — one by McKay's Ayrshire bull; 
the other bred by Andrew McGill. 25/11/64. 

Note. — When Mr. James Robb's consignment 
of cattle arrived in New South Wales from 
Scotland, consisting of one bull (two-years- 
old) and two cows, they were in due time 
landed off a steamer at Wollongong (no har- 
bour in Kiama in those days). Mr. Robb sent 
his son, Hugh, and a servant, George Duffy, 
to Wollongong to take charge. They did so; 
but as one of the cows was near calving they 
journeyed home slowly. Somewhere not far 
from Albion Park they were joined up by a 
friend, who persuaded them to leave the cow — 
in which he evinced great interest — in the pad- 
dock until she calved, and stated he would care 
for her. He did so. But after a few years 
later Mr. Robb discovered that his would-be 
friend had a very excellent Ayrshire bull, 
whilst his bull was a rank duffer. Exchanging 
calves and foals had become an art in Illawarra 
long prior to 1860. 

G. K. Waldroii, selling on behalf of James 
Robb, of Riversdale, Kiama, at Steam Packet 
hotel yards, Kiama, on 23rd February, 1865, 
five Ayrshire bulls by the imported Ayrshire 
bull "Marquis of Argyle," imported in 1861j 
pedigree and bills of lading to be seen in Mr. 



284 



THE HimOHY OF ILLAWABKa 



Waldron's office, Kiariia. This was to prove 
that A. K. McKay's statement about having 
the only impoi'ted bull in the Colony was 
wrong. Jasper McKay occupied an ancient 
estate near Jervis Bay, called \Cumberton 
Grange, in 1850. He had a large number of 
cattle, inchiding a herd of Ayrshires. It was 
nt Cuniberton Grange that William W. Wil-'^ord 
gained his colonial experience. He and his 
brother afterwards carried on dairying at 
Middle Creek, Kiama, before removing to the 
UUaduUa district. Jasper McKay was a 
Magistrate and Crown lands agent. He re- 
moved to Nowra Park, and imported several 
valuable Ayrshires from Scotland. John Big- 
gar, selling for Robert Armstrong, at Avon- 
dale, Dapto, adjoining Captain Hopkins' farm, 
March 29th, 1865, 60 cows, 45 well-bred heifers 
of various ages, 1 superior-bred strawberry bull. 
G. K. "Waldron, selling for Messrs. W. R. and 
M. N Hindmarsh, at Alne Bank, Gerringong, 
3rd April, 1865, 100. dairy cows, 25 springing 
heifers, 2 superior-bred bulls. G. K. "Waldron, 
selling for Matthew Peehan, of Braidwodd, at 
Steam Packet hotel yards, Kiama, on 11th May, 
1865, 32 springing heifers, carrying the famous 
BA brand. Charles Wilford, selling at Bram- 
ton Grange, Middle Creek, Kiama, 14th June, 

1865, 40 cows, 10 heifers, 1 superior bull; Wal- 
dron, auctioneer. Bernard Brown was selling 
for Mrs. De Mestre at Terrara, Shoalhaven, the 
dairy herd, the ' dam.s of which were bred at 
Glenlee, and their sire was bred by Lee, of 
Bathurst, by an imported Shorthorn bull. Fred. 
R. Cole, selling for Archie Graham, at Canter- 
bury, Dapto, on 28th February, 1866, 70 cows, 
20 springing heifers from 2 to 2^,4 years old, 2 
superior bulls. G. K. Waldron, selling for 
Robert Miller, of Gerringong, at Steam Packet 
hotel yards, Kiama, 3 choice two-year-old bulls 
(sire bred by Andrew McGill), their dams being 
McMiller's choicest cows, 8th February, 1866. 
G. K. Waldron, selling for William Swan, of 
Gate Farm, Albion Park, on February 20th, 

1866, 51 cows, 21 springing heifers, 2 flrs